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The Contemporary Statesmen of France. 


Crown 8vo, 6s. 





Barthelemy St. Hilaire. 


Duo de Broglie. 




Due D'Audriffet Pasquier. 


General Faidherbe. 

Bishop Dupanloup. 


Due DAurnale. 

Emile de Girardin. 

Father Hyacinthe. 


E. About. 
Casimir Perier. 
Jules Simon. 

Admiral Pothuan. 
Louis Blanc. 
Victor Hugo. 

"These sketches exhibit great knowledge of French statesmen and politicians. 
The writer has evidently a personal acquaintance with many of the men he 
describes, while his intimate knowledge of French literature enables him to cast 
side-lights upon their characters. In every case he conveys much more clearly 
than has been done hitherto a knowledge of what the men are, and what are their 
views and opinions." — Scotsman. 












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THE JANICILAN . . .... 432 



The Cappuccini — S. Isidore — S. Niccolo in Tolentino — Via S. Basilio 
— Convent of the Pregatrici — Villa Massimo Rignano — Gardens 
of Sallust — Villa Ludovisi — Porta Salara — (Villa Albam — Cata- 
combs of Sta. Felicitasand Sta. Priscilla — Ponte Salara) — Porta Pia 
— (Villa Torlonia — Sant' Agnese— Sta. Costanza — Ponte Nomen- 
tana — Mons Sacer — S. Alessandro) — Villa Torlonia within the 
walls — Via Macao — Pretorian Camp — Railway Station — Villa 
Negroni — Agger of Servius Tullius — Sta. Maria degli Angel i — 
Fountain of the Termini — Sta. Maria della Vittoria — Sta. Susanna 
— S. Bernardo — S. Caio. 

f~\PENING from the left of the Piazza Barberini, is the 

small Piazza of the Cappuccini, named from a convent 
suppressed since the Sardinian occupation, but which was 
one of the largest and most populous in Rome. 

The conventual church, dedicated to Sta. Maria della 
Conceziojie, contains several fine pictures. In the first 
chapel, on the right, is the magnificent Guido of the Arch- 
angel Michael trampling upon the Devil, — said to be a 
portrait of Pope Innocent X., against whom the painter had 
a peculiar spite. 

" Here the angel, standing, yet scarcely touching the ground, poised 
on his outspread wings, sets his left foot on the head of his adversary ; in 
one hand he brandishes a sword, in the other he holds the end of a chain, 
with which he is about to bind down the demon in the bottomless pit. The 


attitude has been criticised, and justly ; the grace is somewhat mannered, 
verging on the theatrical ; but Forsyth is too severe when he talks of 
' the air of a dancing master ' : one thing, however, is certain, we do 
not think about the attitude when we look at Raphael's St. Michael (in 
the Louvre) ; in Guido's it is the first thing that strikes us ; but when we 
look farther, the head redeems all ; it is singularly beautiful, and in the 
blending of the masculine and feminine graces, in the serene purity of 
the brow, and the flow of the golden hair, there is something divine ; a 
slight, very slight expression of scorn is in the air of the head. The 
fiend is the worst part of the picture ; it is not a fiend, but a degraded 
prosaic human ruffian ; we laugh with incredulous contempt at the idea 
of an angel called down from heaven to overcome such a wretch. In 
Raphael the fiend is human, but the head has the god-like ugliness and 
malignity of a satyr ; Guido's fiend is only stupid and base. It appears 
to me that there is just the same difference — the same kind of difference 
— between the angel of Raphael and the angel of Guido, as between the 
description in Tasso and the description in Milton ; let any one compare 
them. In Tasso we are struck by the picturesque elegance of the 
description as a piece of art, the melody of the verse, the admirable 
choice of the expressions, as in Guido by the finished but somewhat 
artificial and studied grace. In Raphael and Milton we see only the 
vision of a ' shape divine.' " — jfamesoiis Sacred Art, p. 107. 

In the same chapel is a picture by Gherardo della Nottc 
of Christ in the purple robe. The third chapel contains a 
fresco by Domenichino of the Death of St. Francis, and a 
picture of the Ecstasy of St. Francis, which was a gift from 
the same painter to this church. 

The first chapel on the left contains The Visit of Ananias 
to Saul, by Piciro da Cortona. 

" Whoever would know to what length this painter carried his style 
in his altar-piece should examine the Conversion of St. Paul in the Cap- 
puccini at Rome, which though placed opposite to the St. Michael of 
( ruido, cannot fail to excite the admiration of such judges as are willing 
to admit various styles of beauty in art." — Lanzi. 

On the left of the high-altar is the tomb of Trince 


Alexander Sobieski, son of John III., king of Poland, who 
died at Rome in 1 7 1 4. 

The church was founded in 1624, by Cardinal Barberini, 
the old monk-brother of Urban VI II., who, while his nephews 
were employed in building magnificent palaces, refused to 
take advantage of the family elevation otherwise than to 
endow this church and convent. He is buried in front of 
the altar, with the remarkable epitaph — very different to the 
pompous, self-glorifying inscriptions of his brother — 

"Hie jacet pulvis, cinis, et nihil." 

This Cardinal Barberini possesses some historical inter- 
est from the patronage he extended to Milton during his 
visit to Rome in 1638. 

"During his sojourn in Rome Milton enjoyed the conversation of 
several learned and ingenious men, and particularly of Lucas Holsteinius, 
keeper of the Vatican library, who received him with the greatest 
humanity, and showed him all the Greek authors, whether in print or 
MS. — whic-h had passed through his correction; and also presented him 
to Cardinal Barberini, who, at an entertainment of music, performed at 
his own expense, waited for him at the door, and taking him by the 
hand, brought him into the assembly. The next morning he waited 
upon the Cardinal to return him thanks for these civilities, and by the 
means of Holsteinius was again introduced to his Eminence, and spent 
some time in conversation with him." — Nezotori s Life of Milton* 

Over the entrance is a cartoon (with some differences) 
for the Navicella of Giotto. 

From this church is entered the famous cemetery of the 

* " At Rome, Selvaggi made a Latin distich in honour of Milton, and Salsilli a 
Latin tetrastich, celebrating him for his Greek, Latin, and Italian poetry ; and he in 
return presented to Salsilli in his sickness those fine Scazons or Iambic verse's having 
a spondee in the last foot, which are inserted among his juvenile poems. From 
Kome he went to Naples." — Newton. 


Cappuccini (not subterranean), consisting of four chambers, 
ornamented with human bones in patterns, and with mum- 
mified bodies. The earth was brought from Jerusalem. As 
the cemetery was too small for the convent, when any monk 
died, the one who had been buried longest was ejected to 
make room for him. The loss of a grave was supposed to 
be amply compensated by the short rest in the holy earth 
which the body had already enjoyed. It is pleasant to read 
on the spot the pretty sketch in the " Improvisatore." 

"I was playing near the church of the Capuchins, with some 
other children who were all younger than myself. There was fastened 
on the church door a little cross of metal ; it was fastened about the 
middle of the door, and I could just reach it with my hand. Always 
when our mothers had passed by with us they had lifted us up that we 
might kiss the holy sign. One day, when we children were playing, 
one of the youngest of them inquired, ' why the child Jesus did not 
come down and play with us ? ' I assumed an air of wisdom, and 
replied that he was really bound upon the cross. We went to the 
church door, and although we found no one, we wished, as our mothers 
had taught us, to kiss him, but we could not reach up to it ; one there- 
fore lifted up the other, but just as the lips were pointed for the kiss, 
that one who lifted the other lost his strength, and the kissing one fell 
down just when his lips were about to touch the invisible child Jesus. 
At that moment my mother came by, and when she saw our child's 
play, she folded her hands, and said, ' You are actually some of God's 
angels, and thou art mine own angel,' added she, and kissed me. 

"The Capuchin monk, Fra Martino, was my mother's confessor. 
He made very much of me, and gave me a picture of the Virgin, weeping 
great tears, which fell, like rain-drops, down into the burning flames of 
hell, where the damned caught this draught of refreshment. He took 
me over with him into the convent, where the open colonnade, which 
enclosed in a square the little potato-garden, with the two cypress and 
orange-trees, made a very deep impression upon me. Side by side, in 
the open passages, hung old portraits of deceased monks, and on the 
door of each cell were pasted pictures from the history of the martyrs, 
which I contemplated with the same holy emotions as afterwards the 
masterpieces of Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. 


" 'Thou art really a bright youth,' said he; 'thou shalt now see the 
dead.' Upon this, he opened a little door of a gallery which lay a few 
steps below the colonnade. We descended, and now I saw round 
about me skulls upon skulls, so placed one upon another, that they 
formed walls, and therewith several chapels. In these were regular 
niches, in which were seated perfect skeletons of the most distinguished 
of the monks, enveloped in their brown cowls, their cords round their 
waists, and with a breviary or withered bunch of flowers in their hands. 
Altars, chandeliers, bas-reliefs, of human joints, horrible and tasteless 
as the whole idea. I clung fast to the monk, who whispered a prayer, 
and then said to me, ' Here also I shall some time sleep ; wilt thou 
thus visit me ? ' 

" I answered not a word, but looked horrified at him, and then round 
about me upon the strange grizzly assembly. It was foolish to take 
me, a child, into this place. I was singularly impressed with the whole 
thing, and did not feel myself easy again until I came into his little cell, 
where the beautiful yellow oranges almost hung in at the window, and 
I saw the brightly coloured picture of the Madonna, who was borne 
upwards by angels into the clear sunshine, while a thousand flowers 
filled the grave in which she had rested 

" On the festival of All-Saints I was down in the chapel of the dead, 
where Fra Martino took me when I first visited the convent. All the 
monks sang masses for the dead, and I, with two other boys of my own 
age, swung the incense-breathing censer before the great altar of skulls. 
They had placed lights in the chandeliers made of bones, new garlands 
were placed around the brows of the skeleton monks, and fresh bouquets 
in their hands. Many people, as usual, thronged in ; they all knelt and 
the singers intoned the solemn Miserere. I gazed for a long time on 
the pale yellow skulls, and the fumes of the incense which wavered in 
strange shapes between me and them, and everything began to swim 
round before my eyes ; it was as if I saw everything through a large 
rainbow; as if a thousand prayer-bells rung in my ear ; it seemed as if 
I was borne along a stream ; it was unspeakably delicious — more, I 
know not ; consciousness left me, — I was in a swoon." — Hans Ch. 

The street behind the Piazza Cappuccini leads to the 
Church of S. Isidoro*hxv\X. 1622, for Irish Franciscan monks. 

* A holy hermit of Scete, who died 391. 


The altar-piece, representing S. Isidoro, is by Andrea Sacchi. 
This church contains several tombs of distinguished Irish- 
men who have died in Rome. 

Opposite are the recently founded convent and small 
chapel of the Pregatrici — nuns most picturesquely attired 
in blue and white, and devoted to the perpetual adoration 
of the Sacrament, who sing during the Benediction service, 
like the nuns of the Trinita di Monti. 

The Via S. Niccolo in Tolentino leads by the handsome 
Church of that name, from the Piazza Barberini to the 
railway station. In this street are the hotels " Costanzi " 
and " Del Globo." 

Parallel with, and behind this, the Via S. Basilic runs up 
the hill-side. At the top of this street is the entrance of 
the Villa Massimo Rignano, containing some fine palm- 
trees. This site, with the ridge of the opposite hill, and the 
valley between, was once occupied by the Gardens of 
Sallusf (Horti Pretiosissimi), purchased for the emperors after 
the death of the historian, and a favourite residence of 
Vespasian, Nerva, and especially of Aurelian. Some vaulted 
halls under the cliff of the opposite hill, and a circular 
ruin surrounded by niches, are the only remains of the 
many fine buildings which once existed here, and which 
comprised a palace, baths, and the portico called Millia- 
rensis, iooo feer long. These edifices are known to have 
been ruined when Rome was taken by the Goths under 
Alaric (410), who entered at the neighbouring Porta Salara. 
The obelisk now in front of the Trinita di Monti, was 
removed from hence by Pius VI. The picturesque old 
casino of the Barberini, which occupied the most promin- 
ent position in the gardens, was pulled down in 1869, to 


make way for a house belonging to Spithover the librarian. 
The hill-side is supported by long picturesque buttresses, 
beneath which are remains of the huge masonry of Senilis 
Tullius, whose Agger may be traced on the ridge of the hill 
running towards the present railway station. Part of these 
grounds are supposed to have formed the Campus Sceleratus, 
where the vestal virgins suffered who had broken their vows 
of chastity. 

"When condemned by the college of pontifices, the vestal was 
stripped of her vittse and other badges of office, was scourged, was 
attired like a corpse, placed in a close litter, and borne through the 
forum, attended by her weeping kindred with all the ceremonies of a 
real funeral, to the Campus Sceleratus, within the city walls, close to 
the Colline gate. There a small vault underground had been previously 
prepared, containing a couch, a lamp, and a table with a little food. 
The Pontifex Maximus, having lifted up his hands to heaven and uttered 
a secret prayer, opened the litter, led forth the culprit, and placing her 
on the steps of the ladder which gave access to the subterranean cell, 
delivered her over to the common executioner and his assistants, who 
conducted her down, drew up the ladder, and having filled the pit with 
earth until the surface was level with the surrounding ground, left her 
to perish deprived of all the tributes of respect usually paid to the 
spirits of the departed. In every case the paramour was publicly 
scourged to death in the forum." — Smitlis Diet, of Antiquities. 

" A Vignaiuolo showed us in the Gardens of Sallust a hole, through 
which he said those vestal virgins were put who had violated their vows 
of chastity. While we were listening to their story, some pretty Con- 
tadini came up to us attended by their rustic swains, and after looking 
into the hole, pitied the vestal virgins — ' I'overine,' shrugged their 
shoulders, and laughing, thanked their stars and the Madonna, that 
poor Fanciulle were not buried alive for such things now-a-days." — 
£aton's Rome. 

A turn in the road now leads to the gate of the beautiful 
Villa Ludovisi, to which it has been very difficult to obtain 
admittance since the Sardinian occupation. The excellent 
proprietors, the Duke and Duchess Sora, have lived at 


Foligno in complete seclusion, since the change of govern- 

The villa was built early in the last century by Cardinal 
Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., from whom it descended 
to the Prince of Piombino, father of Duke Sora. The 
grounds, which are of an extent extraordinary when con- 
sidered as being within the walls of a capital, were laid 
out by Le Notre, and are in the stiff French style of 
high clipped hedges, and avenues adorned with vases 
and sarcophagi. Near the entrance is a pretty fountain 
shaded by a huge plane-tree ; the Quirinal is seen in the 

To the right of the entrance is the principal casino of 
sculptures, a very beautiful collection (catalogues on the 
spot). Especially remarkable are, — the grand colossal head, 
known as the " Ludovisi Juno " (41) ; 

' ' A Rome, une Junon surpasse toutes les autres par son aspect et 
rappelle la Junon de Polyclete par sa majeste: c'est la celebre Junon 
Ludovisi que Goethe admirait tant, et devant laquelle dans un acces de 
devotion paienne, — seul genre de devotion qu'il ait connu a Rome, — ll 
faisait, nous dit-il, sa priere du matin. 

"Cette tete colossale de Junon offre bien les caracteres de la sculp- 
ture de Polyclete ; la gravite, la grandeur, la dignite ; mais ainsi que 
dans d'autres Junons qu'on peut supposer avoir ete sculptees a Rome, 
l'imitateur de Polyclete, on doit le croire, adoucit la severite, je dirai 
presque la durete de l'original, telle qu'elle se montre sur les medailles 
d'Argos, et celles d'Elis." — Ampere, Hist. Romaine, iii. 264. 

"No words can give a true impression of the colossal head of Juno in 
the Villa Ludovisi : it is like a song of Homer." — Goethe. 

— the Statue of Mars seated ( 1 ), with a Cupid at his feet, 
found in the portico of Octavia, and restored by Bernini ; 

" 11 y avait bien un Mais assis de Scopas, et ce Mars etait a Rome ; 
mais un dicu dans son temple devait etre assis sur un trone et non sur 


un rocher, comme le pretendu Mars Ludovisi. On a done eu raison, 
selon moi, de reconnaitre clans cette belle statue un Achille, a l'expres- 
sion pensive de son visage, et surtout a. l'attitude caracteristique que le 
sculpteur lui a donnee, lui faisant embrasser son genou avec ses deux 
mains, attitude qui, dans le langage de la sculpture antique, etait le 
signe d'une meditation douloureuse. On citait comme tres-beau un 
Achille de Silanion, sculpteur grec habile a. rendre les sentiments 
violents. D'apres cela, son Achille pouvait etre un Achille indigne ; 
e'est de lui que viendrait l'Achille de la villa Ludovisi. L' expression 
de depit, plus energique dans l'original, eut ete adoucie dans une 
admirable copie.' — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 437. 

— and No. 28 ; 

" Le beau groupe auquel on avait donne le nom d'Arria et Pajtus ; 
il fallait fermer les yeux a l'evidence pour voir un Romain du temps de 
Claude dans ce chef barbare qui, apres avoir tue sa femme, se frappe 
lui-meme d'un coup mortel. Le type du visage, la chevelure, le 
caractere de Faction, tout est gaulois ; la maniere meme dont s'accom- 
plit l'immolation volontaire montre que ce n'est pas un Romain que 
nous avons devant les yeux ; un Romain se tuait plus simplement, avec 
moins de fracas. Le principal personnage du groupe Ludovisi conserve 
en ce moment supreme quelque chose de triomphant et de theatral ; 
soulevant d'une main sa femme affaissee sous le coup qu'il lui a porte, 
de 1' autre il enfonce son epee dans sa poitrine. La tete haute, l'oeil 
tourne vers le ciel, il semble repeter le mot de sa race : 'Je ne crains 
qu'une chose, e'est que le ciel tombe sur ma tete.'" — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iii. 207. 

At the end of the gardens, to the left, is another 
casino, from whose roof a most beautiful view may be 
obtained. Here are the most famous frescoes of Guer- 
cino. On the ceiling of the ground-floor, Aurora driving 
away Night and scattering flowers in her course, with 
Evening and Daybreak in the lunettes ; and, on the first 
floor, " Fame " attended by Force and Virtue. Smaller 
rooms on the ground floor have landscapes by Guercino 
and Domenichino, and some groups of Cupids by T. Zucchero ; 


on the staircase is a fine bas-relief of two Cupids dragging 
a quiver. 

"The prophets and sibyls of Guercino da Cento (1590 — 1666), and 
his Aurora, in a garden pavilion of the Villa Ludovisi, at Rome, almost 
attain to the effect of oil paintings in their glowing colouring combined 
with the broad and dark masses of shadow. "—Kugler. 

"In allegorising nature, Guercino imitates the deep shades of night, 
the twilight grey, and the irradiations of morning, with all the magic of 
chiaroscuro ; but his figures are too mortal for the region where they 
move." — Forsyth. 

In B.C. 82, the district near the Porta Collina, now occu- 
pied by the Villa Ludovisi, was the scene of a great battle 
for the very existence of Rome, between Sylla, and the 
Samnites and Lucanians under the Samnite general Pontius 
Telesinus, who declared he would raze the city to the 
ground if he were victorious. The left wing under Sylla 
was put to flight ; but the right wing, commanded by 
Crassus, enabled him to restore the battle, and to gain a 
complete victory ; fifty thousand men fell on each side. 

The road now runs along the ridge of the hill to the Porta 
Salara, by which Alaric entered Rome through the treachery 
of the Isaurian guard, on the 24th of August, 410. 

Passing through the gate and turning to the right along 
the outside of the wall, we may see, against the grounds of 
the Villa Ludovisi, the two round towers of the now closed 
Porta Pinciana, restored by Belisarius. This is the place 
where tradition declares that in his declining years the great 
general sat begging, with the cry, " Date obolum Belisario." 

"A cote de la Porta Pinciana, on lit sur une pierre les paroles cele- 
bres : 'Donnez une obole a Belisaire'; mais cette inscription est 
moderne, comme la l£gende a Iaquelle clle fait allusion, et qu'on ne 
trouve dans mil historien conlemporain de Belisaire. Belisaire ne de- 


manda jamais l'aumone, et si le cicerone montre encore aux voyageurs 
1'endroit oil, vieux et aveugle, il implorait une obole de la charite des 
passants, c'est que pres de ce lieu il avait, sur la colline du Pincio, son 
palais, situe entre les jardins de Lucullus et les jardins de Salluste, et 
digne probablement de ce double voisinage par sa magnificence. Ce 
qui est vrai, c'est que le vainqueur des Goths et des Vandales fut dis- 
g.racie par Justinien, grace aux intrigues de Theodora. La legende, 
comme presque toujours, a exprime par une fable une verite, l'ingratitude 
si frequente des souverains envers ceux qui leur out rendu les plus 
grands services." — Ampere, Etnp. ii. 396. 

A short distance from the gate, along the Via Salara, is, 
on the right, the Villa Albani (shown on Tuesdays by an 
order), built in 1760 by Cardinal Alessandro Albani, — sold 
in 1834 to the Count of Castelbarco, and in 1868 to Prince 
Torlonia, its present possessor. The scene from its garden 
terrace is among the loveliest of Roman pictures, the view 
of the delicate Sabine mountains — Monte Gennaro, with 
the Montecelli beneath it — and in the middle distance, the 
churches of Sant' Agnese and Sta. Costanza, relieved by dark 
cypresses and a graceful fountain. 

The Casino, which is, in fact, a magnificent palace, is 
remarkable as having been built from Cardinal Albani's own 
designs, Carlo Marchionni having been only employed to 
see that they were carried out. 

"Here is a villa of exquisite design, planned by a profound anti- 
quary. Here Cardinal Albani, having spent his life in collecting 
ancient sculpture, formed such porticoes and such saloons to receive it 
as an old Roman would have done : porticoes where the statues stood 
free upon the pavement between columns proportioned to their stature ; 
saloons which were not stocked but embellished with families of allied 
statues, and seemed full without a crowd. Here Winckelmann grew 
into an antiquary under the cardinal's patronage and instruction ; and 
here he projected his history of art, which brings this collection con- 
tinually into view." — Forsyth's Italy. 

VOL. II. 2 


The collection of sculptures is much reduced since the 
French invasion, when 294 of the finest specimens were 
carried oft" by Napoleon to Paris, where they were sold by 
Prince Albani upon their restoration in 18 15, as he was 
unwilling to bear the expense of transport. The greater 
proportion of the remaining statues are of no great import- 
ance. Those of the imperial family in the vestibule are 
interesting — those of Julius and Augustus Cassar, of Agrip- 
pina wife of Germanicus, and of Faustina, are seated ; most 
of the heads have been restored. 

Conspicuous among the treasures of this villa, are the 
sarcophagus with reliefs of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, 
pronounced by Winckelmann to be one of the finest in 
existence ; a head of ^Esop, supposed to be after Lysippus ; 
and the bronze " Apollo Sauroctonos," considered by 
Winckelmann to be the original statue by Praxiteles de- 
scribed by Pliny, and the most beautiful bronze statue in 
the world, — it was found on the Aventine. But most 
important of all is the famous relievo of Antinous crowned 
with lotus, from the Villa Adriana (over the chimney-piece 
of the first room to the right of the saloon), supposed to have 
formed part of an apotheosis of Antinous : 

" As fresh, and as highly finished, as if it had just left the studio of 
the sculptor, this work, after the Apollo and the Laocoon, is perhaps 
the most beautiful monument of antiquity which time has transmitted to 
us." — Winckelmann, Hist, del' Art, vi. ch. 7. 

Inferior only to this, is another bas-relief, also over a 
chimney-piece, — the parting of Orpheus and Eurydice. 

" Les deux e"poux vont se quitter. Eurydice attache sur Orphee un 
profond regard d'adieu. Sa main est posee sur l'epaule de son epoux, 
geste ordinaire dans les groupes qui expriment la separation de ceux qui 


s'aiment. La main d'Orphe'e degage doucement celle d'Eurydice, 
tandis que Mercure fait de la sienne im leger mouvement pour l'en- 
trainer. Dans ce leger mouvement est tout leur sort ; l'effet le plus 
pathetique est produit par la composition la plus simple ; l'emotion la 
plus penetrante s' exhale de la sculpture la plus tranquille." — AmpZre, 
Hist. Rom. iii. 256. 

The villa also contains a collection of pictures, of which 
the most interesting are the sketches of Giulio Romano for 
the frescoes of the story of Psyche in the Palazzo del Te 
at Mantua, and two fine pictures by Luca Signorelli and 
Perugino, in compartments, in the first room on the left of 
the saloon.* All the works of art have lately been rearranged. 
The Caff I and the Bigliardo — (reached by an avenue of oaks, 
which, being filled with ancient tombstones, has the effect of 
a cemetery) — contain more statues, but of less importance. 

Beyond the villa, the Via Salara (said by Pliny to de- 
rive its name from the salt of Ostia exported to the north 
by this route) passes on the left the site of Antemnse, and 
crosses the Anio two miles from the city, by the Ponte 
Salara, destroyed by the Roman government in the terror 
of Garibaldi's approach from Monte Rotondo, in 1867. 
This bridge was a restoration by Narses, in the sixth cen- 
tury, but stood on the foundations of that famous Ponte 
Salara, upon which Titus Manlius fought the Gaulish giant, 
and cutting off his head, carried off the golden collar which 
earned him the name of Torquatus. 

"Manlius prend un bouclier leger de fantassin, une epee espagnole 
commode pour combattre de tres-pres, et s'avance a la rencontre du 
Barbare. Les deux champions, isoles sur le pont, comme sur un theatre, 
se joignent au milieu. Le Barbare portait un vetement bariole et une 
armure ornee de dessins et d' incrustations dorees, conforme au caractere 
de sa race, aussi vaine que vaillante. Les armes du Romain etaient 


bonnes, mais sans eclat. Point chez lui, comme chez son adversaire, 
de chant, de transports, d'armes agitees avec fureur, mais un cceur plein 
de courage et d'une colere muette qu'il reservait tout entiere pour le 

" Le Gaulois, qui depassait son adversaire de toute la tete, met en 
avant son bouclier et fait tomber pesamment son glaive sur l'armure de 
son adversaire. Celui-ci le heurte deux fois de son bouclier, le force a 
reculer, le trouble, et se glissant alors entre le bouclier et le corps du 
Gaulois, de deux coups rapidement portes lui ouvre le ventre. Quand 
le grand corps est tombe, Manlius lui coupe la tete, et, ramassant le 
collier de son ennemi decapite, jette tout sanglant sur son cou ce collier, 
le torques, propre aux Gaulois, et qu'on peut voir au Capitole porte 
par celui qu'on appelle a tort le gladiateur mourant. Un solclat donne, 
en plaisantant, a Manlius le sobriquet de Torquatus, que sa famille a 
toujours ete fiere de porter." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. IO. 

Beyond the ruins of the bridge, is a huge tomb with a 
tower, now used as an Osteria. Hence, the road leads by 
the Villa of Phaon (Villa Spada) where Nero died, and the 
site of Fidense, now known as Castel Giubeleo, to Monte 

The district beyond the Porta Salara, and that extending 
between the Via Salara and the Monte Parioli, are com- 
pletely undermined by catacombs (see Ch. IX.). The most 
important are — i. Nearest the gate, the Catacomb of St. 
Frficitas, which had three tiers of galleries, adorned by Pope 
Boniface I., who took refuge there from persecution, — now 
much dilapidated. Over this cemetery was a church, now 
destroyed, which is mentioned by William of Malmesbury. 
2. The Catacomb of SS. T/iraso and Saturninus, much 
decorated with the usual paintings. 3. The Catacomb of Sta. 
Priscilla, near the descent to the Anio. This cemetery is 
of great interest, from the number of martyrs' graves it 
contains, and from its peculiar construction in an ancient 
armarium, pillars and walls of masonry being added 


throughout the central part, in order to sustain the tufa 
walls. Here were buried — probably because the entrance to 
the Chapel of the Popes at St. Calixtus was blocked up to 
preserve it in the persecution under Diocletian — Pope St. 
Marcellinus (ob. 308), and Pope St. Marcellus (ob. 310), 
who was sent into exile by Maxentius. On the tomb of the 
latter was placed, in finely cut type, the following epitaph by 
Pope Damasus : — 

"Veredicus Rector, lapsos quia crimina flere 
Prsedixit, miseris fuit omnibus hostis amarus. 
Hinc furor, hinc odium sequitur, discordia, lites, 
Seditio, ccedes, solvuntur foedera pacis. 
Crimen ob alterius Christum qui in pace negavit, 
Finibus expulsus patriae est feritate tyranni. 
Hsec breviter Damasus voluit comperta referre, 
Marcelli ut populus meritum cognoscere posset." 

"The truth-speaking pope, because he preached that the lapsed 
should weep for their crimes, was bitterly hated by all those unhappy 
ones. Hence followed fury, hatred, discord, contentions, sedition, and 
slaughter, and the bonds of peace were ruptured. For the crime of 
another, who in (a time of) peace had denied Christ, (the pontiff) was 
expelled the shores of his country by the cruelty of the tyrant. These 
things Damasus having learnt, was desirous to narrate briefly, that 
people might recognise the merit of Marcellus." * 

Several of the paintings in this catacomb are remarkable ; 
especially that of a woman with a child, claimed by the 
Roman Church as one of the earliest representations of the 
Virgin. The painting is thus described by Northcote : — 

"De Rossi unhesitatingly says that he believes this painting of our 
Blessed Lady to belong almost to the apostolic age. It is to be seen on 
the vaulted roof of a loailus, and represents the Blessed Virgin seated, 
her head partially covered by a short light veil, and with the Holy 
Child in her arms ; opposite to her stands a man, clothed in the pallium, 
holding a volume in one hand, and with the other pointing to a star 

* See Roma Sotterranea, p. 174. 


which appears above and between the figures. This star almost always 
accompanies our Blessed Lady, both in paintings and in sculptures, 
where there is an obvious historical excuse for it, e.g. , when she is re- 
presented with the Magi offering their gifts, or by the side of the 
manger with the ox and the ass ; but with a single figure, as in the 
present instance, it is unusual. The most obvious conjecture would be 
that the figure was meant for St. Joseph, or for one of the Magi. De 
Rossi, however, gives many reasons for preferring the prophet Isaias, 
whose prophecies concerning the Messias abound with imagery borrowed 
from light." — Roma Sotterranea. 

This catacomb is one of the oldest, Sta. Priscilla, from 
whom it is named, being supposed to have been the mother 
of Pudens, and a contemporary of the apostles. Her 
granddaughters, Prassede and Pudenziana, were buried 
here before the- removal of their relics to the church on the 
Esquiline. With this cemetery is connected the extraordin- 
ary history of the manufacture of Sta. Filomena, now one 
of the most popular saints in Italy, and one towards whom 
idolatry is carried out with frantic enthusiasm both at Domo 
d'Ossola and in some of the Neapolitan States. The story 
of this saint is best told in the words of Mrs. Jameson. 

"In the year 1802, while some excavations were going forward in 
the catacomb of Priscilla, a sepulchre was discovered containing the 
skeleton of a young female ; on the exterior were rudely painted some 
of the symbols constantly recurring in these chambers of the dead ; an 
anchor, an olive branch (emblems of Hope and Peace), a scourge, two 
arrows, and a javelin: above them the following inscription, of which 
the beginning and end were destroyed : — 


"The remains, reasonably supposed to be those of one of the early 
martyrs for the faith, were sealed up and deposited in the treasury of 
relics in the Lateral) ; here they remained for some years unthonght 
of. On the return of Pius VII. from France, a Neapolitan prelate was 
sent to congratulate him. One of the priests in his train, who wished 


to create a sensation in his district, where the long residence of the 
French had probably caused some decay of piety, begged for a few 
relics to carry home, and these recently discovered remains were 
bestowed on him; the inscription was translated somewhat freely, to 
signify Santa Philumena, rest in peace. Another priest, whose name is 
suppressed because of his great humility, was favoured by a vision in the 
broad noon-day, in which he beheld the glorious virgin Filomena, who 
was pleased to reveal to him that she had suffered death for preferring 
the Christian faith and her vow of chastity to the addresses of the 
emperor, who wished to make her his wife. This vision leaving much 
of her history obscure, a certain young artist, whose name is also 
suppressed, perhaps because of his great humility, was informed in a 
vision that the emperor alluded to was Diocletian, and at the same 
time the torments and persecutions suffered by the Christian virgin 
Filomena, as well as her wonderful constancy, were also revealed to 
him. There were some difficulties in the way of the Emperor Diocle- 
tian, which incline the writer of the historical account to incline to the 
opinion that the young artist in his wisdom may have made a mistake, 
and that the emperor may have been not Diocletian but Maximian. The 
facts, however, now admitted of no doubt ; the relics were carried by 
the priest Francesco da Lucia to Naples ; they were enclosed in a case 
of wood resembling in form the human body ; this figure was habited 
in a petticoat of white satin, and over it a crimson tunic after the Greek 
fashion ; the face was painted to represent nature, a garland of flowers 
was placed on the head, and in the hands a lily and a javelin with the 
point reversed to express her purity and her martyrdom ; then she was 
laid in a half-sitting posture in a sarcophagus, of which the sides were 
glass, and, after lying for some time in state in the chapel of the Torres 
family in the Church of Sant' Angiolo, she was carried in grand proces- 
sion to Mugnano, a little town about twenty miles from Naples, amid 
the acclamations of the people, working many and surprising miracles 

by the way Such is the legend of Sta. Filomena, and such 

the authority on which she has become within the last twenty years one 
of the most popular saints in Italy." — Sacred and Legendary Art, 
p. 671. 

It is hoped that very interesting relics may still be dis- 
covered in this Catacomb. 

"In an account preserved by St. Gregory of Tours, we are told that 
under Numerianus, the martyrs Chrysanthus and Daria were put to 


death in an arenaria, and that a great number of the faithful having 
been seen entering a subterranean crypt on the Via Salara, to visit 
their tombs, the heathen emperor caused the entrance to be hastily 
built up, and a vast mound of sand and stone to be heaped in front of 
it, so that they might be all buried alive, even as the martyrs whom they 
had come to venerate. St. Gregory adds, that when the tombs of these 
martyrs were re-discovered, after the ages of persecution had ceased, 
there were found with them, not only the relics of those worshippers 
who hacl been thus cruelly put to death, skeletons of men, women, and 
children lying on the floor, but also the silver cruets (tircei argentei) 
which they had taken down with them for the celebration of the sacred 
mysteries. St. Damasus was unwilling to destroy so touching a memo- 
rial of past ages. He abstained from making any of those changes by 
which he usually decorated the martyrs' tombs, but contented himself 
with setting up one of his invaluable historical inscriptions, and opening 
a window in the adjacent wall or rock, that all might see, without dis- 
turbing, this monument so unique in its kind — this Christian Pompeii in 
miniature. These things might still be seen in St. Gregoiy's time, in 
the sixth century ; and De Rossi holds out hopes that some traces of 
them may be restored even to our own generation, some fragments of 
the inscription perhaps, or even the window itself through which our 
ancestors once saw so moving a spectacle, assisting, as it were, at a 
mass celebrated in the third century." — Roma Sotterranea, p. 88. 

Returning to the Porta Salara, and following the walls, we 
reach the Porta Pia, built, as it is now seen, by Pius IX. — 
very ugly, but appropriately decorated with statues of St. 
Agnes and St. Alexander, to whose shrines it leads. The 
statues lost their heads in the capture of Rome in 1870 by 
the Italian troops, who entered the city by a breach in the 
walls close to this. A little to the right was the Porta 
JYomentana, flanked by round towers, closed by Pius IV. It 
was by this gate that the oppressed Roman people retreated 
to the Mons Sacer — and that Nero fled. 

" Suivons-le du Grand-Cirque a la porte Nomentane. Quel spec- 
tacle ! Ncron, accoutume a toutes les recherches de la volupU', 


s'avance a. cheval, les pieds nus, en chemise, couvert d'un vicux manteau 
dont la couleur etait passee, un mouchoir sur le visage. Quatre per- 
sonnes seulement 1'accompagnent ; parmi elles est ce Sporus, que dans 
un jour d'indicible folie il avait publiquement epouse. II sent la terre 
trembler, il voit les eclairs au ciel : Neron a peur. Tous ceux qu'il a 
fait mourir lui apparaissent et semblent se precipiter sur lui. Nous 
voici a la porte Nomentane, qui touche au Camp des Pretoriens. 
Neron reconnait ce lieu 011, il y a quinze ans, suivant alors le chemin 
qu'il vient de suivre, il est venu se faire reconnaitre empereur par les 
pretoriens. En passant sous les murs de leur camp, vers lequel son 
destin le ramene, il les entend former des voeux pour Galba, et lancer 
des imprecations contre lui. Un passant lui dit : ' Voila des gens qui 
cherchent Neron.' Son cheval se cabre au milieu de la route : c'est 
qu'il a flaire un cadavre. Le mouchoir qui couvrait son visage tombe; 
un pretorien qui se trouvait la. le ramasse et le rend a 1' empereur, qu'il 
salue paF son nom. A chacun de ces incidents son effroi redouble. 
Enfin il est arrive a un petit chemin qui s'ouvre a notre gauche, dans 
la direction de la voie Salara, parallele a la voie Nomentane. C'est 
entre ces deux voies qu' etait la villa de Phaon, a. quatre milles de Rome. 
Pour l'attendre, Neron, qui a mis pied a terre, s'enfonce a. travers un 
fourre d'epines et un champ de roseaux comme il s'en trouve tant dans 
la Campagne de Rome ; il a peine de s'y frayer un chemin ; il arrive 
ainsi au mur de derriere de la villa. Pres de la. etait un de ces antres 
creuses pour 1' extraction du sable volcanique, appele pouzzolane, tels 
qu'on en voit encore de ce cote. Phaon engage le fugitif a s'y cacher ; 
il refuse. On fait un trou dans la muraille de la villa par oil il penetre, 
marchant quatre pieds, dans I'interieur. II entre dans une petite salle et 
se couche sur un lit forme d'un mechant matelas sur lequel on avait 
jete un vieux manteau. Ceux qui l'entourent le pressent de mourir 
pour echapper aux outrages et au supplice. II essaye a plusieurs 
reprises de se donner la mort et n'y peut se resoudre ; il pleure. Enfin, 
en entendant les cavaliers qui venaient le saisir, il cite un vers grec, fait 
un effort et se tue avec le secours d'un affranchi." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 65. 

Immediately outside the Porta Pia is the entrance of the 
beautiful Villa Patrizi, whose grounds enclose the small 
Catacomb of St. Nicomedus. Then comes the Villa Lezzani, 
where Sta. Giustina is buried in a chapel, and where her 
festa is observed on the 25th of October. 


Beyond this is the ridiculous Villa Torlonia (shown with 
an order on Wednesdays from 1 1 to 4, but not worth seeing), 
sprinkled with mock ruins. 

At little more than a mile from the gate the road reaches 
the Basilica of Sf Agnese fuori le Mura, founded by Con- 
stantine at the request of his daughter Constantia, in 
honour of the virgin martyr buried in the neighbouring 
catacomb ; but rebuilt 625 — 38 by Honorius I. It was 
altered in 1490 by Innocent VIII., but retains more of 
its ancient character than most of the Roman churches. 
The polychrome decorations of the interior, and the re- 
building of the monastery, were carried out at the expense 
of Pius IX., as a thank-offering for his escape, when he fell 
through the floor here into a cellar, with his cardinals and 
attendants, on April 15, 1855. The scene is represented 
in a large fresco by Domenico Tojetti, in a chamber on the 
right of the courtyard. 

The approach to the church is by a picturesque staircase 
of forty-five ancient marble steps, lined with inscriptions 
from the catacombs. The nave is divided from the aisles by 
sixteen columns, four of which are of " porta-santa " and two 
of " pavonazzetto." A smaller range of columns above these 
supports the roof of a triforium, which is on a level with 
the road. The baldacchino, erected in 16 14, is supported 
by four porphyry columns. Beneath is the shrine of St. 
Agnes surmounted by her statue, an antique of oriental 
alabaster, with modern head, and hands of gilt bronze. The 
mosaics of the tribune, representing St. Agnes between 
Popes Honorius I. and Symmachus, are of the seventh 
century. Beneath, is an ancient episcopal chair. 

The second chapel on the right has a beautiful mosaic 


altar, and a relief of SS. Stephen and Laurence of 1490. 
The third chapel is that of St. Emerentiana, foster-sister 
of St. Agnes, who was discovered praying beside the tomb 
of her friend, and was stoned to death because she refused 
to sacrifice to idols. 

" So ancient is the worship paid to St. Agnes, that next to the 
Evangelists and Apostles, there is no saint whose effigy is older. It is 
found on the ancient glass and earthenware vessels used by the Chris- 
tians in the early part of the third century, with her name inscribed, 
which leaves no doubt of her identity. But neither in these images, nor 
in the mosaics, is the lamb introduced, which in later times has become 
her inseparable attribute, as the patroness of maidens and maidenly 
modesty." — Jamesorfs Sacred Art, p. 105. 

St. Agnes suffered martyrdom by being stabbed in the 
throat, under Diocletian, in her thirteenth year (see Ch. 
XIV.), after which, according to the expression used in the 
acts of her martyrdom, her parents " with all joy " laid her in 
the catacombs. One day as they were praying near the body 
of their child, she appeared to them surrounded by a great 
multitude of virgins, triumphant and glorious like herself, 
with a lamb by her side, and said, " I am in heaven, living 
with these virgins my companions, near Him whom I have 
so much loved." By her tomb, also, Constantia, a princess 
sick with hopeless leprosy, was praying for the healing of her 
body, when she heard a voice saying, " Rise up, Constantia, 
and go on constantly (' Costanter age, Constantia ') in the 
faith of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who shall heal your 
diseases," — and, being cured of her evil, she besought her 
father to build this basilica as a thank-offering.* 

On the 2 1 st of January, a beautiful service is celebrated 
here, in which two lambs, typical of the purity of the virgin 

* Une ChrCtienne & Rome. 


saint, are blessed upon the altar. They are sent by the 
chapter of St. John Lateran, and their wool is afterwards 
used to make the pallium of the pope, which is consecrated 
before it is worn, by being deposited in a golden urn upon 
the tomb of St. Peter. The pallium is the sign of episcopal 

" Ainsi, le simple ornement de laine que ces prelats doivent porter 
sur leurs epaules comme symbole de la brebis du bon Pasteur, et que le 
pontife Romain prend sur l'autel meme de Saint Pierre pour le leur 
adresser, va porter jusqu'aux extremites de l'Eglise, dans une union 
sublime, le double sentiment de la force du Prince des Apotres et de la 
douceur virginale d' Agnes." — Dom Gueranger. 

Close to St' Agnese is the round Church of Sia. Costanza. 
erected by Constantine as a mausoleum for his daughters 
Constantia and Helena, and converted into a church by 
Alexander IV. (1254 — 61) in honour of the Princess Con- 
stantia, ob. 354, whose life is represented by Marcellinus as 
anything but saintlike, and who is supposed to have been 
confused in her canonization with a sainted nun of the same 
name. The rotunda, seventy-three feet in diameter, is sur- 
rounded by a vaulted corridor ; twenty-four double columns 
of granite support the dome. The vaulting is covered with 
mosaic arabesques of the fourth century, of flowers and birds, 
with scenes referring to a vintage. The same subjects are re- 
peated on the splendid porphyry sarcophagus of Sta. Costanza, 
of which the interest is so greatly marred by its removal to 
the Vatican from its proper site, whence it was first stolen 
by Pope Paul II., who intended to use it as his own tomb. 

"Les enfants qui foulent le raisin, tels qu'on les voit dans les 
mosa'iques de l'eglise de Sainte Constance, les bas-reliefs de son tombeau 
et ceux de beaucoup d'autres- tombeaux Chretiens sont bien d'origine 
paienne, car on les voit aussi figurer dans les bas-reliefs oil parait 
Priape." — Ampirc, Hist. Rom. iii. 257. 


Behind the two churches is an oblong space, ending in a 
fine mass of ruin, which is best seen from the valley below. 
This was long supposed to be the Hippodrome of Constan- 
tine, but is now discovered to have belonged to an early- 
Christian cemetery. 

The Catacomb of Sf Agnese is entered from a vineyard 
about a quarter of a mile beyond the church. It is 
lighted and opened to the public on St. Agnes' Day. After 
those of St. Calixtus, this, perhaps, is the catacomb which 
is most worthy of a visit. 

We enter by a staircase attributed to the time of Constan- 
tine. The passages are lined with the usual loculi for the 
dead, sometimes adapted for a single body, sometimes for 
two laid together. Beside many of the graves the palm of 
victory may be seen scratched on the mortar, and remains of 
the glass bottles or ampulla, which are supposed to indicate 
the graves of martyrs, and to have contained a portion of their 
blood, of which they are often said to retain the trace. One 
of the graves in the first gallery bears the names of consuls 
of a.d. 336, which fixes the date of this part of the cemetery. 

The most interesting features here are a square chamber 
hewn in the rock, with an arm-chair (sedia) cut out of the 
rock on either side of the entrance, supposed to have been 
a school for catechists, — and near this is a second chamber 
for female catechists, with plain seats in the same position. 
Opening out of the gallery close by is a chamber which was 
apparently used as a chapel ; its arcosolium has marks of an 
altar remaining at the top of the grave, and near it is a 
credence-table ; the roof is richly painted, — in the central 
compartment is our Lord seated between the rolls of the 
Old and New Testament. Above the arcosolium, in the 


place of honour, is our Saviour as the Good Shepherd, 
bearing a sheep upon his shoulders, and standing between 
other sheep and trees ; — in the other compartments are 
Daniel in the lions' den, the Three Children in the furnace, 
Moses taking off his shoes, Moses striking the rock, and 
■ — nearest the entrance — the Paralytic carrying his bed. 
A neighbouring chapel has also remains of an altar and 
credence-table, and well-preserved paintings, — the Good 
Shepherd, Adam and Eve, with the tree between them, Jonah 
under the gourd, and in the fourth compartment a figure de- 
scribed by Protestants merely as an Orante, and by Roman 
Catholics as the Blessed Virgin.* Near this chapel we can 
look down through an opening into the second floor of the 
catacomb, which is lined with graves like the first. 

In the further part of the catacomb is a long narrow 
chapel which has received the name of the cathedral or 
basilica. It is divided into three parts, of which the furthest, 
or presbytery, contains an ancient episcopal chair with lower 
seats on either side for priests — probably the throne where 
Pope St. Liberius (a.d. 359) officiated, with his face to the 
people, when he lived for more than a year hidden here 
from persecution. Hence a flight of steps leads down to 
what Northcote calls " the Lady Chapel," where, over the 
altar, is a fresco of an orante, without a nimbus, with out- 
stretched arms, — with a child in front of her. On either 
side of this picture, a very interesting one, is the monogram 
of Constantine, and the painting is referred to his time. 
Near this chapel is a chamber with a spring running through 
it, evidently used as a baptistery. 

* The reasons for this belief arc given in "The Roman Catacombs of Northcote," 
p. 78. 


At the extremity of the catacomb, under the basilica of 
St. Agnes, is one of its most interesting features. Here the 
passages become wider and more irregular, the walls sloping 
and unformed, and graves cease to appear, indicating one of 
the ancient arenaria, which here formed the approach to the 
catacomb, and beyond which the Christians excavated their 

The graves throughout almost all the catacombs have 
been rifled, the bones which they contained being distri- 
buted as relics throughout Roman Catholic Christendom, 
and most of the sarcophagi and inscriptions removed to the 
Lateran and other museums. 

" Vous pourriez voir ici la capitale des catacombes de toute la chre- 
tiente. Les martyrs, les confesseurs, et les vierges, y fourmillent de tous 
cotes. Quand on se fait besoin de quelques reliques en pays etrangers, 
le Pape n'a qu'a. descendre ici et crier, Qui de vous autres veut aller tin- 
saint en Pologne? Alors, s'il se trouve quelque mort de bonne volonte, 
il se leve et s'en va." — De Brosses, 1739. 

Half a mile beyond St' Agnese, the road reaches the 
willow-fringed river Anio, in which " Silvia changed her 
earthly life for that of a goddess," and which carried the 
cradle containing her two babes Romulus and Remus into 
the Tiber, to be brought to land at the foot of the Palatine 
fig-tree. Into this river we may also recollect that Sylla 
caused the ashes of his ancient rival Marius to be thrown. 
The river is crossed by the Ponte Nomcutana, a mediaeval 
bridge, partially covered, with forked battlements. 

" Ponte Nomentana is a solitary dilapidated bridge in the spacious 
green Campagna. Many ruins from the days of ancient Rome, and 
many watch-towers from the middle ages, are scattered over this long 
succession of meadows ; chains of hills rise towards the horizon, now 
partially covered with snow, and fantastically varied in form and colour 
by the shadows of the clouds. And there is also the enchanting 


vapoury vision of the Alban hills, which change their hues like the 
chameleon, as you gaze at them — where you can see for miles little 
white chapels glittering on the dark foreground of the hills, as far as 
the Passionist Convent on the summit, and whence you can trace the 
road winding through thickets, and the hills sloping downwards to the 
lake of Albano, while a hermitage peeps through the trees." — Mendels- 
sohn's Letters. 

The hill immediately beyond the bridge is the Mo?is Sacer 
(not only the part usually pointed out on the right of the 
road, but the whole hillside), to which the famous secession 
of the Plebs took place in B.C. 549, amounting, according to 
Dionysius, to about 4000 persons. Here they encamped 
upon the green slopes for four months, to the terror of the 
patricians, who foresaw that Rome, abandoned by its de- 
fenders, would fall before its enemies, and that the crops 
would perish for want of cultivation. Here Menenius Ag- 
rippa delivered his apologue of the belly and its members, 
which is said to have induced them to return to Rome ; that 
which really decided them to do so being the concession of 
tribunes, to be the organs and representatives of the plebs 
as the consuls were of the patricians. The epithet Sacer is 
ascribed by Dionysius to an altar which the plebeians erected 
at the time on the hill to Ztvc Aft/ianoc. 

A second secession to the Mons Sacer took place in B.C. 
449, when the plebs rose against Appius Claudius after the 
death of Virginia, and retired hither under the advice of 
M. Duilius, till the decemvirs resigned. 

Following the road beyond the bridge past the castle 
known as Casale del Pazzi (once used as a lunatic asylum) 
and the picturesque tomb called Torre Nomentana, — as far 
as the seventh milestone — we reach the remains of the un- 
buried Basilica of S. Alessandro, built on the site of the 


place where that pope suffered martyrdom with his com- 
panions Eventius and Thcodulus, a.d. 119, and was buried 
on the same spot by the Christian matron Severina.* The 
plan of the basilica, disinterred 1856-7, is still quite perfect 
The tribune and high altar retain fragments of rich marbles 
and alabasters ; the episcopal throne also remains in its 

The "Acts of the martyrs Alexander, Eventius, and Theo- 
dulus," narrate that Severina buried the bodies of the first 
two martyrs in one tomb, and the third separately — " Theo- 
dulum vero alibi sepelivit." This is borne out by the dis- 
covery of a chapel opening from the nave, where the single 
word "martyri," is supposed to point out the grave of 
Theodulus. A baptistery has been found with its font, and 
another chapel adjoining is pointed out as the place where 
neophytes assembled to receive confirmation from the 
bishop. Among epitaphs laid bare in the pavement is one 
to a youth named Apollo " votus Deo " (dedicated to the 
priesthood?) at the age of 14. Entered from the church is 
the catacomb called " ad nymphas," containing many ancient 
inscriptions and a few rude paintings. 

Mass is solemnly performed here by the Cardinal Prefect 
of the Propaganda on the festival of St. Alexander, May 3, 
when the roofless basilica — backed by the blue Sabine moun- 
tains and surrounded by the utterly desolate Campagna — is 
filled with worshippers, and presents a striking scene. Be- 
yond this a road to the left leads through beautiful woods to 
Mentana, occupying the site of the ancient Momentum, and 
recently celebrated for the battle between the papal troops 
and the Garibaldians on Nov. 3, 1867. The conflict took 

* The bodies were removed to Sta. Sabina in the fifth century by Celestine I. 
VOL. II. 3 


place chiefly on the hillside which is passed on the right 
before reaching the town. Two miles further is Monte Ro- 
tondo, with a fine old castle of the Barberini family (once of 
the Orsini), from which there is a beautiful view. This place 
was also the scene of fighting in 1867. It is possible to vary 
the route in returning to Rome from hence by the lower 
road which leads by the (now broken) Ponte Salara. 

If we re-enter Rome by the Porta Pia, immediately within 
the gates we find another Villa belonging to the Torlonia 
family. The straight road from the gate leads by the Termini 
to the Quattro Fontane and the Monte Cavallo. On the left, 
if we follow the Via de Macao, which takes its strange name 
from a gift of land which the princes of Savoy made to the 
Jesuits for a mission in China, we reach a small piazza with 
two pines, where a gate on the left leads to the remains of 
the Pretorian Camp, established by Sejanus, the minister of 
Tiberius. It was dismantled by Constantine, but from three 
sides having been enclosed by Aurelian in the line of his city- 
wall, its form is still preserved to us. The Pretorian Camp 
was an oblong of 1200 by 1500 feet ; its area was occupied 
by a vineyard of the Jesuits till 1861, when a " Campo Mili- 
tare " was again established here, for the pontifical troops. 

" En suivant l'enceinte de Rome, quand on arrive a l'endroit oil elle 
se continue par le mur du Camp des pretoriens, on est frappe de la 
superiorite de construction que prescnte celui-ci. La partie des murs 
d'llonorius qui est voisine a ete relaite au huitieme siecle. Le com- 
mencement et la fin de l'empire se touchent. On peut apprecier d'un 
coup d'ceil 1'etat de la civilisation aux deux epoques : voila ce qu'on 
faisait dans le premier siecle, et voila ce qu'on faisait au huitieme, 
apres la conquete de 1' empire Komain par les Barbares. II faut songer 
toutefois que cette epoque oil Ton construisait si b;en a amene celle oil 
Ton ne savait plus construire." — Ampire, Emp. i. 421. 


Hence a road, three-quarters of a mile long, leads — 
passing under an arch of Sixtus V. — to the Porta S. Lorenzo 
(Ch. XIII.). 

The road opposite the gateway leading to the Camp is 
bordered on the left by the buildings belonging to the Rail- 
way Station, beyond which is the entrance to the grounds of 
the Villa Massimo Negroni, which possessed a delightful 
terrace, fringed with orange-trees — a most agreeable sunny 
walk in winter — and many pleasant shady nooks and cor- 
ners for summer, but which has been mutilated and stripped 
of all its beauties since the Sardinian rule. In a part of this 
villa beyond the railway but still visible from hence, is a 
colossal statue of Minerva (generally called " Rome "), 
which is a relic of the residence here of Cardinal Felix 
Perretti, who as a boy had watched the pigs of his father 
at Montalto, and who lived to mount the papal throne as 
Sixtus V. The pedestal of the statue bears his arms,- — a lion 
holding three pears in its paw. Here, with her husband's 
uncle, lived the famous Vittoria Accoramboni, the wife of the 
handsome Francesco Perretti, who had been vainly sought 
in marriage by the powerful and ugly old Prince Paolo Orsini. 
It was from hence that her young husband was summoned 
to a secret interview with her brothers on the slopes of the 
Quirinal, where he was cruelly murdered by the hired bravos 
of her first lover. Hence also Vittoria went forth — on the 
very day of the installation of Sixtus V. — to her strange se- 
cond marriage with the murderer of her husband, who died six 
months after, leaving her with one of the largest fortunes in 
Italy — an amount of wealth which led to her own barbarous 
murder through the jealousy of the Orsini a month afterwards. 

Here, after the election of her brother to the papacy, lived 


Camilla, the sister of Sixtus V., whom he refused to recog- 
nise when she came to him in splendid attire as a princess, 
but tenderly embraced when she reappeared in her peasant's 
wimple and hood. From hence her two granddaughters 
were married, — one to Virginius Orsini, the other to Marc- 
Antonio Colonna, an alliance which healed the feud of 
centuries between the two families. 

In later times the Villa Negroni was the residence of the 
poet Alfieri. 

The principal terrace ends near a reservoir which belonged 
to the baths of Diocletian. 

"As one looks from the Villa Negroni windows, one cannot fail to 
be impressed by the strange changes through which this wonderful city 
has passed. The very spot on which Nero, the insane emperor-artist, 
fiddled while Rome was burning, has now become a vast kitchen-garden, 
belonging to Prince Massimo (himself a descendant, as he claims, of 
Fabius Cunctator), where men no longer, but only lettuces, asparagus, 
and artichokes, are ruthlessly cut down. The inundations are not for 
mock sea-fights among slaves, but for the peaceful purposes of irriga- 
tion. In the bottom of the valley, a noble old villa, covered with 
frescoes, has been turned into a manufactory for bricks, and part of 
the Villa Negroni itself is now occupied by the railway station. Yet 
here the princely family of Negroni lived, and the very lady at whose 
house Lucrezia Borgia took her famous revenge may once have sauntered 
under the walls, which still glow with ripening oranges, to feed the gold 
fish in the fountain, — or walked with stately friends through the long 
alleys of clipped cypresses, or picnicked alia Giornata on laWns which 
are now but kitchen-gardens, dedicated to San Cavolo." — Story's Roba 
di Roma. 

The lower part of the Villa Negroni, and the slopes 
towards the Esquiline, were once celebrated as the Campus 
Esquilinus, a large pauper burial-ground, where bodies were 
thrown into pits called puticoli* as is still the custom at 
Naples. There were also tombs here of a somewhat pre- 

* Cramer's Ancient Italy, i. 389. 


tentious character : " those probably of rich well-to-do 
burgesses, yet not great enough to command the posthum- 
ous honour of a roadside mausoleum." * Horace dwells 
on the horrors of this burial-ground, where he places the 
scene of Canidia's incantations : — 

"Nee in sepulcris pauperum prudens anus 
Novemdiales dissipare pulveres." 

Epod. xvii. 47. 

' Has nullo perdere possum 
Nee prohibere modo, simul ac vaga luna decorum 
Protulit os, quin ossa legant, herbasque nocentes. 
Vidi egomet nigra succinctam vadere palla 
Canidiam, pedibus nudis passoque capillo, 
Cum Sagana majore ululantem ; pallor utrasque 
Fecerat horrendas aspectu, 

Serpentes atque videres 
Infernas errare canes ; lunamque rubentem, 
Ne foret his testis, post magna latere sepulcra." 

Hor. Sai. i. 8. 

The place was considered very unhealthy until its puri- 
fication by Maecenas. 

" Hue prius angustis ejecta cadavera cellis 
Conservus vili portanda locabat in area. 
Hoc miserae plebi stabat commune sepulcrum, 
Pantolabo scurrae, Nomentanoque nepoti. 
Mille pedes in fronte, trecentos cippus in agrum 
Hie dabat ; heredes monumentum ne sequeretur. 
Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari ; quo modo tristes 
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum." 

Hor. Sat. i. 8. 

" Post insepulta membra different lupi, 
Et Esquilinse alites." 

Hor. Ep. v. 100. 

"The Campus Esquilinus, between the roads which issued from the 
* Cic. Phil. ix. 7. See Dyer's Rome, p. 215. 


Esquiline and Viminal gates, was the spot assigned for casting out the 
carcases of slaves, whose foul and half-burnt remains were hardly 
hidden from the vultures. The accursed field was enclosed, it would 
appear, neither by wall nor fence, to exclude the wandering steps of 
man or beast ; and from the public walk on the summit of the ridge, it 
must have been viewed in all its horrors. Here prowled in troops the 
houseless dogs of the city and the suburbs ; here skulked the solitary 
wolf from the Alban hills, and here perhaps, to the doleful murmurs of 
the Marsic chaunt, the sorceress compounded her philtres of the ashes 
of dead men's bones. Maecenas (B.C. 7) deserved the gratitude of the 
citizens, when he obtained a grant of this piece of land, and transformed 
it into a park or garden. . . . The Campus Esquilinus is now 
part of the gardens of the Villa Negroni." — Merivale, Romans under the 

Within what were the grounds of the Villa Negroni until 
they were encroached upon by the railway, but now only to 
be visited with a " lascia passare " from the station master, 
are some of the best remains of the Agger of Servins TulUus. 
In 1869 — 70, some curious painted chambers were dis- 
covered here, but were soon destroyed, — and the foolish 
jealousy of the authorities prevented any drawings or photo- 
graphs being taken. The Agger can be traced from the 
Porta Esquilina (near the Arch of Gallienus), to the Porta 
Collina (near the Gardens of Sallust). In the time of the 
empire it had become a kind of promenade, as we learn 
from Horace.* 

Opposite the station are the vast, but for the most part 
uninteresting, remains of the Baths of Diocletian, covering a 
space of 440,000 square yards. They were begun by 
Diocletian and Maximian, about A.D. 302, and finished by 
Constantius and Maxim inns. It is stated by Cardinal 
Baron ius, that 40,000 Christians were employed in the 
work ; some bricks marked with crosses have been found 

* Sat. i. 8, 15. 


in the ruins. At the angles of the principal front were two 
circular halls, both of which remain ; one is near the modern 
Villa Strozzi, at the back of the Negroni garden, and is now 
used as a granary, the other is transformed into the Church 
of S. Bernardo. 

The Baths are supposed to have first fallen into decay 
after the Gothic invasion of a.d. 410. In the sixteenth 
century the site was sold to Cardinal Bella, ambassador 
of Francis I. at Rome, who built a fine palace among the 
ruins; after his death, in 1560, the property was re-sold 
to S. Carlo Borromeo. He sold it again to his uncle, Pope 
Pius IV., who founded the monastery of Carthusian monks. 
These, in 1593, sold part of the ruins to Caterina Sforza, 
who founded the Cistercian convent of S. Bernardo. 

About 1520, a Sicilian priest called Antonio del Duca 
came to Rome, bringing with him from Palermo pictures of 
the seven archangels (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, 
Santhiel, Gendiel, and Borachiel), copied from some which 
existed in the Church of S. Angiolo. Carried away by the 
desire of instituting archangel-worship at Rome, he obtained 
leave to affix these pictures to seven of the columns still 
standing erect in the Baths of Diocletian, which, ten years 
after, Julius II. allowed to be consecrated under the title of 
Sta. Maria degli Angeli; though Pius IV, declaring that angel- 
worship had never been sanctioned by the Church, except 
under the three names mentioned in Scripture, ordered the 
pictures of Del Duca to be taken away.* At the same time 
he engaged Michael Angelo to convert the great oblong 
hall of the Baths (Calidarium) into a church. The church 
then arranged was not such as Ave now see, the present 

* See Hemans' Catholic Italy, Part I. 


entrance having been then the atrium of the side chapel, 
and the main entrance at first by what is now the right 
transept, while the high altar stood in what is now the left 
transept. In 1749, the desire of erecting a chapel to the 
Beato Nicolo Albergati, led to the church being altered, 
under Vanvitelli, as we now see it. 

The Church of Sta, Maria degli Angcli, still most mag- 
nificent, is now entered by a rotunda (Laconicum) which 
contains four monuments of some interest ; on the right of 
the entrance is that of the artist Carlo Maratta, who died 
1 7 13; on the left that of Salvator Rosa, who died 1673, 
with an epitaph by his son, describing him as " Pictorum 
sui temporis nulli secundum, poetarum omnium temporum 
principibus parem ! " Beyond, on the right, is the monu- 
ment of Cardinal Alciati, professor of law at Milan, who 
procured his hat through the interest of S. Carlo Borromeo, 
with the epitaph " Virtute vixit, memoria vivit, gloria vivet," 
— on the left, that of Cardinal Parisio di Corenza, inscribed, 
" Corpus humo tegitur, fama per ora volat, spiritus astra 
tenet." In the chapel on the right are the angels of Peace 
and Justice, by Pcttrich ; in that on the left Christ appearing 
to the Magdalen, by Arrigo Flamingo. Against the pier on 
the right is the grand statue of S. Bruno, by Hbudon, of which 
Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) used to say, " He would speak, 
if the rule of his Order did not forbid it." 

The body of the church is now a perfect gallery of very 
large pictures, most of which were brought from St. Peter's, 
where their places have been supplied by mosaic copies. 
In what is now the right transept, on the right, is the Cruci- 
fixion of St. Peter, Ricciolini ; the Fall of Simon Magus, a 
copy of Francesco Vanni (the original in St. Peter's) ; on the 


left, St. Jerome, with St. Bruno and St. Francis, Muziano 
(1528 — 92) (the landscape by Brill); and the Miracles of 
St. Peter, Baglioni. This transept ends in the chapel of the 
Beato Nicolo Albergati, a Carthusian Cardinal, who was 
sent as legate by Martin V., in 1422, to make a reconciliation 
between Charles VI. of France and Henry V. of England. 
The principal miracle ascribed to him, the conversion of bread 
into coal in order to convince the Emperor of Germany 
of his divine authority, is represented in the indifferent 
altar-piece. In theleft transept, which ends in the chapel 
of S. Bruno, are : on the left, St. Basil by the solemnity of 
the Mass rebuking the Emperor Valens, Subleyras ; and the 
Fall of Simon Magus, Pompco Battoni ; — on the right, the 
Immaculate Conception, P. Bianchi; and Tabitha raised 
from the Dead, P. Costanzi. 

In the tribune are, on the right, the Presentation of the 
Virgin in the Temple, Romanelli; and the Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian, a grand fresco of Domcnichino, painted originally 
on the walls of St. Peter's, and removed here with great skill 
by the engineer Zabaglia ; — on the left, the Death of Ana- 
nias and Sapphira, Pomarancio ; and the Baptism of Christ, 

On the right of the choir is the tomb of Cardinal Antonio 
Serbelloni ; on the left that of Pius IV., Giovanni Angelo 
Medici (1559 — 1565), under whose reign the Council of 
Trent was closed, — uncle of S. Carlo Borromeo, a lively and 
mundane pope, but the cruel persecutor of the Caraffa 
nephews of his predecessor, Paul IV., whom he executed in 
the Castle of S. Angelo. 

Of the sixteen columns in this church (45 feet in height, 
16 feet in diameter), only the eight in the transept are of 


ancient Egyptian granite ; the rest are in brick, stuccoed in 
imitation, and were additions of Vanvitelli. On the pavement 
is a meridian line, laid down in 1703. 

" Quand Diocletien faisait travailler lespauvres chretiens a ses etuves, 
ce n'etait pas son dessein de batir des eglises a leurs successeurs ; il ne 
pensait pas etre fondateur, comme il l'a ete, d'un monastere de Peres 
Chartreux et d'un monastere de Peres Feuillants. . . . C'est aux depens 
de Diocletien, de ses pieiTes et de son ciment qu'on fait des autels et 
des chapelles a. Jesus-Christ, des dortoirs et des refectoires a ses servi- 
teurs. La providence de Dieu se joue de cette sorte des pensees des 
hommes, et les evenements sont bien e'loignes des intentions quand la 
terre a un dessein et le ciel un autre." — Balzac. 

The Carthusian convent behind the church (ladies are not 
admitted) contains several picturesque fountains. That in 
the great cloister, built from designs of Michael Angelo, is 
surrounded by a group of huge and grand cypresses, said to 
have been planted by his hand. 

" II semble que la vie ne serf ici qu'a contempler la mort— les hommes 
qui existent ainsi sont pourtant les memes a qui la guerre et toute son 
activite sum rait a peine s'ils y etaient accoutumes. C'est un sujet 
inepuisable de reflexion que les differentes combinaisons de la destinee 
humaine sur la terre. II se passe dans l'interieur de Tame mille acci- 
dents, il se forme mille habitudes, qui font dechaqueindividuunmonde 
et son histoire." — Madame de Sta%l. 

On a line with the monastery is a Prison for Women — 
then an Institution for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind — then the 
ugly Fountain of the Termini (designed by Fontana), some- 
times called Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice, (Felice, from Fra 
Felice, the name by which Sixtus V. was known before his 
pa] uicy,) to which the Acqua Felice was brought from Colonna 
22 miles distant in the Alban hills, in 1583, by Sixtus V. 
It is surmounted by a hideous statue of Moses by Prospcro 


Bresciano, who is said to have died of vexation at the 
ridicule it excited when uncovered. The side statues, of 
Aaron and Gideon, are by Giov. Baft, della Porta and 
Flaminio Vacca. 

Opposite this, in the Via della Porta Pia, is the Church of 
Sta. Maria della Vittoria, built in 1605, by Carlo Maderno, 
for Paul V. Its facade was added from designs of Giov. 
Batt. Soria, by Cardinal Borghese, in payment to the monks 
of the adjoining Carmelite convent, for the statue of the 
Hermaphrodite, which had been found in their vineyard. 

The name of the church commemorates an image of the 
Virgin, burnt in 1833, which was revered as having been 
instrumental in gaining the victory for the Catholic impe- 
rial troops over the Protestant Frederick and Elizabeth 
of Bohemia, at the battle of the White Mountain, near 
Prague. The third chapel on the left contains the Trinity, by 
Gucrcino; a Crucifixion, by Guido; and a portrait of Cardinal 
Cornaro, Guido. The altar-piece of the second chapel on 
the right, representing St. Francis receiving the Infant Christ 
from the Virgin, is by Domenichino, as are two frescoes on 
the side walls. In the left transept, above an altar adorned 
with a gilt bronze-relief of the Last Supper, by Cav. d'Arpino, 
is a group representing Sta. Teresa transfixed by the dart of 
the Angel of Death, by Bernini. The following criticisms 
upon it are fair specimens of the contrast between English 
and French taste. 

" All the Spanish pictures of Sta. Theresa sin in their materialism ; 
but the grossest example — the most offensive — is the marble group of 
Bernini, in the Santa Maria della Vittoria at Rome. The head of Sta. 
Theresa is that of a languishing nymph, the angel is a sort of Eros ; 
the whole has been significantly described as ' a parody of Divine love.' 
The vehicle, white marble, — its place in a Christian church, — enhance 


all its vileness. The least destructive, the least prudish in matters of 
art, would here willingly throw the first stone." — Mrs. Jameson's 
Monastic Orders, p. 421. 

"La sainte Therese de Bernin est adorable! couchee, evanouie 
d' amour, les mains, les pieds nus pendants, les yeux demiclos, elle s'est 
laissee tomber de bonheur et d'extase. Son visage est maigri, mais 
combien noble ! C'est la vraie grande dame qui a seche dans les feux, 
dans les larmes, en attendant celui qu'elle aime. Jusqu'aux draperies 
tortillees, jusqu'a l'allanguissement des mains defaillantes, jusqu'au 
soupir qui meurt sur ses levres entr'ouvertes, il n'y a rien en elle ni 
autour d'elle qui n'exprime 1'angoisse volupteuse et le divin elancement 
de son transport. On ne peut pas rendre avec des mots une attitude si 
enivree et si touchante. Renversee sur le dos, elle pame, tout son etre 
se dissout ; le moment poignant arrive, elle gemit ; c'est son dernier 
gemissement, la sensation est trop forte. L'ange cependant, un jeune 
page de quatorze ans, en legere tunique, la poitrine decouverte jusqu'au 
dessous du sein, arrive gracieux, aimable ; c'est le plus joli page de 
grand seigneur qui vient faire le bonheur d'une vassal trop tendre. 
Un sourire demi-complaisant, demi-malin, creuse des fossettes dans ses 
fraiches joues luisantes ; sa fieche d'or a la main indique le tressaillement 
delicieux et terrible dont il va secouer tous les nerfs de ce corps char- 
njant, ardent, qui s'etale devant sa main. On n'a jamais fait ce roman 
si seduisant et si tendre." — Taine, Voyage en Italie. 

Close by is the handsome Church of Sta. Susanna, rebuilt 
by Carlo Maderno, for Sixtus V., on the site of an oratory 
founded by Pope Caius (a.d. 283), in the house of his 
brother Gabinus, who was martyred with his daughter 
Susanna because she refused to break her vow of virginity 
by a marriage with Maximianus Galerus, adopted son of the 
Emperor Diocletian, to whom this family were related. The 
bodies of these martyrs are said to rest beneath the high 
altar. The side chapel of St. Laurence was presented by 
Camilla Peretti, the sister of Sixtus V., together with a 
dowry of fifty scudi, to be paid every year to the nine best 
girls in the parish, on the festival of Sta. Susanna. The 
frescoes of the story of Susanna and the Elders, painted 


here on the side walls, from the analogy of names, are 
by Baldassare Croce ; those in the tribune are by Ccsare 

Opposite this, is the Cistercian convent and Church of S. 
Bernardo, a rotunda of the Baths of Diocletian, turned into a 
church in 1598, by Caterina Sforza, Contessa di Santa Fiora. 

Hence the Via della Porta Pia leads to the Quattro 
Fontane. On the left is the small Church of S. Caio, 
which encloses the tomb of that pope, inscribed " Sancti 
Caii, Papse, martyris ossa." Further, on the left, is the great 
recently suppressed convent of the Carmelites, and the 
Church of Sta. Teresa. The right of the street is bordered 
by the orange-shaded wall of the Barberini garden. 

Between S. Caio and Sta. Teresa, is the Studio of Over- 
beck, the venerable Cerman devotional painter, who died 
1S69. His daughter allows visitors to be admitted on 
Sunday afternoons. 



Golden House of Nero — Baths of Titus and Trajan — S. Pietro in 
Vincoli — Frangipani Tower — House of Lucrezia Borgia — S. 
Martino al Monte — Sta. Lucia in Selce— Sta. Prassede— Santis- 
simo Redentore— Arch of Gallienus — Trophies of Marius — Sta. 
Bibiana — Temple of Minerva Medica — S. Eusebio — S. Antonio 
Abbate — Sta. Maria Maggiore. 

T^HE ESQUILINE, which is the largest of the so-called 
' hills of Rome,' is not a distinct hill, but simply a 
projection of the Campagna. " The Quirinal, Viminal, 
Esquiline, and Coelian stretch out towards the Tiber, like 
four fingers of a hand, of which the plain whence they 
detach themselves represents the vast palm. This hand 
has seized the world." * 

Varro says that the name Esquiline was derived from the 
word excultus, because of the ornamental groves which were 
planted on this hill by Servius Tullius, — such as the Lucus 
Querquetulanus, Fagutalis, and Esquilinus.t The sacred 
wood of the Argiletum long remained on the lower slope of 
the hill, where the Via Sta. Maria dei Monti now is. 

The Esquiline, which is still unhealthy, must have been 
so in ancient times, for among its temples were those 

* Anipirc, Hist. Rom. i. 38. t Varro, dc Ling. Lat. iv. 8. 


dedicated to Fever, near Sta. Maria Maggiore — to Juno 
Mephitis,* near a pool which emitted poisonous exhalations 
— and to Venus Libitina,t for the registration of deaths, and 
arrangement of funerals. As the hill was in the hands of 
the Sabines, its early divinities were Sabine. Besides those 
already mentioned, it had an altar of the Sabine sun-god 
Janus, dedicated together with an altar to Juno by the sur- 
vivor of the Horatii,+ and a temple of Juno Lucina, the 
goddess of birth and light. 

"Monte sub Esquilio multis incceduus annis 
Junonis magnse nomine lucus erat." 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 435. 

This hill has two heights. That which is crowned by 
Santa Maria Maggiore was formerly called Cisphts, where 
Servius Tullius had a palace ; that which is occupied by 
S. Pietro in Vincoli was formerly called Otitis, where Tar- 
quinius Superbus lived. It was in returning to his palace on 
the former (and not on the latter height, as generally main- 
tained) that Servius Tullius was murdered. 

The most important buildings of the Esquiline, in the 
later republican and in imperial times, were on the slope 
of the hill behind the Forum, and near the Coliseum, in the 
fashionable quarter called Carinas, — the " rich Carinse," 

' Passimque annenta videbant 
Romanoque Foro et lautis mugire Carinis." 

Virgil, sEn. viii. 361. 

of which the principal street probably occupied the site 
of the present Via del Colosseo. At the entrance of this 

* Fest. v. Septimone. t AmpOre, Hist. Rom. i. 65. % Fest. p. 297. 


suburb, where the fine mediaeval Torre dei Conti now stands, 
was the house of Spurius Cassius (Consul B.C. 493), which 
was confiscated and demolished, and the ground ordainc 
be always kept vacant, because he was suspected of aiming 
at regal power. Here, however, or very nearly on this site, the 
sUdes TeHuris, or temple ofTellus, was erected c. B.C. 269,* — 
a building of sufficient importance for the senate, sum- 
moned by Antony, to assemble in it. The quarter imme- 
diately surrounding this temple acquired the name of In 
Tellure, which is still retained by several of its modern 
churches.t Near this temple — " in tellure," lived Pompey, 
in a famous though small historical house, which he adorned 
on the outside with rostra in memory of his naval victories, 
and which was painted within to look like a forest with trees 
and birds, much probably as the chambers are painted 
which were discovered a few years ago in the villa of 
Livia.J Here Julia, the daughter of Julius Caesar, and wife 
of Pompey, died. After the death of Pompey this house 
was bought by the luxurious Antony. The difference be- 
tween its two masters is pourtrayed by Cicero, who describes 
the severe comfort of the house of Pompey contrasted with 
the voluptuous luxury of its second master, and winds up his 
oration by exclaiming, " I pity even the roofs and the walls 
under the change." At a later period the same house was 
the favourite residence of Antoninus Pius. Hard by, in the 
Carina?, the favourite residence of Roman knights, lived the 
father of Cicero, and hence the young Tullius went to 
listen in the forum to the orators whom he was one day to 

* Cicero pro doma sua, 38 ; Dionysius, viii. 70 ; Livy, ii. 41. 

t See Dyer's City of Koine, p. 65. The Acts of the Martyrs mention that 
eral Christians suffered " In tellure." 
t See Ampdre, Hist. Roin, iv. 421. 


surpass.* Also in the Caringe, but nearer the site of the 
Coliseum, was the magnificent house of the wealthy Vedius 
Pollio, which he bequeathed to Augustus, who pulled it 
down, and built the portico of Livia on its site : 

" Disce tamen, veniens aetas, ubi Livia nunc est 
Porticus, immensse tecta fuisse domus. 
Urbis opus domus una fuit ; spatiumque tenebat, 

Quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent. 
Hcec aequata solo est, nullo sub crimine regni, 

Sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua. 
Sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles, 
Totque suas heres perdere Caesar opes." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 639. 

At its opposite extremity the Carinae was united to the 
unfashionable and plebeian quarter of the Sicburra, occupy- 
ing the valley formed by the convergence of the Esquiline, 
Quirinal, and Viminal — which is still crowded with a teeming 
population. In one of the small streets leading from the 
Vicus Cyprius (between the Esquiline and Viminal) towards 
the Carinas, was the Tigettum Sororis, which was extant — ■ 
repaired at the public expense — till the fifth century. This, 
" the Sister's Beam," commemorated the well-known story of 
the last of the Horatii, who, returning from the slaughter of 
the Curiatii, and being met by his sister, bewailing one of 
the dead to whom she was betrothed, stabbed her in his 
anger. He was condemned to death, but at the prayer of 
his father his crime was expiated by his passing under the 
yoke of " the Sister's Beam." On one side of the Tigellum 
Sororis was an altar to Juno Sororis ; on the other an altar 
to Janus Curiatius.f 

* See Ampere, Hist. Rom. iv. 431. f Liv. i. 26; Dionysius, iii. 22. 

VOL. II. 4 


During the empire several poets had their residence on 
the Esquiline. Virgil lived there, near the gardens of 
Maecenas, which covered the slopes between the Esquiline 
and Viminal. Propertius had a house there, as we learn 
from himself— 

" I, puer, et citus haec aliqua propone columna 
Et dominum Esquiliis scribe habitare tuum." 

Propert. Eleg. iv. 23. 

It is believed, but without certainty, that Horace also 
lived upon the Esquiline. He was constantly there in the 
villa of Maecenas, where he was buried, and which he has 
described in his poems both in its original state as a dese- 
crated cemetery, and again after his friend had converted it 
into a beautiful garden. 

' ' Nunc licet Esquiliis habitare salubribus, atque 
Aggere in aprico spatiari, quo modo tristes 
Albis informem spectabant ossibus agrum." 

Sat. i. 

The house of Maecenas, the great patron of the poets of 
the Augustan age, probably occupied a site above the 
Carinae, where the baths of Titus afterwards were. It was a 
lofty and magnificent edifice, and is described by Horace, 
who calls it — 

" Fastidiosam desere copiam, et 
Molem propinquam nubibus arduis : 
Omitte mirari beatae 

Furaum et opes strepitumque Roma;.' 

Od. iii. 29. 

Maecenas bequeathed his villa to Augustus, and Tiberius 
at one time resided in it. 


Another, though less well-known poet of this age, who 
lived upon the Esquiline, was Pedo Albinovanus, much 
extolled by Ovid, who lived at the summit of the Vicus 
Cyprius (probably the Via Sta. Maria Maggiore), in a little 
house : 

" Illic parva tui domus Pedonis 

Cselata est aquilae minore penna." 

Martial, x. Ep. 19. 

Near this was the Lacus Orphei, a fountain, in the centre 
of which was a rock, &c, surmounted by a statue of Orpheus 
with the enchanted beasts around him. The house of Pedo 
was afterwards inhabited by Pliny. On Septimius, as the 
furthest slope of the Esquiline towards the Viminal was 
called, lived Maximus — of whom Martial says : — ■ 

" Esquiliis domus est, domus est tibi colle Dianas, 
Et tua Patricius culmina Vicus habet : 
Hinc vidua Cybeles, illinc sacraria Vestse, 
Inde Novum, Veterem prospicis inde Jovem." 

Mart. vii. Ep. 72. 

Only the northern side of the Esquiline is now inhabited 
at all ; the southern, and by far the larger portion, is clothed 
with vineyards and gardens, sprinkled over with titanic 
masses of ruin. On most parts of the hill, one might imagine 
oneself far away in the country. According to Niebuhr, the 
dweller amid the vines of the Esquiline, when he descends 
into the city, still says, " I am going to Rome." 

Nero (a.d. 54 — 68) purchased the site of the villa of 
Maecenas, and covered the whole side of the hill towards 


the Carinas with the vast buildings of his Golden House, 
which also swallowed up the Ccelian and a great part of the 
Palatine ; but he did not destroy the buildings which already- 
existed, and " the Golden House was still the old mansion 
of Augustus and the villa of Maecenas connected by a long 
series of columns and arches."* Titus (a.d. 79 — 81) and 
Trajan (a.d. 98 — 117) used part of the same site for their 
baths, and the ruins of all these buildings are now jumbled 
up together, and the varying whims of antiquaries have 
constantly changed the names of each fragment that has 
been discovered. 

The more interesting of these ruins are on the southern 
slope of the Esquiline towards the Coliseum, and are most 
easily approached from the Via Polveriera. They are 
shown now as the Baths of Titus, or Camere Esquiline, and 
occupy a space of about n 50 feet by 850. That the 
chambers which are now visible were to be seen in the time 
of Leo X. (15 13 — 22) we learn from Vasari, who says that 
Raphael and Giovanni da Udine were wont to study there 
and copy the arabesques to assist their work in the 
Vatican Loggie. After this, neglect and the falling in of 
the soil caused these treasures to be lost till 1774, when 
they were again partially unearthed, but they were only 
completely brought to view by the French, who began to 
take the work in hand in 181 1, and continued their excava- 
tions for three years. 

The principal remains, which are now exhibited by the 
dim torch of a solitary cicerone, are those of nine chambers, 
extending for 300 feet, and having on the north a kind of 
corridor, or cryptoporticus, whose vault is covered with 

* Mcrivalcj Romans under the Empire, ch. liii. 


paintings of birds, griffins, and flowers, 6cc. In two of these 
halls are alcoves for couches, and in one is a cavity for a foun- 
tain with a trench round it, like that in the nymphseum of the 
Palace of the Caesars. In one of the halls is a group repre- 
senting Venus attended by two Cupids, with doves hovering 
over her. Near this a pedestal is shown as that occupied by 
the Laocoon, though it was really found in the Vigna de 
Fredis, between the Sette Sale and Sta. Maria Maggiore. A 
set of thirty engravings, published by Mirri, from drawings 
taken in 1776, show what the paintings were at that time, but 
very few now remain perfect. A group of Coriolanus and his 
mother, represented in Mirri's work, is now inaccessible. All 
the paintings are Pompeian in character, and for some time 
were considered the best remains of ancient pictorial art in 
Rome, but they are inferior to those which have since been 
discovered on the Latin way and at the Baths of LiviaT The 
chambers which open beyond the nine outer halls are con- 
sidered to be part of the Golden House. In one of these 
the Meleager of the Vatican was found. A small chapel, 
dedicated to Sta. Felicitas and her seven sons (evidently 
engrafted upon the pagan building in the sixth century), was 
discovered in 18 13. It is like the chapels in the catacombs, 
and is decorated with the conventional frescoes of the Good 
Shepherd, Daniel in the lions' den, &c. There are also 
some faint remains of a fresco of the sainted patrons. 

Behind the convent of S. Pietro in Vincoli, in the open 
vineyards, are other ruins called the Sette Sale, being 
remains of the reservoirs (in reality nine in number) for the 
Baths. In these vineyards also are three large circular ruins, 
adorned on the interior with rows of niches for statues. One 
of them is partly built into the Polveriera, or powder maga- 


zine. These have been referred alternately to the Baths of 
Titus and those of Trajan. 

Immediately behind the forum of Nerva stands the colossal 
brick tower, known as the Torre dei Conti, and built by 
Innocent III. (1198 — -12 16) as a retreat for his family, now 
extinct. Its architect was Marchione d'Arezzo, and it was 
so much admired by Petrarch that he declared it had " no 
equal upon earth ; " he must have meant in height. Four 
of the Conti have mounted the papal throne, Innocent III., 
Gregory IX., Alexander IV., and Innocent XIII. The last- 
named pope (1721 — 24) boasted of having " nine uncles, 
eight brothers, four nephews, and seven great nephews ; " 
yet — a century after — and not a Conti remained. 

If Ave turn to the left close to this, we shall find, in a 
commanding position, the famous Church of S. Pictro in 
Vincoli, said to have been originally founded in a.d. 109 by 
Theodora, sister of Hermes, Prefect of Rome, both converts 
of the then pope, who was the martyr St. Alexander of 
the basilica in the Campagna. A bolder legend attributes 
the foundation to St. Peter himself, who is believed to have 
dedicated this church to his Divine Master. History, how- 
ever, can assign no earlier foundation than that in 442, by 
the Empress Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian III., from whom 
the church takes its name of the Eudoxian Basilica, and 
who placed there one of the famous chains which now form 
its great attraction to Roman Catholic pilgrims. 

"The chains, left in the Mamertine Prisons after St. Peter's confine- 
ment there, are said to have been found by the martyr Sta. Balbina, 
in 126, and by her given to Theodora, another sainted martyr, sister to 


Hermes, Prefect of Rome, from whom they passed into the hands 
of St. Alexander, first pope of that name, and were finally deposited 
by him in the church erected by Theodora, where they have since 
remained. Such is the legendary, but the historic origin of this 
basilica cannot be traced higher than about the middle of the fifth 
century, subsequent to the year 439, when Juvenal, Bishop of 
Jerusalem, presented to the Empress Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius the 
younger, two chains, believed to be those of St. Peter, one of which 
was placed by her in the basilica of the apostles at Constantinople, 
and the other sent to Rome for her daughter Eudoxia, wife of Valen- 
tinian III., who caused this church, hence called Eudoxian, to be 
erected, as the special shrine of Peter's chains." — Hcmans. 

One chain had been sent to Rome by Eudoxia the elder, 
and the other remained at Constantinople, but the Romans 
could not rest satisfied with the possession of half the relic ; 
and within the walls of this very basilica, Leo I. beheld in a 
vision the miraculous and mystical uniting of the two chains, 
since which they have both been exhibited here, and the day 
of their being soldered together by invisible power, August 1, 
has been kept sacred in the Latin Church ! 

The church is at present entered by an ugly atrium, which 
was the work of Fontana in 1705 : but Bacio Pintelli had 
already done almost all that was possible to destroy the 
features of the old basilica, under the Cardinal Titular of 
the church, Giulio della Rovere, the same who, as Pope 
Julius II., destroyed the old St. Peter's and eighty-seven 
tombs of his predecessors. By Pintelli the present capitals 
were added to the columns in the nave, and the horizontal 
architrave above them was exchanged for a series of narrow 
round-headed arches. 

But, in spite of alterations, the interior is still imposing. 
Two long lines of ancient fluted Doric columns (ten on each 
side), relics of the Baths of Titus or Trajan, which once 


covered this site, lead the eye to the high altar, supposed 
to cover the remains of the seven Maccabean brothers, 
and to the tribune, which contains an ancient episcopal 
throne, and is adorned with frescoes by Jacopo Coppi, a 
Florentine of the sixteenth century, illustrative of the life 
of St. Peter. Beneath these is the tomb of G. Clovis, a 
miniature painter of the sixteenth century, and canon of this 

On the left of the entrance is the tomb of Antonio Polla- 
juolo, the famous worker in bronze, and his brother Pietro. 
The fresco above, which is ascribed to Pollajuolo, refers to 
the translation of the body of St. Sebastian, as " Depulsor 
Pestilitatis," from the catacombs to this church, — one of 
the most picturesque stories of the middle ages. The 
great plague of a.d. 680 was ushered in by an awful vision 
of the two angels of good and evil, who wandered through 
the streets by night, side by side, when the one smote upon 
the door where death was to enter, unless arrested by the 
other. The people continued to die by hundreds daily. At 
length a citizen dreamt that the sickness would cease when 
the body of St. Sebastian should be brought into the city, 
and when this was done, the pestilence was stayed. In the 
fresco the whole story is told. In the background the citizen 
tells his dream to Pope Agatho, who is seated among his 
cardinals. On the right the angels of good and evil (the bad 
angel represented as a devil) are making their mysterious 
visitation, on the left a procession is bringing in the relics, 
and the foreground is strewn with the corpses of the dead. 
The general invocation of St. Sebastian in Italy, and the 
frequent introduction of his figure in art, have their origin 
in this story. 


At the entrance of the left aisle is a fine bas-relief of St. 
Peter throned, delivering his keys to an angel, who acknow- 
ledges his supremacy by receiving them on his knees. This 
work was executed in 1465, and serves as a monument to 
the Cardinal de Cusa, Bishop of Brixen, whose incised 
gravestone lies beneath. 

Over the second altar is a most interesting mosaic of 680, 
representing, in old age, the St. Sebastian whom we are 
accustomed to see as a beautiful youth, wounded with 
arrows, — which he survived : — 

"A single figure in mosaic exists as an altar-piece in S. Pietro in 
Vincoli. It is intended for St. Sebastian, who was removed to the 
church by Pope Agathon, on occasion of the plague in 6S0, and doubt- 
less executed soon after this date. As a specimen of its kind it is very 
remarkable. There is no analogy between this figure and the usual 
youthful type of St. Sebastian which was subsequently adopted. On 
the contrary, the saint is represented here as an old man witli white hair 
and beard, carrying the crown of martyrdom in his hand, and dressed 
from head to foot in true Byzantine style. In his countenance there is 
still some life and dignity. The more careful shadowing also of the 
drapery shows that, in a work intended to be so much exposed to the 
gaze of the pious, more pains were bestowed than usual ; nevertheless, 
the figure, upon the whole, is very inanimate; the ground is blue." — 

The first altar in the right aisle has a picture of St. Augus- 
tine by Guercino ; then come tombs of Cardinals Margotti 
and Agucci, from designs of Domcnichino, who has intro- 
duced a portrait of the former in his monument. At the 
end of this aisle is the beautiful picture of St. Margaret and 
the Dragon by Guercino ; the saint is inspired, and display- 
ing no sign of fear, — an earthly impulse only appearing in 
the motion of her hand, which seems pushing back the 


" St. Margaret was daughter of a priest of Antioch named Theo- 
dosius, and was brought up as a Christian by her nurse, whose sheep she 
watched upon the hills, while meditating upon the mysteries of the 
gospel. The governor of Antioch fell in love with her and wished to 
marry her, but she refused, and declared herself a Christian. Her friends 
thereupon deserted her, and the governor tried to subdue her by sub- 
mitting her to horrible tortures, amid which her faith did not fail. She 
was then dragged to a dungeon, where Satan, in the form of a terrible 
dragon, came upon her with his inflamed and hideous mouth wide open, 
and sought to terrify and confound her ; but she held up the cross of the 
Redeemer, and he fled before it. She finally suffered death by decapi- 
tation. Her legend was certainly known in the fifth century: in the 
fourteenth century she was one of the favourite saints, and was specially 
invoked by women against the pains of child-birth. 

" 'Mild Margarete, that was God's maide; 

Maid Margarete, that was so meeke and milde.' " 

See Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, v. I. 

Here is the glory of the church — the famous Moses of 
Michael Angclo, forming part of the decorations of the un- 
finished monument of Julius II. 

' ' This pope, whom nature had intended for a conqueror, and destiny 
clothed with the robe of a priest, takes his place by the side of the great 
warriors of the sixteenth century, by the side of Charles V., of Francis I., 
of Gonsalvo, of Cortes, of Alba, of Bayard, and of Doria. It is difficult 
to imagine Julius II. murmuring prayers, or saying mass in pontifical 
robes, and performing, in the midst of all those unmanly functions and 
thousand passive forms, the spirit-deadening part which is assigned to 
the popes, while his soul was on fire with great-hearted designs, and 
while in the music of the psalms he seemed to hear the thunder of 
cannon. He wished to be a prince of the Church ; and with the poli- 
tical instinct of a prince he founded his state in the midst of the most 
difficult wars against France, and unhesitatingly conquered and took 
possession of Bologna, Piacenza, Parma, Reggio, and Urbino 

The greatest pope since Innocent III., and the creator of a new 
political spirit in the papacy, he wished, as a second Augustus, to 
glorify himself and his creation. He took up again the projects of 
Nicholas V. Rome should become his monument. To carry out his 
designs he found the genius of Bramante and Raphael, and, above all, 


that of Michael Angelo, who belonged to him like an organ of his being. 
St. Peter's, of which he laid the foundation-stone, the paintings of the 
Sistine, the loggie of Bramante, the stanze of Raphael, are memorials 
of Julius the Second." — Grcgoravius, Grabmaler der Papste. 

Most of all Julius II. sought immortality in his tomb, for 
which the original design was absolutely gigantic. Eighteen 
feet high, and twelve wide, it was intended to contain more 
than forty statues, which were to include Moses, St. Peter 
and St. Paul, Rachel and Leah, and chained figures of the 
Provinces, while those of the Heaven and the Earth were to 
support the sarcophagus of the pope. This project was 
cut short by the death of Julius in 15 13, when only four of 
the statues were finished, and eight designed.* Of those 
which were finished, three statues, the Moses, the Rachel, 
and the Leah, were afterwards used for the existing memorial, 
which was put together under Paul III. by the Duke of 
Urbino, heir of Julius II. — in this church of which his uncle 
had been a cardinal. 

"The eye does not know where to rest in this the masterpiece of 
sculpture since the time of the Greeks. It seems to be as much an 
incarnation of the genius of Michael Angelo, as a suitable allegory of 
Pope Julius. Like Moses, he was at once lawgiver, priest, and warrior. 
The figure is seated in the central niche, with long-flowing beard de- 
scending to the waist, with horned head, and deep-sunk eyes, which 
blaze, as it were, with the light of the burning bush, with a majesty of 
anger which makes one tremble, as of a passionate being, drunken with 
fire. All that is positive and all that is negative in him is equally 

* "Des huit figures ebauchCes il y en a deux aujourd'hui au musfe du Louvre 
(les deux esclaves). Lorsque Michel-Ange eut renoncS a son plan primitif il en fit 
don a Roberto Strozzi. Des mains de Strozzi elles passOrent dans celles de Fran- 
cois ier, et puis dans celles du connfitable de Montmorency, qui les placa a son 
chateau d'Ecouen, d'oa elles sont venues au Louvre. Quatre autres prisonnicrs 
sont place's dans la grotte de Buontalenti au jardin du Palais Pitti, a Florence. Un 
groupe, representant une figure virile en terrassant une seconde, se voit aujourd'hui 
dans la grande salle del Cinquccento, au Palais vieux de Florence, ou elle fut placf 
par Cosme i er . — F. Sabatier. 


dreadful. If he were to rise up, it seems as if he would shout forlh 
laws which no human intellect could fathom, and which, instead of 
improving the world, would drive it back into chaos. His voice, like 
that of the gods of Homer, would thunder forth in tones too awful for 
the ear of man to support. Yes ! there is something infinite which lies 
in the Moses of Michael Angelo. Nor is his countenance softened by 
the twilight of sadness, which is stealing from his forehead over his eyes. 
It is the same deep sadness which clouded the countenance of Michael 
Angelo himself. But here it is less touching than terrible. The Greeks 
could not have endured a glance from such a Moses, and the artist 
would certainly have been blamed, because he had thrown no softening 
touch over his gigantic picture. That which we have is the archetype of 
a terrible and quite unapproachable sublimity. This statue might take 
its place in the cell of a colossal temple, as that of Jupiter Amnion, but 
the tomb where it is placed is so little suited to it, that regarded even 
only as its frame it is too small." — Gregorovius. 

On either side of the principal figure are niches containing 
Michael Angelo's statues of Rachel and Leah, — emblematic 
of active and contemplative life. Those above, of the Pro- 
phet and the Sibyl, are by Raphael da Montelupo, his best 
pupil ; on the summit is the Madonna with the Infant Jesus 
by Scherano da Settignano. The worst figure of the whole 
is that, by Maso dal Bosco, of the pope himself, who seems 
quite overwhelmed by the grandeur of his companions, and 
who lies upon a pitiful sarcophagus, leaning his head upon 
his hand, and looking down upon the Moses. He is repre- 
sented with the beard which he was the first pope to reintro- 
duce after an interval of many centuries, — and it is said to 
have been from his example that Francis I., Charles V., and 
others, adopted it also. 

After all, Julius II. was not buried here, and the tomb is 
merely commemorative. He rests beneath a plain marble 
slab near his uncle Sixtus IV., in the chapel of the Sacra- 
ment at St. Peter's. 


Close to the Moses is the entrance to the chapel in which 
the chains are preserved, behind a bronze screen — the work 
of Pollajuolo. They are of unequal size, owing to many 
fragments of one of them (first whole links, then only filings) 
having been removed in the course of centuries by various 
popes and sent to Christian princes who have been esteemed 
worthy of the favour ! * The longest is about five feet in 
length. At the end of one of them is a collar, which is said 
to have encircled the neck of St. Peter. They are exposed 
on the day of the " station " (the first Monday in Lent) in a 
reliquary presented by Pius IX., adorned with statuettes of 
St. Peter and the angel — to whom he is represented as saying, 
"Ecce nunc scio vere." t On the following day a priest 
gives the chains to be kissed by the pilgrims, and touches 
their foreheads with them, saying, " By the intercession of 
the blessed Apostle Peter, may God preserve you from evil. 

" Peter, therefore, was kept in prison : but prayer was made without 
ceasing of the church unto God for him. And when Herod would have 
brought him forth, the same night Peter was sleeping between two 
soldiers, bound with two chains : and the keepers before the door kept 
the prison. And, behold, the angel of the Lord came upon him, and a 
light shined in the prison : and he smote Peter on the side, and raised 
him up, saying, Arise up quickly. And his chains fell off from his 
hands." — Acts xii. 5 — 7- 

Other relics preserved here are portions of the crosses of 
St. Peter and St. Andrew, and the body of Sta. Costanza. 

The sacristy, opening out of this chapel, contains a num- 
ber of pictures, including, very appropriately, the Deliverance 
of St. Peter from Prison, by DomciikJiino. Here, till a few 

* The wife of Osvvy, king of Northumberland received a golden key containing 
filings of the chains from Pope Vitalianus, in the sixth century, 
t Acts xii. 11. 


years ago, Avas preserved the famous and beautiful small 
picture, known as the Speranza of Giddo. It has lately been 
sold by the monks to an Englishman, and is replaced by a 

In this church Hildebrand was crowned pope as Gre- 
gory VII. (1073). Stephen IX. was also proclaimed here 
in 939. The adjoining convent was built from designs of 
Giuliano San Gallo. Its courtyard contains a picturesque 
well (with columns), bearing the arms of Julius II., by 
Simone Mosca. The arcades were decorated in the present 
century with frescoes by Pietra Camosci, as a votive offering 
for his recovery from cholera, to St. Sebastian, " depulsori 

Opposite S. Pietro in Vincoli is a convent of Maronite 
monks, in whose garden is a tall palm-tree, perhaps the 
finest in Rome. In the view from the portico of the church 
it forms a conspicuous feature, and the combination of the 
old tower, the palm-tree, and the distant capitol, standing 
out against the golden sky of sunset, is one very familiar to 
Roman artists. 

The tall machicolated Tower on the right was once a 
fortress of the Frangipani family, who obtained their glorious 
surname of " bread-breakers " from the generosity which they 
showed in the distribution of food to the poor during a 
famine in the thirteenth century. The tower is now used as 
a belfry to the adjoining Church of S.Francesco dl Paola, being 
the only mediaeval fortress tower applied to this purpose. 
The adjoining building is known as the House of Lucrezia 
Borgia, and the balcony over the gateway on the other side 
tinted out as that in which she used to stand meditating 
on her crimes. Here Caesar Borgia and his unhappy 


brother, the Duke of Gandia, supped with Lucrezia and 
their mother Vanozza, the evening before the murder of the 
duke, of which Coesar was accused by popular belief. It is 
worth while to descend under the low-browed arch from the 
church piazza, and look back upon this lofty house, with its 
steep, dark, winding staircase, — a most picturesque bit of 
street architecture, which looks better the further you de- 
scend. The Via S. Francesco di Paola is considered by 
Ampere* to have been the place where the house of the 
Horatii and the Tigellum Sororis once stood. 

Following the narrow lane behind S. Pietro, we reach, on 
the left, S. Martino al Monte, the great church of the Car- 
melites, which, though of uninviting exterior, is of the 
highest interest. It was built in a.d. 500 by S. Symmachus, 
and dedicated to the saints Sylvestro and Martino, on the site 
of an older church founded by St. Sylvester in the time of 
Constantine. After repeated alterations, it was modernised 
in 1650 by P. Filippini, General of the Carmelites. The 
nave is separated from the aisles by twenty-four ancient 
Corinthian columns. The aisles are painted with landscapes 
by Gaspar Poussin, having figures introduced by his brother 
Nicholas. The roof is an addition by S. Carlo Borromeo. 

The pillars of different marbles are magnificent, and the 
effect of the raised choir, with winding staircases to the 
crypt below, is highly picturesque. On the walls are frescoes 
by Cavaluccio (ob. 1795), who is buried in the left aisle. 
The collection of incised gravestones deserves attention, they 
comprise those of a knight in mail armour of 1349 ; Cardinal 
Diomede Caraffa, with a curious epitaph ; and various 
generals and remarkable monks of the- Carmelite Order. 

* Hist. Rom. i. 464. 


Beneath the high altar rest the bodies of Popes Sergius, 
Sylvester, Martin I., Fabian, Stephen I., Soter, Ciriacus, 
Anastasius, and Innocent I., with several saints not papal. 
removed hither from the catacombs. In the curious crypt, 
part of the Baths of Titus, the early Council of Sylvester 
and Constantine was held, as represented in the fresco in 
the left aisle of the upper church. The back of the ancient 
chair of Sylvester still remains, green with age and damp. 
In the chapel on the left, where St. Sylvester used to cele- 
brate mass, is an ancient mosaic of the Madonna. In front 
of the papal chair is the grand sepulchral figure of a Car- 
melite, who was General of the Order in the time of Sta. 
Teresa. An urn contains the intestines of the " Beato," 
Cardinal Giuseppe-Maria de Tommasis, who died in 17 13. 
His body is preserved beneath an altar in the left aisle of 
the upper church, and is dressed in his cardinal's robes. 

"In 1650 was reopened, beneath SS. Martino e Sylvestro, the long- 
forgotten oratory formed (according to Anastasius) by Sylvester among 
the halls of Trajan's Thermoe — or, more probably, in an antique palace 
adjacent to those imperial baths — and called by Christian writers 'Titulus 
Equitii,' from the name of a Roman priest then proprietor of the ground. 
Now a gloomy, time-worn, and sepulchral subterranean, this structure 
is in form an extensive quadrangle, under a high-hung vault, divided 
into four aisles by massive square piers ; the central bay of one aisle 
adorned with a large red cross, painted as if studded with gems ; and 
ranged round this, four books, each within a nimbus, earliest symbolism 
to represent the Evangelists. Among the much-faded and dim-seen 
frescoes on these dusky walls, are figures of the Saviour between SS. 
Peter and Paul, besides other saints, each crowned by a large nimbus." 
— Ill/nails' Ancient Sacred Art. 

Here is preserved a mitre, probably the most ancient 
extant, and said to be that of St. Sylvester, who lived in 
the fourth century, and who was the first Latin bishop to 


wear the mitre originally worn by the priests of pagan tem- 
ples. This ancient mitre is so low as to rise only just above 
the crown of the head. 

This church was dedicated to St. Martin, the holy Bishop 
of Tours, within a hundred years after his death, showing 
the very early veneration with which that saint was re- 

Leaving S. Martino by the other door, near the tribune, 
we emerge at the top of the steep street called Sta. Lucia in 
Selci, which is the same with that described by Martial in 
going to visit the younger Pliny as — 

" Altum vincere tramitem Sublime." Lib. x. Ep, 19, 5. 

And again — 

" Alta Suburrani vincenda est semita clivi." Lib. v. Ep. 23, 5. 

Here is a whole group of convents. In the hollow is 
the convent of S. Francesco di Paola, with several others. 
Just above (in the Via Quattro Cantone) is the convent of 
the Oratorians, or S. Filippo Neri. At this point also are 
two mediaeval towers, one enclosed within the convent walls 
of Sta. Lucia in Selci, the other on the opposite side of the 
street, supposed by some to be the tower of Mecsenas, cele- 
brated by Horace. On the left of the street is the house of 
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri), whose residence here is 
commemorated by an inscription. 

Mounting the street we soon reach, on the right, the pic- 
turesque tenth century west gate (a high narrow arch upon 
Ionic columns, modernized and plastered over under the 
Sardinian government) of the Church of Sta. Prassede, which 
leads into the atrium of the church. This is seldom open, 
but we can enter by a door in the north aisle. 

Sta. Prassede was sister of Sta. Pudenziana, and daughter 
vol. 11. 5 


of Pudens and his wife Claudia, with whom St. Paul lodged, 
and who were among his first converts (see Ch. X., Sta. 
Pudenziana). She gave shelter in her house to a number of 
persecuted Christians, twenty-three of whom were discovered 
and martyred in her presence. She then buried their bodies 
in the catacombs of her grandmother, Sta. Priscilla, but, 
collecting their blood in a sponge, placed it in a well in her 
own house, where she was afterwards buried herself. An 
oratory is said to have been erected on the site by Pius I., 
a.d. 160, and was certainly in existence in a.d. 499, when it 
is mentioned in the acts of a Council. In a.d. 822 the ori- 
ginal church was destroyed, and the present church erected 
by Pascal L, of whose time are the low tower, the porch, the 
terra-cotta cornices, and the mosaics. During the absence of 
the popes at Avignon, Sta. Prassede was one of the many 
churches which fell almost into ruin, and it has since suffered 
terribly from injudicious modernisations, first in the fifteenth 
century from Rosellini, under Nicholas V., and afterwards 
under S. Carlo Borromeo in 1564. 

The interior is a basilica, the nave being separated from 
the aisles by sixteen granite columns, many of which have 
been boxed up in hideous stucco pilasters, decorated with 
frescoes of apostles ; but their Corinthian capitals are 
visible, carved with figures of birds (the eagle, cock, and 
dove) in strong relief against the acanthus leaves. The 
nave is divided into four compartments by arches rising from 
the square pilasters ; the roof is coffered. 

In the right aisle is the entrance to the famous chapel, 
called, from its unusual and mysterious splendour, the Orto 
del Paradiso — originally dedicated to S. Zeno, then to the 
Virgin, with the invocation " Libera nos a poenis inferi," 


and finally to the great relic which it contains. Females are 
never allowed to enter this shrine except upon Sundays in 
Lent, but can see the relic through a grating. Males are 
admitted by the door which is flanked by two columns of 
rare black and white marble, supporting a richly-sculptured 
marble cornice, above which are two lines of mosaic heads 
in circlets — in the outer, the Saviour and the twelve apostles; 
in the inner, the Virgin between St. Stephen and St. Lau- 
rence, with eight female saints ; at the angles St. Pudens 
and St. Pastor. In the interior of the chapel four granite 
columns support a lofty groined vault, which, together with 
the upper part of the walls, is entirely covered with mosaic 
figures, which stand out distinctly from a gold ground. 

" Here are SS. Teter and Paul before a throne, on which is the cross, 
but no seated figure; the former apostle holding a single gold key,* the 
latter a scroll ; St. John the Evangelist, with a richly-bound volume ; 
SS. James and Andrew, the two daughters of Pudens, and St. Agnes, 
all in rich vestments, and holding crowns; the Virgin Mary (a veiled 
matronly figure), and St. John the Baptist standing beside her; under 
the arch of a window, another half-figure of Mary, with three other 
females, all having the nimbus, one crowned, one with a square halo to 
indicate a person still living ; above these, the Divine Lamb on a hill, 
from which the four rivers issue, with stags drinking of their waters ; 
above the altar, the Saviour, between four other saints, — figures in part 
barbarously sacrificed to a modern tabernacle that conceals them. On 
the vault a colossal half-figure of the Saviour, youthful but severe in 
aspect, with cruciform nimbus, appears in a large circular halo supported 
by four archangels, solemn forms in long white vestments, that stand 
finely distinct in the dim light. Within a niche over the altar is another 
mosaic of the Virgin and Child, with the two daughters of Pudens, in 
which Rumohr (Italienische Forsch.) observes ruder execution, indi- 
cating origin later than the ninth century." — Hemanf Ancient Christian 

* "Ciampini gives an engraving of this figure without the key : a detail, therefore, 
to be ascribed to restorers :— surely neither justifiable nor judicious." — Hematis. 


The relic preserved here (one of the principal objects of 
pilgrimage in Rome) is the column to which our Saviour is 
reputed to have been bound, said to have been given by the 
Saracens to Giovanni Colonna, cardinal of this church, and 
legate of the crusade, because, when he had fallen into their 
hands and was about to be put to death, he was rescued by 
a marvellous intervention of celestial light. Its being of 
the rarest blood jasper is a reason against its authenticity ; 
the peculiarity of its formation having even given rise to the 
mineralogical term, " Granito della Colonna." A disk of 
porphyry in the pavement marks the grave of forty martyrs 
collected by Paschal I. The mother of that pope is also 
buried here, and the inscription commemorating her observes 
an ancient ecclesiastical usage in allowing her the title of 
" episcopa : " " Ubi vtique benignissimce suce genitricis, scilicet 
Domince Theodora, Episcopa corpus quiescit." In this chapel 
Paschal I. saw the spirit of his nephew dragged to heaven by 
an angel, through the little window, while he was saying a 
mass for his soul. 

The high altar covers the entrance to a small crypt, in 
which are two ancient sarcophagi, containing the remains of 
the sainted sisters Prassede and Pudenziana. An altar here, 
richly decorated with mosaic, is shown as that which existed 
in the house of Prassede. Above is a fresco, referred to the 
twelfth century, representing the Madonna between the 
sainted sisters. At the end of the left aisle is a large slab of 
granite (nero-bianco), upon which Sta. Prassede is said to 
have slept, and above it a picture of her asleep. In the 
centre of the nave is the well where she collected the 
blood, with a hideous statue of her squeezing it out of a 


The chapel at the end of the left aisle is that of S. Carlo 
Borromeo, who was cardinal of this church, and contains his 
episcopal throne (a wooden chair) and a table, at which, like 
St. Gregory, he used to feed and wait upon twelve poor men 
daily. The pictures in this chapel, by Louis Stern, represent 
S. Carlo in prayer, and in ecstasy before the Sacrament. In 
the cloister is an old orange-tree which was planted by him, 
but is still flourishing. 

Opposite the side entrance of the Orto del Paradiso is 
the tomb of Cardinal Cetive (1474), with his sleeping figure 
and statuettes of SS. Peter and Paul, Sta. Prassede, and Sta. 
Pudenziana. This will recall Browning's quaint forcible 
poem of ' The Bishop who orders his tomb at Saint Praxed's 

"Saint Praxed's ever was the church for peace. 

And there how I shall lie through centuries, 
And hear the blessed mutter of the mass, 
And see God made and eaten all day long, 
And feel the steady candle flame, and taste 
Good strong thick stupefying incense-smoke ! " 

Other tombs of interest are those of Cardinal Ancherus, 
assassinated in 1286 outside the Porta S. Giovanni, and of 
Monsignor Santoni, a bust, said to have been executed by 
Bernini when only ten years old. 

Two pictures in side chapels are interesting in a Vallom- 
brosan church, as connected with saints of that order, — one 
representing S. Pietro Aldobrandini passing through the 
furnace at Settimo ; and another the martyrdom of Cardinal 
Beccaria, put to death at Florence (whither he was sent by 
Alexander IV. to make peace between the Guelfs and 
Ghibellines) — and consigned to hell by Dante. 


Quel di Beccaria 

Di cui sego Fiorenza la gorgiera." 

Inferno, xxxii. 

Steps of magnificent rosso-antico lead to the tribune, 
which is covered with mosaics of a.d. 817 — 824. Those 
on the arch represent the heavenly Jerusalem ; within is the 
Saviour with a cruciform halo — the hand of the first person 
of the Trinity holding a crown over his head — and St. Peter 
and St. Paul bringing in the sainted sisters of the church ; on 
the right, Pope Paschal I.,* with a model of his church • on 
the left, St. Zeno (?). Above these figures, is the Adoration 
of the spotless Lamb, and beneath their feet the Jordan ; 
below all is the Lamb again, with the twelve sheep issuing 
from the mystic cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem, and 
verses recording the work of Paschal I. 

"The arrangement of saints at Sta. Prassede (817) is altogether dif- 
ferent from that at Ravenna, but equally striking. Over the grand arch 
which separates the choir from the nave is a mosaic, representing the 
New Jerusalem, as described in the Revelations. It is a walled en- 
closure, with a gate at each end, guarded by angels. Within is seen 
the Saviour of the World, holding in his hand the orb of sovereignty, 
and a company of blessed seated on thrones : outside, the noble army 
of martyrs is seen approaching, conducted and received by angels. 
They are all arrayed in white, and carry crowns in their hands. Lower 
down, on each side, a host of martyrs press forward with palms and 
crowns, to do homage to the Lamb, throned in the midst. None of 
the martyrs are distinguished by name, except those to whom the church 
is dedicated — Sta. Prassede and her sister Pudenziana." — Airs. Jameson. 

While Pope Gelasius II. was celebrating mass in this 
church, he was attacked by armed bands of the inimical 
houses of Leone and Frangipani, and was only rescued by 
the assistance of his nephew Gaetano, after a conflict of 

* With a square nimbus, denoting execution in his lifetime, as at Sta. Cecilia and 

Si 1. Maria in Navicclla. 


some hours. Hence in 1630, Moriandi, abbot of Sta. Pras- 
sede, was suddenly carried off and put to fearful tortures, 
which resulted in his death, ostensibly on account of irregu- 
larities in his convent, but really because he had been heard 
to speak against Urban VIII.* 

In the sacristy is preserved a fine picture by Giulio 
Romano of the Flagellation — especially appropriate in the 
church of the Colonna. 

Hence the curious campanile of the old church (built 
1 1 10) may be entered, and a loggia whence the great relics of 
the church are exhibited at Easter, including : portions of 
the crown of thorns, of the sponge, of the Virgin's hair, and 
a miniature portrait of our Saviour which is said to have 
belonged to St. Peter and to have been left by him with the 
daughters of Pudens. 

The Monastery attached to the church, founded by 
Paschal I., was first occupied by Basilian, but since 1198 
has belonged to Vallombrosan monks. Nothing remains of 
the mosaic-covered chapel of St. Agnes, built by the founder 
within its walls. 

Where the Via Sta. Prassede crosses the road leading 
from Sta. Maria Maggiore to the Lateran, is the modern 
gothic church of // Santissimo Rcdentore, built by Father 
Douglas within the last few years. 

A little beyond this, attached to the Church of S. Vito, 
from which it has sometimes been named, is the Arch of 
Gallienus (supposed to occupy the site of the Esquiline gate 
in the wall of Servius), dedicated to Gallienus (a.d. 253- — 260) 
and his Empress Salonina, by Marcus Aurelius Victor, evi- 
dently a court-flatterer of the period, who was prefect of 

* See Hemans' Catholic Italy. 


Rome, and possessed gardens on this spot. It is of very- 
inferior execution ; the original plan had three arches ; only 
that in the centre remains, but traces of another may be 
seen on the side next the church. Gallienus was a cruel and 
self-indulgent emperor, who excited the indignation of the 
Romans by leaving his old father, Valerian, to die a captive 
in the hands of the Persians, so that the inscription, " Cle- 
mcntissimo pri?icipi cuius invicta virtus sola pietate superata 
est" is singularly false, even for the time. 

" II arrivait a Gallien de faire tuer trois ou quatre mille soldats en un 
jour, et il ecrivait des lettres comme celle-ci, adressee a un de ses 
generaux : ' Tu n'auras pas fait assez pour moi, si tu ne mets a mort que 
des hommes armes, car le sort de la guerre aurait pu les faire perir. 
II faut tuer quiconque a eu une intention mauvaise, quiconque a mal 
parle de moi. Dechire, tue, extermine : lacera, occide, concide.'' Entre 
dans Byzance en promettant leur pardon aux troupes qui avaient com- 
battu contre lui, il les fit egorger, et les soldats ravagerent la ville au 
point qu'il n'y resta pas un habitant. Voila pour la clemence. Tandis 
que Valerien, son pere, etait prisonnier du roi des Perses Sapor, qui pour 
monter a cheval se servait du dos du vieil einpereur comme d'un marche- 
pied, en attendant qu'il le fit empailler, Findigne fils de Valerien vivait 
au sein des plus honteuses voluptes, et ne tentait pas un seul effort pour 
le delivrer. Voila pour la vaillance et la piete." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 334. 

Close to this Gallienus had ordered a statue of himself 
to be erected, which was to be double the height of the 
colossus of Nero, but it was unfinished at the time of his 
death, and destroyed by his successor. From the centre 
of the arch hung, from the thirteenth century, the chain 
and keys of the gates of Viterbo, removed at the same 
time as the great bell of the Capitol. These interesting 
memorials of middle-age warfare were taken down in 1825. 

Passing under the arch we enter upon the Via Maggiore, 
the main artery leading to Santa Croce. On the left is the 
humble convent of the Monac/ic JPolacche, where the long- 


suffering Madre Makrena, the sole survivor of the terrible 
persecution of the nuns of Minsk, lias lived in the closest 
retirement since her escape in 1845. 

The story of the cruel sufferings of the Polish-Basilian nuns of Minsk 
reminds one of the worst persecutions of the early Christians, under 
Nero and Diocletian. Makrena Miaczylslawska was abbess of a con- 
vent of thirty-eight nuns, whom the apostate bishop Siemasko first tried 
to compel to the Greek faith in the summer of 1838. Their refusal led 
to their being driven, laden with chains, to Witepsk, in Siberia, where 
they were forced to hard labour, many of them being beaten to death, 
one roasted alive in a hot stove, and another having her brains beaten 
out with a stake by the abbess of the Czernice (apostate nuns), on their 
persisting in their refusal to change their religion. In 1840 the surviving 
nuns were removed to Polock, where they were forced to work at 
building a palace for the bishop Siemasko, and where nine of them 
perished by a falling scaffold, and many others expired under the 
heavy weights they were compelled to carry, or under the lash. In 
1842 their tortures were increased tenfold, eight of the sisters having 
their eyes torn out, and others being trodden to death. In 1843 those 
who still survived were removed to Miadzioly, where the "protopope 
Skrykin" said that he would "drown them like puppies," and where 
they were dragged by boats through the shallows of the half-frozen 
Dwina, up to their necks in water, till many died of the cold. In the 
spring of 1845, Makrena, with the only three nuns who survived with 
the use of their limbs (Eusebia Wawrzecka, Clotilda Konarska, and 
Irene Pomarnacka,) scaled the walls of their prison, while the priests 
and nuns who guarded them were lying drunk after an orgie, and, after 
wandering for three months in the forests of Lithuania, made good then- 
escape. The nuns remained in Vienna ; the abbess, after a series of ex- 
traordinary adventures, arrived in Rome, where she was at first lodged 
in the convent of the Trinita de' Monti. The story of the nuns of 
Minsk was taken down from her dictation at the same time by a number 
of eminent ecclesiastics, authorized by the pope, and the authenticity of 
her statements verified ; after which she retired into complete seclusion 
in the Polish convent on the Esquiline, where she has long filled the 
humble office of portress. Her legs are eaten into the bone by the chains 
she wore in her prison life. The story of the persecution at Minsk may 
be read in " Le Recit de Makrena Miaczylslawska," published at Paris, 
by Lecoffre, in 1846 ; in a paper by Charles Dickens, in the " Household 
Words," for May, 1S54; and in "Pictures of Christian Heroism," 1855. 


Nearly opposite this convent is the picturesque ruin of 
a nyinphseum, probably of the time of Septimius Severus., 
erroneously called The Trophies of Marius, from the 
trophies, now on the terrace in front of the Capitol, which 
were found here. 

Beyond this, on the right, is the entrance of the Villa 
Palombara, occupying a great part of the site of the Baths 
of Titus. 

"This villa once belonged to Queen Christina of Sweden, who has 
left upon the little doorway exactly opposite the ruin called the Trophies 
of Marius, a curious record of her credulity. It consists of a collection 
of unintelligible words, signs, and triangles, given her by some alchymist, 
as the rule to make gold, and which, no doubt, he had found success- 
ful, having obtained from her, and probably from many other votaries, 
abundance of that precious metal in exchange for it. But as she could 
make nothing of it, she caused it to be inscribed here, in case any pas- 
senger, wiser than herself, should be able to develope the mystic signs 
of this golden secret." — Eaton's Rome. 

Though the existing ruin is misnamed, the trophies 
erected in honour of the victories which Marius gained over 
the Cimbri were really set up near this ; and, curiously 
enough, on this site also Marius was defeated at the " Forum 
Esquilinum" by Sylla, who suddenly descended upon Rome 
from Nola with six legions, and entering by the Forta 
Esquilina, met his adversary here, and forced him to fly to 

Behind the Trophies of Marius a lane branches off on 
the left to the desolate Church of Sta. Bibiana. 

In the time of Julian the Apostate, there dwelt in Rome a Christian 
family, consisting of Flavian, his wife Dalfrosa, and his two daughters, 
Bibiana and Demetria. All these died for their faith. Flavian was 
exiled, and died of starvation ; Dalfrosa was beheaded ; the sisters were 
imprisoned (A.D. 362) and scourged, and Demetria died at once under 
the torture. Bibiana glorified God by longer sufferings. Apronius, the 

ST. 1. BIBIANA. 75 

prefect of the city, astonished by her beauty, conceived a guilty passion 
for her, and placed her under the care of one of his creatures named 
Rufina, who was gradually to bend her to his will. But Bibiana repelled 
his proposals with horror, and her firmness excited him to such fury, 
that he commanded her to be bound to a column, and scourged to com- 
pliance. " The order was executed with all imaginable cruelty, rivers 
of blood flowed from each wound, and morsels of flesh were torn away, 
till even the most barbarous spectators were stricken w:ith honor. The 
saint alone continued immoveable, with her eyes fixed upon heaven, and 
her countenance radiant with celestial peace, — until her body being torn 
to pieces, her soul escaped to her heavenly bridegroom, to receive the 
double crown of virginity and martyrdom." * 

After the death of Bibiana, her body was exposed to dogs for three 
days in the Forum Boarium, but remained unmolested ; after which it 
was stolen at night by John the priest, who buried it here. 

The church, founded in the fifth century by Olympia, a 
Roman matron, was modernised by Bernini for Urban VIII., 
and has no external appearance of antiquity. The interior is 
adorned with frescoes ; those on the right are by Agostino 
Citwipelli, those on the left are considered by Lanzi as the 
best works of Pietro da Cortona. They pourtray in detail the 
story of the saint : — 

1. Bibiana refuses to sacrifice to idols. 

2. The death of Demetria. 

3. Bibiana is scourged at the column. 

4. The body of Bibiana is watched over by a dog. 

5. Olympia founds the church, which is dedicated by Pope Sim- 

The statue of the saint at the high altar is considered the 
masterpiece of Bernini. It is dignified and graceful, and 
would hardly be recognised as his work. 

"This statue is one of his earliest works ; and it is said that when 
Bernini, in advanced life, returned from France, he uttered, on seeing 
it, an involuntary expression of admiration. 'But,' added he, 'had I 

* Croiret, Vie des Saints. 


always worked in this style, I should have been a beggar.' This would 
lead us to conclude, that his own taste led him to prefer simplicity and 
truth, but that he was obliged to conform to the corrupted predilection 
of the age." — Eaton' s Rome. 

The remains of the saint are preserved beneath the altar, 
in a splendid sarcophagus of oriental alabaster, adorned with 
a leopard's head. A column of rosso-antico is shown as 
that to which Sta. Bibiana was bound during her flagellation. 
The fete of the martyred sisters is observed with great 
solemnity on December 2. 

" II est touchant de voir, le jour de la fete, le Chapitre entier de la 
grande et somptueuse basilique de Sainte-Marie-Majeure venir proces- 
sionellement a cette modeste eglise et celebrer de solennelles et pom- 
peuses ceremonies en l'honneur de ces deux vierges et leur mere: C'est 
que si ces trois femmes etaient faibles et ignorees selon le monde, elles 
sont devenues par leur foi, fortes et sublimes ; et l'Eglise ne croit 
pouvoir trop faire pour glorifier une pareille grandeur." — Impressions 
d'nne Catholique a Rome. 

On or near this site were the Horti Lamiani, in which 
the Emperor Caligula was hastily buried after his assassina- 
tion, a.d. 41, though his remains were shortly afterwards 
disinterred by his sisters and burnt. These gardens were 
probably the property of ^Elius Lamia, to whom Horace 
addressed one of his odes.* At an earlier period Elius 
Tubero lived here, celebrated for his virtue, his poverty, and 
his little house, where sixteen members of the Elian Gens 
dwelt harmoniously together. t He married the daughter 
of L. Emilius Paulus, " who," says Plutarch, " though the 
daughter of one who had twice been consul and twice 
triumphed, did not blush for the poverty of her husband, 
but admired the virtue which had made him poor." 

* I. 26. t Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 177. 


On the other side of the Trophies of Marius, the Via Porta 
Maggiore leads to the gate of that name (see Ch. XIII.). 
Approached by a gate on the left of this road, most desolate, 
until the making of the railway amid its vineyards and gar- 
dens, and crowned with lentiscus and other shrubs, is the 
picturesque ruin generally called the Temple of Minerva 
Medica, from a false impression that the Giustiniani Minerva, 
now in the Vatican, had been found here.* It is now gen- 
erally decided to be a remnant of the bath built by Augustus 
in honour of his grandsons Caius and Lucius Caesar (sons of 
Agrippa and Julia. It is a decagon, with a vaulted brick 
roof, and nine niches for statues ; those of /Esculapius, 
Antinous, Hercules, Adonis, Pomona, and (the Farnese) 
Faun, have been found on the site. 

Near this is a curious Columbarium of the Arruntia 
Family, and a brick-lined hollow, supposed to be part of the 
Naumachia which Dion Cassius says that Augustus con 
structed " in the grove of Caius and Lucius." 

Just where the lane turns off to Sta. Bibiana is the en- 
trance to the courtyard of the Church and Monastery of S. 
Eusebio, built upon the site of the house of the saint, a 
priest of noble family, martyred by starvation under Con- 
stantius, a. d. 357. His body rests under the high altar, 
with that of St. Orosus, a Spanish priest, who suffered at 
the same time. The ceiling of the church is painted by 
Mengs, and represents the apotheosis of the patron saint. 
The campanile dates from 1220. In this convent (which was 
conceded to the Jesuits in 1825 by Leo XII.) English clergy- 
men about to join the Roman Catholic Church frequently 
" make a retreat " before their reception • Archdeacon Wilber- 

* It was found in the gardens of the convent of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva. 


force is one of many converts who have been received here. 

Turning towards Sta. Maria Maggiore, on the left is a 
Cross on a pedestal formed by a cannon reversed, and in- 
scribed " In hoc signo vinces," — a memorial of the abso- 
lution given by Clement VIII. in 1595 to Henry IV. of 
France on his being received into the Roman Catholic 

Opposite this is a peculiar round arched doorway — unique 
in Rome — forming the entrance to the Church of S. Antonio 
Abbate, said to occupy the site of a temple of Diana. The 
church is decorated with very coarsely-executed frescoes of 
the life of the saint, — his birth, his confirmation by a bishop 
who predicted his future saintship, and his temptation by 
the devil in various forms. 

" S. Antonio, called 'the patriarch of monks,' became a hermit 
in his twentieth year, and lived alone in the Egyptian desert till his 
fifty-fifth year, when he founded his monastery of Phaim, where he 
died at the age of 105, having passed his life in perpetual prayer, and 
often tasting no food for three days at a time. In the desert Satan 
was permitted to assault him in a visible manner, to terrify him with 
dismal noises ; and once he so grievously beat him that he lay almost 
dead, covered with bruises and wounds. At other times the fiends attacked 
him with terrible clamours, and a variety of spectres, in hideous shapes 
of the most frightful wild beasts, which they assumed to dismay and 
terrify him ; till a ray of heavenly light breaking in upon him, chased 
them away, and caused him to cry out, ' Where wast thou, my Lord 
and Master ? Why wast thou not with me ? ' And a voice answered, 
' Anthony, I was here the whole time ; I stood by thee, and beheld 
thy combat : and because thou hast manfully withstood thy enemies I 
will always protect thee, and will render thy name famous throughout 
the earth.' " — Butler's Lives of the Saints. 

"Surely the imagery painted on the inner walls of Egyptian tombs, 
and probably believed by Anthony and his compeers to be connected 
with devil-worship, explains his visions. In the ' Words of the Elders' 
a monk complains of being troubled with 'pictures, old and new.' 
Probably, again, the pain which Anthony felt was the agony of a fever, 
and the visions which he saw its delirium." — A'ingsle/s Hermits. 


In the chapel of S. Antonio is a very ancient mosaic, 
representing a tiger tearing a bull. 

" Le tigre en mosaique conserve dans 1'eglise de St. Antoine, patron 
des animaux, est, selon toute apparence, le portrait d'un actcur re- 
nuiiirae." — Ampere, Hist. Bom. iv. 28. 

Hither, on the week following the feast of St. Anthony 
(January 17), horses, mules, and cows are brought to be 
blest as a preservative against accidents for the year to come. 
On the 23rd, the horses of the pope, Prince Borghese, and 
other Roman grandees (about 2\ p.m.) are sent for this 
purpose. All the animals are sprinkled with holy water by 
a priest, who receives a gift in proportion to the wealth of 
their master, and recites over each group the formula, — ■ 

" Per intercessionem beati Antonii Abbatis, hrec animalia liberantur 
a malis, in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen ! " 

" Les bergers romains faisaient la lustration de leurs taureaux ; ils 
purifiaient leurs brebis a la fete de Tales (pour ecarter d'eux toute in- 
fluence funeste), comme ils les font encore asperger d'eau benite a la 
fete de Saint Antoine." — Ampere, Hist. Bom. ii. 329.* 

" ' Long live St. Anthony,' writes Mabillon (in the 17th century) as 
he describes the horses, asses, and mules, all going on the saint's festival 
to be sprinkled with holy water, and receive the benediction of a 
reverend father. ' All would go to ruin, ' say the Romans, ' if this 
act of piety were omitted.' So nobody escapes paying toll on this 
occasion, not even Nostro Signore himself." — Stephens'' French Bene- 

" S. Antonio Abbate is the patron of the four-footed creation, and his 
feast is a saturnalia for the usually hard-worked beasts and for their at- 
tendants and drivers. Gentlefolks must be content on this day to stay 
at home or go on foot, for there are not wanting solemn talcs of how the 
unbelievers who had obliged their coachmen to drive out on this day 

* This pagan benediction of the animals is represented in a bas-relief in the 
Vatican (Museo Pio-Clementino, 157). A peasant bearing two ducks as his offering, 
brings his cow to be blessed by a priest at the door of a chapel, and the priest delaying 
to come forth, a calf drinks up the holy water. Ovid describes how he took part in 
the feast of Pales, and sprinkled the cattle with a laurel bough. [Fasti, iv. 72S.} 


have been punished by great misfortunes. The church of S. Antonio 
stands in a large piazza, usually looking like a desert ; but to-day it was 
enlivened by a varied throng : horses and mules, with tails and manes 
splendidly interlaced with ribbons, are brought to a small chapel stand- 
ing somewhat apart from the church, where a priest armed with a large 
asperge plentifully besprinkles the animals with the holy water which is 
placed before him in tubs and pails, sometimes apparently with a sly 
wish to excite them to gambols. Devout coachmen bring larger or 
smaller wax-tapers, and their masters, send alms and gifts, in order to 
secure to their valuable and useful animals a year's exemption from 
disease and accident. Horned cattle and donkeys, equally precious and 
serviceable to their owners, have their share in the blessing." — Goethe, 
Romische Briefe. 

"At the blessing of the animals, an adventure happened, which 
afforded us some amusement. A countryman, having got a blessing on 
his beast, putting his whole trust in its power, set off from the church 
door at a grand gallop, and had scarcely cleared a hundred yards before 
the ungainly animal tumbled down with him, and over its head he rolled 
into the dirt. He soon got up, however, and shook himself, and so 
did the horse, without either seeming to be much the worse. The 
priest seemed not a whit out of countenance at this ; and some of the 
standers-by exclaimed, with laudable steadfastness of faith, ' That but for 
the blessing, they might have broken their necks.' " — Eaton's Rome. 

" Un postilion Italien, qui voyait mourir son cheval, priait pour lui, 
et s'ecriait : O, Sant' Antonio, abbiate pieta dell' anima sua ! " — 
Madame de Stall. 

"The hog was the representative of the demon of sensuality and 
gluttony, which Anthony is supposed to have vanquished by the exer- 
cise of piety and by the divine aid. The ancient custom of placing in 
all his effigies a black pig at his feet, or under his feet, gave rise to the 
superstition, that this unclean animal was especially dedicated to him 
and under his protection. The monks of the Order of St. Anthony 
kept herds of consecrated pigs, which were allowed to feed at the public 
charge, and which it was a profanation to steal or kill ; hence the pro- 
verb about the fatness of a ' Tantony pig.'" — Jameson's Sacred Art, 
p. 750. 

We now enter the Piazza of Sta. Maria Maggiore, in front 
of which stands a beautiful Corinthian column, now called 
Colonna dclla Vcrgine. This is the last remaining column 
of the Basilica of Constantine, and is forty-seven feet high 


without its base and capital. It was brought hither by 
Paul V. in 1613. The figure of the Virgin on the top is by 

The Basilica of Sta. Maria Maggiore, frequently named 
from its founder the Liberia n Basilica, was founded a.d. 352, 
by Pope Liberius, and John,* a Roman patrician, to com- 
memorate a miraculous fall of snow, which covered this spot 
of ground and no other, on the 5th of August, when the Virgin 
appearing in a vision, showed them that she had thus appro- 
priated the site of a new temple. t This legend is comme- 
morated every year on the 5th of August, the festa of La 
Madonna della Neve, when, during a solemn high mass in the 
Borghese chapel, showers of white rose-leaves are thrown 
down constantly through two holes in the ceiling, " like a 
leafy mist between the priests and worshippers." 

This church, in spite of many alterations, is in some 
respects internally the most beautiful and harmonious build- 
ing in Rome, and retains much of the character which it 
received when rebuilt between 432 and 440, by Sixtus III., 
who dedicated it to Sta. Maria Mater Dei, and established 
it as one of the four patriarchal basilicas, whence it is pro- 
vided with the " porta santa," only opened by the pope, 
with great solemnity, four times in a century. 

The west front was added under Benedict XIV. (Lam- 
bertini) in 1741, by Ferdinando Fuga, destroying a portico 
of the time of Eugenius III., of which the only remnant is 
an architrave, inserted into which is an inscription, quoted 

* His flat tombstone is in the centre of the nave. 

t This story is the subject of two of Murillo's most beautiful pictures in the 
Academy at Madrid. The first represents the vision of the Virgin to John and his 
wife,— in the second they tell what they have seen to Pope Liberius. 

VOL. II. 6 


by its defenders in proof of the existence of Mariolatry 
in the twelfth century : — 

"Tertius Eugenius Romanus Papa benignus 

Obtulit hoc munus, Virgo Maria, tibi, 
Quce Mater Christi fieri merito meruisti, 

Salva perpetua Virginitate tibi. 
Es Via, Vita, Salus, totius Gloria Mundi, 

Da veniam culpis, Virginitatis Honos." 

In this portico is a statue of Philip IV. of Spain by 
Lucenti. In the upper story are preserved the mosaics 
which once decorated the old facade, some of them repre- 
senting the miracle which led to the foundation of the 

"To 1300 belong the mosaics on the upper part of the facade of 
Sta. Maria Maggiore (now inserted in the loggia), in which, in two 
rows, framed in architectural decorations, may be seen Christ in the 
act of benediction, and several saints above, and the legend of the 
founding of the church below — both well-arranged compositions. An 
inscription gives the name of the otherwise unknown master, ' Philippus 
Rusuti.' This work was formerly attributed to the Florentine mosaicist 
Gaddo Gaddi, who died 1312." — Kugler. 

Five doors, if we include the walled-up Porta Santa, lead 
into the magnificent nave (280 feet long, 60 broad), lined by 
an avenue of white marble columns, surmounted by a frieze 
of mosaic pictures from the Old Testament, of a.d. 440 — un- 
broken, except where six of the subjects have been cut away 
to make room for arches in front of the two great side 
chapels. The mosaics increase in splendour as they ap- 
proach the tribune, in front of which is a grand baldacchino 
by Fuga, erected by Benedict XIV., supported by four 
porphyry columns wreathed with gilt leaves, and surmounted 
by four marble angels by Pietro Bracci. The pavement is 
of the most glorious opus-alexandrinum, and its crimson 


and violet hues temper the white and gold on the walls. 
The flat roof (by Sangallo), panelled and carved, is gilt 
with the first gold brought to Spain from South Ame- 
rica, and presented to Alexander VI. by Ferdinand and 

" The mosaics above the chancel arch are valuable for the illustration 
of Christian doctrine : the throne of the Lamb as described in the 
Apocalypse, SS. Peter and Paul beside it (the earliest instance of 
their being thus represented) ; and the four symbols of the Evangelists 
above ; the Annunciation ; the Angel appearing to Zacharias ; the 
Massacre of the Innocents ; the Presentation in the Temple ; the 
Adoration of the Magi ; Herod receiving the head of St. John the 
Baptist ; and, below these groups, a flock of sheep, type of the faithful, 
issuing from the mystic cities, Bethlehem and Jerusalem. We see here 
one curious example of the nimbus, round the head of Herod, as a 
symbol of power, apart from sanctity. In certain details these mosaics 
have been altered, with a view to adapting them to modern devotional 
bias, in a manner that deserves reprobation; but Ciampini (Monumenta 
Vetera) shows us in engraving what the originals were before this 
alteration, effected under Benedict XIV. In the group of the Ador- 
ation the child alone occupied the throne, while opposite (in the original 
work) was seated, on another chair, an elderly person in a long blue 
mantle veiling the head — concluded by Ciampini to be the senior 
among the Magi; the two others, younger, and both in the usual 
Oriental dress, with trousers and Phrygian caps, being seen to approach 
at the same side, whilst the mother stood beside the throne of the 
child, — her figure recognisable from its resemblance to others in scenes 
where she appears in the same series. As this group is now before us, 
the erect figure is left out ; the seated one is converted into that of Mary, 
with a halo round the head, though in the original even such attribute 
(alike given to the Saviour and to all the angels introduced) is not 
assigned to her." — Hemans 1 Ancient Christian Art. 

The vault of the tribune is covered with mosaics by 
Jacopo da Turrita, the same who executed those at the 
Lateran basilica. 

" A general affinity with the style of Cimabue is observable in some 
mosaics executed by contemporary artists. Those in Sta. Maria 


Maggiore are inscribed with the name of Jacobus Torriti, and exe- 
cuted between 1287 and 1292. They are surpassed by no contem- 
porary work in dignity, grace, and decorative beauty of arrangement. 
In a blue, gold-starred circle is seen Christ enthroned with the Virgin ; 
on each side are adoring angels, kneeling and flying, on a gold 
ground, with St. Peter and St. Paul, the two St. Johns, St. Francis, 
and St. Anthony (the same in size and position as at St. J. Lateran), 
advancing devoutly along. The upper part is filled with graceful vine- 
branches, with symbolical animals among them. Below is Jordan, 
with small river gods, boats, and figures of men and animals. Further 
below are scenes from the life of Christ in animated arrangement. The 
group in the centre of the circle, of Christ enthroned with the Virgin, is 
especially fine: while the Saviour is placing the crown on His mother's 
head, she lifts up her hands with the expression both of admiration and 
of modest remonstrance.* The forms are very pure and noble; the 
execution careful, and very different from the Roman mosaics of the 
twelfth century." — Kugler, 

In front of and beneath the high altar Pius IX. has 
lately been preparing his own monument, by constructing a 
splendid chamber approached by staircases, and lined with 
the most precious alabaster and marbles. 

On the right of the western entrance is the tomb of the 
Rospigliosi pope, Clement IX. (1667 — 69), the work of 
Ercole Ferrata, a pupil of Bernini. His body rests before 
the high altar, surrounded by a number of the members of 
his family. Left of the entrance is the tomb of Nicholas IV., 
Masci (1288 — 92), erected to his memory three hundred 
years after his death by Sixtus V. while still a cardinal. He 
is represented giving benediction, between two allegorical 
figures of Justice and Religion, — a fine work of Leonardo da 

* This mosaic will bring to mind the beautiful lines of Dante : — 
" L' amor chc mosse gia I" eterno padre 
Pel figlia aver di sua Dcita trina 
Costei che fu del figlio suo poi madre 
Dell" universo qui fa la regina." 


"It is well to know that this pope, a mere upstart from the dust, 
sought to support himself through the mighty family of Colonna, by 
raising them too high. His friend, the Cardinal Giacomo Colonna, 
contributed with him to the renewal of the mosaics which are in the 
tribune of Sta. Maria Maggiore, and one can see their two figures 
there to this day. It was in this reign that Ptolemais, the last possession 
of the Christians in Asia, fell into the hands of the Mohammedans; 
thus ended the era of the Crusades." — Gregoravius. 

Behind this tomb, near the walled-up Porta Santa, is a 
good tomb of two bishops, brothers, of the fifteenth century, 
and in the same aisle are many other monuments of the 
sixteenth century, some of them fine in their way. 

Nearly on a line with the baldacchino is the entrance of 
the Borghese Chapel, built by Flaminio Ponzio for Paul V. 
in 1608, gorgeous with precious marbles and alabasters. 
Over its altar is preserved one of the pictures attributed to 
St. Luke (and announced to be such in a papal bull attached 
to the walls !), much revered from the belief that it stayed 
the plague which decimated the city during the reign of 
Pelagius II., and that (after its intercession had been sought 
by a procession by order of Innocent VIII.) it brought about 
the overthrow of the Moorish dominion in Spain. 

" On conserve a Sainte Marie Majeure line des images de la Madonne 
peintes par St. Luc, et plusieurs fois on a trouve les anges chantant les 
litanies autour de ce tableau." — Steiidal. 

The " Scheme of decorations in this gorgeous chapel is so remark- 
able, as testifying to the development which the theological idea of 
the Virgin, as the Sposa or personified Church, had attained in the 
time of Paul V. — the same pope who in 1615 promulgated the famous 
bull relative to the Immaculate Conception" — that the insertion of the 
whole passage of Mrs. Jameson on this subject will not be considered 
too much. 

"First, and elevated above all, we have the 'Madonna della 
Concezione,' 'Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception,' in a glory of 
light, sustained and surrounded by angels, having the crescent under 
her feet, according to the approved treatment. Beneath, round the 


dome, we read in conspicuous letters the text from the Revelation : — 


stellarum . duodecim. Lower down is a second inscription ex- 
pressing the dedication, mari/e . CHRIST} . matri . semper . virgini . 
PAULUS . QUINTUS . p.m. The decorations beneath the cornice consist 
of eighteen large frescoes, and six statues in marble, above life size. 
We have the subjects arranged in the following order : — 

" I. The four great prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, 
in their usual place in the four pendatives of the dome. 

"2. Two large frescoes. In the first the Vision of St. Gregory 
Thaumaturgus, and Heretics bitten by Serpents. In the second, St. 
John Damascene and S. Ildefonso miraculously rewarded for defending 
the majesty of the Virgin. 

"3. A large fresco, representing the four Doctors of the Church who 
had especially written in honour of the Virgin: viz., Irenreus and 
Cyprian, Ignatius and Theophilus, grouped two and two. 

"4. St. Luke, who painted the Virgin, and whose gospel contains 
the best account of her. 

"5. As spiritual conquerors in the name of the Virgin, St. Dominic 
and St. Francis, each attended by two companions of his Order. 

"6. As military conquerors in the name of the Virgin, the Emperor 
Heraclius, and Narses, the general against the Arians. 

"7. A group of three female figures, representing the three famous 
saintly princesses, who in marriage preserved their virginity, Pulcheria, 
Edeltruda (our famous Queen Ethelreda), and Cunegunda. 

"8. A group of three learned Bishops, who had especially defended 
the immaculate purity of the Virgin, St. Cyril, St. Anselm, and St. 
Denis (?). 

"9. The miserable ends of those who were opposed to the honour of 
the Virgin. I. The death of Julian the Apostate, very oddly repre- 
sented ; he lies on an altar, transfixed by an arrow, as a victim ; St. 
Mercurius in the air. 2. The death of Leo IV., who destroyed the 
effigies of the Virgin. 3. The death of Constantine IV., also a famous 

"The statues which arc placed in niches are — 

" 1 — 2. St. Joseph, as the nominal husband, and St. John the 
Evangelist, as the nominal son, of the Virgin; the latter, also, as 
prophet and poet, with reference to the passage in the Revelation, 
xii. i. 

"3 — 4. Aaron, as priestly ancestor (because his wand blossomed), 
and David, as kingly ancestor, of the Virgin. 


" 5 — 6. St. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was present at the death 
of the Virgin, and St. Bernard, who composed the famous ' Salve 
Regina' in her honour. 

"Such is this grand systematic scheme of decoration, which, to those 
who regard it cursorily, is merely a sumptuous confusion of colours and 
forms, or at best a 'fine example of the Guido school and Bernini.' It 
is altogether a very complete and magnificent specimen of the prevalent 
style of art, and a very comprehensive and suggestive expression of the 
prevalent tendency of thought in the Roman Catholic Church from 
the beginning of the seventeenth century. In no description of this 
chapel have I seen the names and subjects accurately given : the style of 
art belongs to the decadence, and the taste being worse than questionable, 
the prevailing doctrinal idea has been neglected, or never understood." — 
Legends of the Madonna, Ixxi. 

On the right is the tomb of Clement VIII. (1592 — 1605), 
the Florentine Ippolito Aldobrandini, the builder of the 
new palace of the Vatican, and the cruel torturer and 
executioner of the Cenci. He is represented in the act of 
benediction. The bas-reliefs on his monument comme- 
morate the principal events of his reign, — the conclusion of 
peace between France and Spain, and the taking of Ferrara, 
which he seized from the heirs of Alphonso II. 

On the left is the tomb of Paul V. (1605 — 1621), Camillo 
Borghese, — in whose reign St. Peter's was finished, as every 
traveller learns from the gigantic inscription over its portico, 
— who founded the great Borghese family, and left to his 
nephew, Cardinal Scipio Borghese, a fortune which enabled 
him to buy the Borghese Palace and to build the Borghese 

"It is a truly herculean figure, with a grandly developed head, 
while in his thick neck, pride, violence, and sensuality seem to be 
united. He is the first pope who wore the beard of a cavalier, 
like that of Henry IV., which recalls the Thirty-years' War, which he 
lived through; as far as the battle of the White Mountain. In this 
round, domineering, pride-swollen countenance, appears the violent, 


imperious spirit of Paul, which aimed at an absolute power. Who 
does not remember his famous quarrel with Venice, and the role which 
his far superior adversary Paolo Sarpi played with such invincible 
courage ? The bas-reliefs of his tomb represent the reception given by 
the pope to the envoys of Congo and Japan, the building of the 
citadel of Ferrara, the sending of auxiliary troops to Hungary to the 
assistance of Rudolph II., and the canonization of Sta. Francesca 
Romana and S. Carlo Borromeo." — Grcgorovius. 

The frescoes in the cupola are by Cigoli; those around 
the altar by the Cav. D'Arpino ; those above the tombs and 
on the arches by Guido, except the Madonna, which is 
by Lanfranco. The late beloved Princess Borghese, nee 
Lady Gwendoline Talbot, was buried in front of the altar, 
all Rome following her to the grave. 

The funeral of Princess Borghese proved the feeling with which 
she was regarded. Her body lay upon a car which was drawn by 
forty young Romans, and was followed by all the poor of Rome, the 
procession swelling like a river in every street and piazza it passed 
through, while from all the windows as it passed flowers were showered 
down. In funeral ceremonies of great personages at Rome an ancient 
custom is observed by which, when the body is lowered into the grave, 
a chamberlain, coming out to the church door, announces to the 
coachman, who is waiting with the family carriage, that his master 
or mistress has no longer need of his services ; and the coachman 
thereupon breaks his staff of office and drives mournfully away. 
When this formality was fulfilled at the funeral of Princess Borghese, 
the whole of the vast crowd waiting outside the basilica broke into 
tears and sobs, and kneeling by a common impulse, prayed aloud for the 
soul of their benefactress. 

The chapel has been lately the scene of a miraculous 
story, with reference to a visionary appearance of the Prin- 
cess Borghese, which has obtained great credit among the 
people, by whom she is already looked upon as a saint. 

The first chapel in the right aisle is that of the Patrizi 
family, and close by is the sepulchral stone of their noble 


ancestor, Giovanni Patricino, whose bones were found be- 
neath the high altar, and deposited here in 1700. A little 
further is the chapel of the Santa Croce, with ten porphyry 
columns. Then comes the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, built 
by Fontana for Sixtus V. while still Cardinal of Montalto. 
Gregory XIII., who was then on the throne, visited this 
gorgeous chapel when it was nearly completed, and imme- 
diately decided that one who could build such a splendid 
temple was sufficiently rich, and suppressed the cardinal's 
pension. Fontana advanced a thousand scudi for the com- 
pletion of the work, and had the delicacy never to allow the 
cardinal to imagine that he was indebted to him. The 
chapel, restored 1870, is adorned with statues by Giobattista 
Pozzo, Cesare Nebbia, and others. Under the altar is a 
presepio — one of the best works of Bernini, and opposite 
to it, in the confession, a beautiful statue of S. Gaetano 
(founder of the Theatines, who died 1547*), with two 
little children. On the right is the splendid tomb of 
Pius V., Michaele Ghislieri (1566 — 72), the barefooted, bare- 
headed Dominican monk of Sta. Sabina, who in his short 
six years' reign beheld amongst other events the victory of 
Lepanto, the fall of the Huguenots in France, and the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew, events which were celebrated at 
Rome with fetes and thanksgivings. The figure of the pope, 
a monk wasted to a skeleton (by Leonardo de Sarzana), sits 
in the central niche, between statues of St. Dominic and St. 
Peter Martyr. A number of bas-reliefs by different s-culptors 
represent the events of his life. Some are by the Flemish 
artists Nicolas d' Arras and Egidius. 

On the left, is the tomb of Sixtus V. (1585 — 90), Felice 

* See Sta. Dorothea, ch. xvii. 


Perretti, who as a boy kept his father's pigs at Montalto ; 
who as a young man was a Franciscan monk preaching in 
the Apostoli, and attracting crowds by his eloquence ; and 
who then rose to be bishop of Fermo, soon after to be 
cardinal, and was lastly raised to the papal throne, which 
he occupied only five years, a time which sufficed for the 
prince of the Church who loved building the most, to renew 
Rome entirely. 

"If anything can still the spectator to silence, and awaken him to 
great recollections, it is the monument of this astonishing man, who, 
as child, herded swine, and as an old man commanded people and 
kings, and who filled Rome with so many works, that from every side 
his name, like an echo, rings in the traveller's ear. We never cease to 
be amazed at the wonderful luck which raised Napoleon from the dust 
to the throne of the world, as if it were a romance or a fairy story. 
But if in the history of kings these astonishing changes are extra- 
ordinary accidents, they seem quite natural in the history of the popes, 
they belong to the very essence of Christendom, which does not 
appeal to the person, but to the spirit ; and while the one history is full 
of ordinary men, who, without the prerogative of their crown, would 
have sunk into eternal oblivion, the other is rich in great men, who, 
placed in a different sphere, would have been equally worthy of re- 
nown. " — Gregorovius. 

In a little chapel on the left of the entrance of this — which 
is as it were a transept of the church— is a fine picture of St. 
Jerome by Spagnuoletto, and in the chapel opposite a sar- 
cophagus of two early Christian consuls, richly wrought in 
the Roman imperial style, but with Christian subjects, — 
Daniel in the den of lions, Zaccheus in the sycamore-tree, 
Martha at the raising of Lazarus, &c. 

At the east end of the right aisle, near the door, is per- 
haps the finest gothic monument in Rome, — the tomb of 
Cardinal Gonsalvi, bishop of Albano, c. 1299. 

" A recumbent statue, in pontifical vestments, rests on a sarcophagus, 
and two angels draw aside curtains as if to show us the dead ; in the 


background is a mosaic of Mary enthroned, with the Child, the apostle 
Matthias, St. Jerome, and a smaller kneeling figure of Gonsalvi, in pon- 
tifical robes ; at the apex is a tabernacle with cusped arch, and below 
the epitaph ' Hoc opus fecit Joannes Magister Cosma; civis Romanus,' 
the artist's record of himself. In the hands of St. Matthias and St. 
Jerome are scrolls ; on that held by the apostle, the words, ' Me tenet ara 
prior' ; on St. Jerome's, ' Recubo presepis ad antrum', these epigraphs 
confirming the tradition that the bodies of St. Matthias and St. Jerome 
repose in this church, while indicating the sites of their tombs. Popular 
regards have distinguished this tomb ; no doubt in intended honour to 
the Blessed Virgin, lamps are kept ever burning, and vases of flowers 
ranged, before her mosaic image." — He/nans' Mediceval Christian Art. 

At the west end of the right aisle is the entrance of the 
Baptistery, which has a vast porphyry vase as a font. Hence 
we reach the Sacristy, in the inner chamber of which are 
some exceedingly beautiful bas-reliefs by Mino da Fiesole. 

One of the greatest of the Christmas ceremonies is the 
procession at 5 a.m., in honour of the great relic of the 
church — the Santa Culla — i.e., the cradle in which our 
Saviour was carried into Egypt, not, as is frequently ima- 
gined, the manger, which is allowed to have been of stone, 
and of which a single stone only is supposed to have found 
its way to Rome, and to be preserved in the altar of the 
Blessed Sacrament. The " Santa Culla " is preserved in a 
magnificent reliquary, six feet high, adorned with bas-reliefs 
and statuettes in silver. On the afternoon of Christmas eve 
the public can visit the relic at an altar in a little chapel near 
the sacristy. On the afternoon of Christmas Day it is also 
exposed, but upon the high altar, where it is less easily seen. 

" Le Seigneur Jesus a voulu naitre dans line etable ; mais les hommes 
ont apporte precieusement le petit berceau qui a regu le salut du monde, 
dans la reine des cites, et ils l'ont enchasse dans l'or. 

" C'est bien ici que nous devons accourir avec joie et redire ce chant 
triomphant de l'Eglise : Adeste, fideles, Iceti triumphantes ; venite, venite 
in Bct/tteem." — Unc Chretiennc a Rome. 


Among the many other relics preserved here are two little 
bags of the brains of St. Thomas a Becket. 

It was in this church that Pope St. Martin I. was cele- 
brating mass in the seventh century, when a guard sent by 
the Exarch Olympius appeared on the threshold with orders 
to seize and put him to death. At the sight of the pontiff 
the soldier was stricken with blindness, a miracle which led 
to the conversion of Olympius and many other persons. 

Platina, the historian of the popes, was buried here, with 
the epitaph : " Quisquis es, si pius, Platynam et sua ne 
vexes, anguste jacent et soli volunt esse." 

Sta. Maria Maggiore was the scene of the seizure of 
Hildebrand by Cencius : 

" On Christmas Eve, 1075, the city of Rome was visited by a dreadful 
tempest. Darkness brooded over the land, and the trembling spectators 
believed that the day of final judgment was about to dawn. In this war 
of the elements, however, two processions were seen advancing to the 
Church of Sta. Maria Maggiore. At the head of one was the aged Hil- 
debrand, conducting a few priests to worship at the shrine of the Virgo 
Deipara. The other was preceded by Cencius, a Roman noble. At 
each pause in the tempest might be heard the hallelujahs of the wor- 
shippers, or the voice of the pontiff, pouring out benedictions on the 
little flock which knelt before him — when Cencius grasped his person, 
and some yet more daring ruffian inflicted a wound on his forehead. 
Bound with cords, stripped of his sacred vestments, beaten, and sub- 
jected to the basest indignities, the venerable minister of Christ was 
carried to a fortified mansion within the walls of the city, again to be 
removed at daybreak to exile or death. Women were there, with 
women's sympathy and kindly offices, but they were rudely put aside ; 
and a drawn sword was already aimed at the pontiff's bosom, when the 
cries of a fierce multitude, threatening to burn or batter down the 
house, arrested the aim of the assassin. An arrow, discharged from 
below, reached and slew him. The walls rocked beneath the strokes 
of the maddened populace, and Cencius, falling at his prisoner's feet, 

became himself a suppliant for pardon and for life In 

profound silence, and with undisturbed serenity, Hildebrand had thus 
far submitted to these atrocious indignities. The occasional raising of 


his eyes towards heaven alone indicated his consciousness of them. 
But to the supplication of his prostrate enemy he returned an instant 
and a calm assurance of forgiveness. He rescued Cencius from the ex- 
asperated besiegers, dismissed him in safety and in peace, and returned, 
amidst the acclamations of the whole Roman people, to complete the 
interrupted solemnities of Sta. Maria Maggiore." — Stephens' Lectures on 
Juries. Hist. 

Leaving the church by the door behind the tribune, we 
find ourselves at the top of the steep slope of the Esquiline 
and in front of an Obelisk erected here by Fontana for 
Sixtus V.,- — brought from Egypt by Claudius, and one of 
two which were used to guard the entrance to the mauso- 
leum of Augustus. The inscriptions on three of its sides 
are worth notice : — " Christi Dei in sternum viventis 
cunabula laetissime colo, qui mortui sepulchre Augusti 
tristis serviebam." — " Quern Augustus de vergine nasci- 
turum vivens adoravit, sed deinceps dominum dici noluit, 
adoro." — " Christus per invictam crucem populo pacem 
prasbeat, qui Augusti pace in prresepe nasci voluit." 



Via S. Giovanni — The Obelisk and Baptistery — Basilica and Cloisters — 
Mosaic of the Triclinium — Santa Scala — Palace of the Lateran — 
Villa Massimo Arsole — SS. Pietro e Marcellino — Villa Wol- 
konski — (Porta Furba — Tombs of the Via Latina — Basilica of S. 
Stefano) — Santa Croce in Gerusalemme — AmphitheatrumCastrense 
- — Porta Maggiore — (Tomb of Sta. Helena — Torre dei Schiavi — 
Cervaletto — Cerbara) — Porta and Basilica of S. Lorenzo — Catacomb 
of S. Hippolytus. 

"DEHIND the Coliseum the Via S. Giovanni ascends 
the slope of the Esquiline. In mediaeval times this 
road was always avoided by the popes, on account (as 
most authorities state) of the scandal attaching to the 
more than doubtful legend of Joan, the famous papessa, 
who is said to have horrified her attendants by giving 
birth to a child on this spot, during a procession from 
the Lateran, and to have died of shame and terror 
immediately afterwards. Joan is stated to have been 
educated at Athens, to have skilfully obtained her elec- 
tion to the papal throne, disguised as a man, between the 
reign of Leo IV. and that of Benedict III. (855), and to 
have taken the name of John VIII. In the cathedral of 
Siena the heads of all the popes in tcrra-cotta (down to 


Alexander III.) decorate the frieze above the arches of 
the nave, and among them was that of Pope Joan, 
inscribed "Johannes VIII. Femina de Anglia," till 1600, 
■when it was changed into a head of Pope Zacharias by 
the Grand Duke, at the request of Pope Clement VIII. 

On the left of this street is S. Clemente (described 
Ch. VII.). On the right, a long wail flooded by a cascade 
of Banksia roses in spring, and a villa inlaid with terra-cotta 
ornaments, are those of the favourite residence of the 
well-known Marchese Campana, the learned archaeologist 
of Etruria, and the chief benefactor of the Etruscan 
museum at the Vatican, cruelly imprisoned and exiled by 
the papal government in 1858, upon an accusation of 
having tampered with the revenues of Monte di Pieta. 

Beyond the turn of the road leading to S. Stefano Rotondo 
(Ch. VII.), bas-reliefs of Our Saviour's Head (from the 
Acheirotopeton in the Sancta Sanctorum) between two can- 
delabra — upon the different buildings, announce the property 
of the Lateran chapter. 

The Piazza di San Giovanni is surrounded by a 
remarkable group of buildings. In front are the Bap- 
tistery and Basilica of the Lateran. On the right is a 
Hospital for women, capable of containing 600 patients ; 
on the left, beyond the modern palace, are seen the build- 
ings which enclose the Santa Scala, and some broken arches 
of the Aqua Marcia. In the centre of the piazza is the 
Obelisk of the Lateran, 150 feet high, the oldest object in 
Rome, being referred by translators of hieroglyphics to the 
year 1740 B.C., when it was raised in memory of the Pharaoh 
Thothmes IV. It was brought, from the temple of the Sun 
at Heliopolis, to Alexandria by Constantine, and removed 


thence by his son Constantius to Rome, where it was used, 
together with the obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo, 
to ornament the Circus Maximus. Hence it was moved to 
its present site in 1588, by Fontana, for Sixtus V. The 
obelisk was then broken into three pieces, and in order to 
piece them together, some part had to be cut off, but it is 
still the tallest in the city. One of the inscriptions on the 
basement is false, as it narrates that Constantine received at 
the Lateran the baptism which he did not receive till he 
was dying at Nicomedia. 

An octagon building of mean and miserable exterior is 
that of the Baptistery of the Lateran, sometimes called S. 
Giovanni in Fonte, built, not by Constantine, to whom it is 
falsely ascribed, but by Sixtus III. (430 — 40). Of his time 
are the two porphyry columns at the entrance on the side 
nearest the church, and the eight which form a colonnade 
round the interior, supporting a cornice from which rise 
the eight small columns of white marble, which sustain the 
dome. In the centre is the font of green basalt in which 
Rienzi bathed on the night of August 1, 1347, before his 
public appearance as a knight, when he summoned Cle- 
ment VI. and other sovereigns of Europe to appear before 
him for judgment. The cupola is decorated with scenes 
from the life of John the Baptist by Andrea Sacchi. On 
the walls are frescoes pourtraying the life of Constantine 
by Gimignano, Carlo Maratta, and Andrea Camassei. 

On the right is the Chapel of St. yohn the Baptist, built by 
Pope Hilary (461 — 67). Between two serpentine columns is 
a figure of St. John Baptist by L. Valadieo after Donatello. 

On the left is the Chapel of St. yohn the Evangelist, also 
built by Hilary, who presented its bronze doors (said to have 


once belonged to the Baths of Caracalla) in remembrance 
of his delivery from the fury of fanatical monks at the 
Second Council of Ephesus, where he appeared as the 
legate of Leo I., — a fact commemorated by the inscription : 
" Liberatori suo B. Joanni Evangelist® Hilarius Episcopus 
famulus Christi." The vault is covered with mosaics repre- 
senting the Spotless Lamb in Paradise. Here is a statue of 
St. John by Landini. 

Close by is the entrance to the Oratory of S. Venanzio* 
built in 640 by John IV., and dedicated to St. Venantius, 
from a filial feeling to his father, who bore the same name. 
Nothing, however, remains of this time but the mosaics. 
Those in the apse represent the Saviour in the act of bene- 
diction with angels, and below him the Virgin (an aged 
woman) in adoration/!" with St. Peter and St. John Baptist, 
St. Paul and St. John the Evangelist, St. Venantius and St. 
Domnus — and another figure unnamed, probably John IV., 
holding the model of a church. Outside the chancel arch 
are eight saints, with their names (Palmianus, Julius, Aste- 
rius, Anastasius, Maurus, Septimius, Antiochianus, Cajanus), 
the symbols of the evangelists, and the cities Bethlehem 
and Jerusalem ; also the verses : — 

" Martyribus Christi Domini pia vota Johannes 
Reddidit antistes sanctificante Deo. 
Ac sacri fontis simile fulgente metallo, 
Providus instanter hoc copulavit opus : 
Quo quisque gradiens et Christum pronus adorans, 
Effusasque preces impetrat ille suas." 

* St. Venantius was a child martyred at Camerino, under Decius, in 250. Pope 
Clement X., who had been bishop of Camerino, had a peculiai veneration for this 

t This figure of the Virgin is of great interest, as introducing the Greek classical 
type under which she is so often afterwards represented in Latin art. 

VOL. II. 7 


The next chapel, called the Capetta Borgia, and used as 
the burial-place of that family, was once an open portico, 
but this character was destroyed by the building up of the 
intercolumniations. On its facade are a number of frag- 
ments of ancient friezes, &c. Over the inner door is a 
bas-relief of the Crucifixion, of 1494. 

The piteous modernization of this ancient group of 
chapels is chiefly due to the folly of Urban VIII. The 
baptistery is used on Easter Eve for the ceremony of adult 
baptism, the recipients being called Jews. 

The Lateran derives its name from a rich patrician family, 
whose estates were confiscated by Nero, when their head, 
Plautius Lateranus, was put to death for taking part in the 
conspiracy of Piso.* It afterwards became an imperial 
residence, and a portion of it being given by Maximianus to 
his daughter Fausta, second wife of Constantine, received 
the name of " Domus Faustse." It was this which was 
given by Constantine to Pope Melchiades in 312, — a 
donation which was confirmed to St. Sylvester, in whose 
reign the first basilica was built here, and consecrated on 
November 9, 324, Constantine having laboured with his 
own hands at the work. • This basilica was overthrown by 
an earthquake in 896, but was rebuilt by Sergius III. 
(904 — n), being then dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
This second basilica, whose glories are alluded to by 

Dante, — 

" Quando Laterano 

Allc cose mortale andd di sopra." 

Paradiso, xxxi. 

* It was near the Lateran, on the site of the gardens of Plautius Lateranus, that 
the famous statues of the Niobedes attributed to Sropus, now at Florence, were 
found. The line tomb of the Plaiitii is a striking object on the road to Tivoli. 


was of the greatest interest, but was almost entirely 
destroyed by fire in 1308. It was rebuilt, only to be 
again burnt down in 1360, when it remained for four years 
in utter ruin, in which state it was seen and mourned over 
by Petrarch. The fourth restoration of the basilica was due 
to Urban V. (1362 — 70), but it has since undergone a series 
of mutilations and modernizations, which have deplorably 
injured it. The west front still retains the inscription 
" Sacrosancta Lateranensis ecclesia, Omnium urbis et orbis 
Ecclesiarum Mater et Caput ; " the Chapter of the Lateran 
still takes precedence even over that of St. Peter's \ and 
every newly elected pope comes hither for his coronation, 

"St. J. Lateran est regarde comme le siege du patriarchat romain. 
A St. Pierre le pape est souverain pontife. A St. J. Lateran il est 
eveque de Rome. Quand le pape est elu, il vient a St. J. Lateran 
prendre possession de son siege comme eVeque de Rome." — A. Du Pays. 

The west end of the basilica is in part a remnant of the 
building of the tenth century, and has two quaint towers 
(rebuilt by Sixtus IV.) at the end of the transept, and a 
rich frieze of terra-cotta. The church is entered from the 
transept by a portico, ending in a gloomy chapel which 
contains a statue of Henry IV., by Niccolo Cordieri. The 
transept — rich in colour from its basement of varied marbles, 
and its upper frescoes of the legendary history of Constan- 
tine — is by far the finest part of the basilica, which, as a 
whole, is infinitely inferior to Sta. Maria Maggiore. The 
nave, consisting of five aisles, is of grand proportions, but 
has been hideously modernized under Borromini, who has 
enclosed all its ancient columns, except two near the tribune, 
in tawdry plaster piers, in front of which are huge statues of 
the apostles ; the roof is gilt and gaudy, the tabernacle ugly 


and ill-proportioned, — only the ancient pavement of opus- 
alexandrinum is fine. Confessionals for different languages 
are placed here as in St. Peter's. The Tabernacle was erected 
by Urban V. in the fourteenth century. Four granite 
columns support a gothic canopy, decorated at its angles 
with canopied statuettes. Between these, on either side, are 
three much restored frescoes by Bemi da Siena, those in 
central panels representing the Annunciation, the Cruci- 
fixion, the Coronation of the Virgin, and the Saviour as a 
shepherd (very beautifully treated) feeding his flock with 
corn. The skulls of SS. Peter and Paul are said to be 
preserved here. The altar encloses the greater part of the 
famous wooden table, saved at great risk of life from the 
conflagration of 1308, upon which St. Peter is supposed to 
have celebrated mass in the house of Pudens.* The steps 
of the altar (at the top of which the pope is installed) have 
an allegorical enamelled border with emblems of an asp, a 
dragon, a lion, and basilisk, in allusion to Psalm xci. 

In the confession, in front of the altar, is the bronze 
tomb of Martin V., Oddone Colonna (141 7 — 24), the wise 
and just pope who was elected at the Council of Constance 
to put an end to the schism which had long divided the 
papacy, and which had almost reduced the capital of the 
Church to ruins. A bronze slab bears his figure, in 
low-relief, and is a fine work of Antonio Filarete, author of 
the bronze doors at St. Peter's. It bears the appropriate 
surname which was given to this justly-loved pope — ■ 
" Temporum suorum felicitas." 

The tribune is of the time of Nicholas IV. (1287 — 1292). 
Above the arch is a grand mosaic head of the Saviour, 

* See Sta. Pudenziana, ch. x. 


attributed to the time of Constantine, and evidently of the 
fourth century, — of great interest on this spot, as comme- 
morating the vision of the Redeemer, who is said to have 
appeared here on the day of the consecration of the church 
by Sylvester and Constantine, looking dcwn upon the 
people, and solemnly hallowing the work with his visible 
presence. The head, which is grand and sad in expression, 
is surrounded by six-winged seraphim. Below is an 
ornamented cross, above which hovers a dove — from whose 
beak, running down the cross, flow the waters which supply 
the four rivers of Paradise. The disciples, as harts 
(panting for the water-brooks) and sheep, flock to drink of 
the waters of life. In the distance is the New Jerusalem, 
within which the Phoenix, the bird of eternity, is seated 
upon the tree of Life, guarded by an angel with a two-edged 
sword. Beside the cross stand, on the left, the Virgin with 
her hand resting on the head of the kneeling pope, 
Nicholas IV. ; St. Peter with a scroll inscribed, " Tu es 
Christus filius Dei vivi ; " St. Paul with a scroll inscribed, 
" Salvatorem expectamus Dominum Jesum." On the right 
St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. Andrew 
(all with their names). Between the first and second of 
these figures are others, on a smaller scale, of St. Francis and 
St. Anthony of Padua. All these persons are represented 
as walking in a flowery Paradise, in which the souls of the 
blessed are besporting, and in front of which flows the 
Jordan. Below, between the windows, are figures of 
prophets, and (very small) of two Franciscans, who were 
the artists of the lower portion of the mosaic, as is shown 
by the inscriptions, "Jacobus Turriti, pictor, hoc opus fecit;" 
■ — " Fra Jacobus de Camerino socius magistri." 


Behind the tribune, is all that remains internally of the 
architecture of the tenth century, in the vaulted passage 
called " Portico Leonino," from its founder, Leo I. It is 
supported on low marble and granite columns with Ionic 
and Corinthian capitals. Here are collected a variety of 
relics of the ancient basilica. On either side of the 
entrance are mosaic tablets, which relate to the building of 
the church. Then, on the right, is a curious kneeling 
statue of Pope Nicholas IV., Masci (1287 — 92). On the 
left, in the centre, is an altar, above which is an ancient 
crucifix, and on either side tenth century statues of SS. Peter 
and Paul. 

On the right is the entrance to the sacristy (whose inner 
bronze doors date from 1196), which contains an Annun- 
ciation by Sebastian del Piombo, and a sketch by Raphael 
for the Madonna, called " Delia Casa d'Alba," now at 
St. Petersburg ; also an ancient bas-relief, which represents 
the old and humble basilica of Pope Sergius. On the 
left, at the end of the passage, is a very handsome 
cinquecento ciborium, and near it the " Tabula Magna 
Lateranensis," containing the list of relics belonging to 
the church. 

Near this, opening from the transept, is the Capella del 
Coro, with handsome wooden stallwork. It contains a 
portrait of Martin V., by Scipionc Gactani. 

The altar of the Sacrament, which closes the transept, 
has four fluted bronze columns, said to have been brought 
from Jerusalem by Titus, and to be hollow and filled with 
earth from Palestine.* The last chapel in the left aisle is 

* These: columns are mentioned in the thirteenth century list of Lateran relics. 
wlii' h says that nil the relics of the Temple at Jerusalem brought by Titus, were 
preserved at the Lateran. 


the Corsini Chapel, erected in 1729 in honour of St. Andrea 
Corsini, from designs of Alessandro Galilei. It is in the 
form of a Greek cross, and ranks next to the Borghese 
Chapel in the richness of its marble decoration. The 
mosaic altar-piece, representing S. Andrea Corsini, is a copy 
from Guido. The founder of the chapel, Clement XII., 
Lorenzo Corsini (1730 — 40), is buried in a splendid por- 
phyry sarcophagus which he plundered from the Pantheon. 
Above it is a bronze statue of the pope.* Opposite is 
the tomb of Cardinal Neri Corsini, with a number of statues 
of the Bernini school. 

Beneath the chapel is a vault lined with sarcophagi of the 
Corsini. Its altar is surmounted by a magnificent Pieta — 
in whose beautiful and impressive figures it is difficult to 
recognise a work of the usually coarse and theatrical artist 

Of the many tombs of mediaeval popes which formerly existed in 
this basilica, t none remain, except the memorial slab and epitaph of 
Sylvester II., Gerbert (999 — 1003). This pope is said (by the chronicler 
Martin Polonus de Corenza) to have been a kind of magician, who 
obtained first the archbishopric of Rheims, then that of Ravenna, and 
then the papacy, by the aid of the devil, to whom, in return, he promised 
to belong after death. When he ascended the throne, he asked the 
devil how long he could reign, and the devil, as is his custom, answered 
by a double-entendre, " If you never enter Jerusalem, you will reign a 
long time." He occupied the throne for four years, one month, and ten 
days, when, one day, as he was officiating in the basilica of Sta. Croce 
in Genisalemme, he saw that he had passed the fatal threshold, and that 
his death was impending. Overwhelmed with repentance, he confessed 

* There is a curious mosaic portrait of Clement XII. in the Palazzo Corsini. 

t Sergius III. ob. 911; Agapetus II. ob. 956; John XII. ob. 964 ; Sylvester II. 
ob. 1003; John XVIII. ob. 1009 ; Alexander II. ob. 1073; Pascal II. ob. 1118; 
Calixtus II. ob. 1124; Honorius II. ob. 1140; Celestine II. ob. 1143 ; Lucius II. 
ob. 1145 ; Anastasius IV. ob. 1154; Alexander III. ob. 1159; Clement III. ob. 1191 ; 
Celestine III. ob. 1198 ; Innocent V. ob. 1276— were buried at St. John Later an, 
besides those later popes whose tombs still exist. 


his backslidings before the people, and exhorted them to lay aside pride, 
to resist the temptations of the devil, and to lead a good life. After 
this he begged of his attendants to cut his body in pieces after he was 
dead, as he deserved, and to place it on a common cart, and bury it 
wherever the horses stopped of their own accord. Then was manifested 
the will of the Divine Providence, that repentant sinners should learn 
that their God preserves for them a place of pardon even in this life, — 
for the horses went of their own accord to St. John Lateran, where he 
was buried. "Since then," says Platina, " the rattling of his bones, and 
the sweat, or rather the damp, with which his tomb becomes covered, 
has always been the infallible sign and forerunner of the death of a 
pope"' ! 

Against the second pillar of the right aisle, counting from 
the west door, is a very interesting fresco of Giotto, ori- 
ginally one of many paintings executed by him for the 
loggia of the adjoining papal palace, whence the benedic- 
tion and "plenary indulgence" were given in the jubilee 
year. It represents Boniface VIII. (Benedetto Gaetani, 
1294 — 1303), the founder of the jubilee, between two 

"On y voit Boniface annoncant au peuple le jubile. Le portrait du 
pape doit etre ressemblant. J'ai reconnu dans cette physiognomie, oil 
il y a plus de finesse que de force, la statue que j'avais vue couchee sur le 
tombeau de ce pape, dans les souterrains du Vatican." — Ampere, Voyage 

Opening from this aisle are several chapels. The second 
is that of the newly established and rich family of Torlonia, 
which contains a marble Pieta, by Tenerani, and some 
handsome modern monuments. The third is that of the 
Massimi (designed by Giacomo della Porta), which has, as 
an altar-piece, the Crucifixion by Scrmoiicta. Beyond this, 
in the right aisle, arc several remarkable tombs of cardinals, 
among which is the tomb of Cardinal Guissano, who died 


in 1287. The painters Cav. d'Arpino and Andrea Sacchi 
are buried in this church. 

Entered from the last chapel in the left aisle (by a door 
which the sacristan will open) is the beautiful twelfth century 
Cloister of the Monastery, surrounded by low arches sup- 
ported on exquisite inlaid and twisted columns, above which 
is a lovely frieze of coloured marbles. The court thus en- 
closed is a garden of roses ; in the centre is a well (adorned 
with crosses) of the tenth century, called the " Well of the 
Woman of Samaria." In the cloister is a collection of 
architectural and traditional relics, including a beautiful old 
white marble throne, inlaid with mosaics, a candelabrum 
resting on a lion, and several other exquisitely wrought 
details from the old basilica; also a porphyry slab upon 
which the soldiers are said to have cast lots for the seamless 
robe ; columns which were rent by the earthquake of the 
Crucifixion ; a slab, resting on pillars, shown as a measure of 
the height of Our Saviour,* and a smaller slab, also on pillars, 
of which it is said that it was once an altar, at which the 
officiating priest doubted of the Real Presence, when the 
wafer fell from his hand through the stone, leaving a round 
hole which still remains. 

Five General Councils have been held at the Lateran, 
viz. : — 

I. — March 19, 1123, under Calixtus II., with regard to the In- 
II. — April 18, 1 139, under Innocent II., to condemn the doctrines 
of Arnold of Brescia and Peter de Bruys, and to oppose the 
antipope Anacletus II. 
III. — March 5, 1 179, under Alexander III., to condemn the doc- 

* "Ces monuments, consacres par la tradition, n'ont pas etc jugus cependant asscz 
authenticities pour Ctre solennellement exposes i la veneration des fiddles." — 


trines of Waldenses and Albigenses, and to end the schism 
caused by Frederick Barbarossa. 
IV. — Nov. II, 1215, at which 400 bishops assembled under 
Innocent III., to condemn the Albigenses, and the heresies 
of the Abbot Joachim. 
V. — May 3, 15 12, under Julius II. and Leo X., at which the 
Pragmatic Sanction was abolished, and a Concordat con- 
cluded between the Pope and Francis I. for the destruction 
of the liberties of the Gallican Church. 

It is in the basilica of the Lateran that the Church places 
the first meeting between St. Francis and St. Dominic. 

" Une nuit, pendant que Dominique dormait, il lui sembla voir 
Jesus-Christ se preparant a exterminer les superbes, les voluptueux, les 
avares, lorsque tout-a-coup la Vierge l'apaisa en lui presentant deux 
homines: l'un d'eux lui-meme ; quant a l'autre, il ne le connaissait 
pas ; mais le lendemain, la premiere personne qu'il apercut, en entrant 
au Latran, fut l'inconnu qui lui etait apparu en songe. II etait couvert 
de haillons et priait avec ferveur. Dominique se precipita dons ses bras, 
et l'embrassant avec effusion : ' Tu es mon compagnon,' lui dit-il ; ' nous 
courons la meme carriere, demeurons ensemble, et aucun ennemi ne 
prevaudra contre nous.' Et, a partir de ce moment, dit la legende, ils 
n'eurent plus qu'un cceur et qu'une ame dans le Seigneur. Ce pauvre, ce 
mendiant, etait saint Francois d'Assise." — Gournerie, Rome Chrctiaiiie 

Issuing from the west door of the basilica, we find 
ourselves in a wide portico, one of whose five doors is 
a Porta Santa. At the end, is appropriately placed an 
ancient marble statue of Constantine, who is in the dress 
of a Roman warrior, bearing the labarum, or standard of 
the cross, which is here represented as a lance surmounted 
by the monogram of Christ. From this portico we look 
down upon one of the most beautiful and characteristic 
views in Rome. On one side are the Alban Hills, blue in 
morning, or purple in evening light, sprinkled with white 
villages of historic interest — -Albano, Rocca di Papa, 
Marino, Frescati, Colonna ; on the other side are the 


Sabine Mountains, tipped with snow ; in the middle dis- 
tance the long, golden-hued lines of aqueducts stretch 
away over the plain, till they are lost in the pink haze, 
and nearer still are the desolate basilica of Santa Croce, 
the fruit gardens of the Villa Wolkonski, interspersed with 
rugged fragments of massive brickwork, and the glorious 
old walls of the city itself. The road at our feet is the Via 
Appia Nuova, which leads to Naples, and which imme- 
diately passes through the modern gate of Rome, known as 
the Porta San Giovanni (built in the sixteenth century by 
Gregory XIII.). Nearer to us, on the right, is an ancient 
gateway, the finest on the Aurelian wall, bricked up by 
Ladislaus, king of Naples, in 1408. By this gate, known as 
the Porta Asinaria, from the family of the Asinarii, Belisarius 
entered Rome in 505, and Totila, through the treachery of 
the Isaurian Guard, in 546. Here also, in 1084, Henry 
IV. entered Rome against Hildebrand with his anti-pope 
Guibert ; and, a few years after, the name of the gate itself 
was changed to Porta Perusta, in consequence of the injuries 
it received from Robert Guiscard, who came to the rescue 
of the lawful pontiff. 

The broad open space which we see beneath the steps 
was the favourite walk of the mediaeval popes. 

"The splendid palace of the Lateran reflected the rays of the evening 
sun, as Francis of Assisi with two or three of his disciples approached 
it to ohtain the papal sanction for the rules of his new Order. A group 
of churchmen in sumptuous apparel were traversing with slow and 
measured steps its lofty terrace, then called 'the Mirror,' as if afraid to 
overtake him who preceded them, in a dress studiously simple, and with 
a countenance wrapped in earnest meditation. Unruffled by passion, 
and yet elate with conscious power, that eagle eye, and those capacious 
brows, announced him the lord of a dominion which might have satis- 
fied the pride of Diogenes, and the ambition of Alexander. Since the 


Tugurium was built on the Capitoline, no greater monarch had ever 
called the seven hills his own. But, in his pontificate, no era had 
occurred more arduous than that in which Innocent III. saw the men- 
dicants of Assisi prostrate at his feet. The interruption was as un- 
welcome as it was abrupt ; as he gazed at the squalid dress and faces of 
his suitors, and observed their bare and unwashed feet, his lip curled 
with disdain, and sternly commanding them to withdraw, he seemed 
again to i-etire from the outer world into some of the deep recesses of 
that capacious mind. Francis and his companions betook themselves to 
prayer ; Innocent to his couch. There (says the legend) he dreamed 
that a palm-tree sprouted up from the ground beneath his feet, and, 
swiftly shooting up into the heavens, cast her boughs on every side, a 
shelter from the heat, and a refreshment to the weary. The vision of 
the night dictated the policy of the morning, and assured Innocent that, 
under his fostering care, the Franciscan palm would strike deep her 
roots, and expand her foliage on every side, in the vineyard of the 
Church."- — Stephens' St. Francis of Assisi. 

The western facade of the basilica, built by Alessandro 
Galilei in 1734, has a fine effect at a distance, but the 
statues of Christ and the apostles which line its parapet 
are too large for its proportions. 

The ancient Palace of the Lateran was the residence of the 
popes for nearly 1000 years. Almost all the events affect- 
ing the private lives of a vast line of ecclesiastical sovereigns 
happened within its walls. Plundered in each successive 
invasion, stricken with malaria during the autumn months, 
and often partially burnt, it was finally destroyed by the 
great enemy of Roman antiquities, Sixtus V. Among the 
scenes which occurred within its walls, perhaps the most 
terrible was that when John X., the completer of the Lateran 
basilica, was invaded here by Marozia, who was beginning 
to seize the chief power in Rome, and who carried the pope 
off prisoner to St. Angelo, after he had seen his brother 
Peter murdered before his eyes in the hall of the pontifical 


The only remnants preserved of this famous building are 
the private chapel of the popes, and the end wall of their 
dining-hall, known as the Triclinium, which contains a copy, 
erected by Benedict XIV., of the ancient mosaic of the 
time of Leo III. which formerly existed here, and the 
remains of which are preserved in the Vatican. 

"In this mosaic, Hallam (Middle Ages) sees proof that the author- 
ity of the Greek Emperor was not entirely abrogated at Rome till long 
after the period of papal aggrandisement by Pepin and his son, but 
he is warranted by no probabilities in concluding that Constantine V., 
whose reign began A.n. 7S0, is intended by the emperor kneeling with 
St. Peter or Pope Sylvester." — He/nans' Ancient Christian Art. 

Professor Bryce finds two paintings in which the theory 
of the mediaeval empire is unmistakeably set forth ; one of 
them in Rome, the other in Florence (a fresco in the 
chapter-house of S. M. Novella). 

"The first of these is the famous mosaic of the Lateran triclinium, 
constructed by Pope Leo III., about A. D. 8oo, and an exact copy of 
which, made by the order of Sixtus V., may still be seen over against 
the facade of St. John Lateran. Originally meant to adorn the state 
banqueting-hall of the popes, it is now placed in the open air, in the 
finest situation in Rome, looking from the brow of a hill across the 
green ridges of the Campagna to the olive groves of Tivoli and the 
glistering crags and snow-capped summits of the Umbrian and Sabine 
Apennine. It represents in the centre Christ surrounded by the apo- 
stles, whom He is sending forth to preach the gospel; one hand is 
extended to bless, the other holds a book with the words ' Pax vobis.' 
Below and to the right Christ is depicted again, and this time sitting: on 
His right hand kneels Pope Sylvester, on His left the Emperor Constan- 
tine ; to the one He gives the keys of heaven and hell, to the other a 
banner surmounted by a cross. In the group on the opposite, that is, 
on the left side of the arch, we see the Apostle Peter seated, before 
whom in like manner kneel Pope Leo III. and Charles the Emperor ; 
the latter wearing, like Constantine, his crown. Peter, himself grasping 
the keys, gives to Leo the pallium of an archbishop, to Charles the 
of the Christian army. The inscription is ' Ueatus Pet rus dona 


vitam Leoni P. Pet victoriam Carulo regi dona;' while round the arch 
is written, ' Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax omnibus bonse 

"The order and nature of the ideas here symbolized is sufficiently clear. 
First comes the revelation of the gospel, and the divine commission to 
gather all men into its fold. Next, the institution, at the memorable 
era of Constantine's conversion, of the two powers by which the Chris- 
tian people is to be respectively taught and governed. Thirdly, we are 
shown the permanent Vicar of God, the apostle who keeps the keys of 
heaven and hell, re-establishing these same powers on a new and firmer 
basis. The badge of ecclesiastical supremacy he gives to Leo as the 
spiritual head of the faithful on earth, the banner of the Church 
militant to Charles, who is to maintain her cause against heretics and 
infidels." — J. Bryce, Holy Roman Empire, ch. vii. pp. 1 17, 1 18, 3rd 
ed., 1 87 1. 

In the building behind the Triclinium, attached to a con- 
vent of Passionist monks, and erected by Fontana for 
Sixtus V., is preserved the Santa Sea la. This famous stair- 
case, supposed to be that of the house of Pilate, ascended 
and descended by our Saviour, is said to have been brought 
from Jerusalem by Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, 
and has been regarded with especial reverence by the Roman 
Church for 1500 years. In 897 it was injured and partially 
thrown down by an earthquake, but was re-erected in the 
old Lateran palace, whence it was removed to its pre- 
sent site on the demolition of that venerable building. 
Clement XII. caused the steps to be covered by a wooden 
casing, which has since been repeatedly worn out by the 
knees of ascending pilgrims. Apertures are left, through 
which the marble steps can be seen ; two of them are said 
to be stained with the blood of the Saviour ! 

At the foot of the stairs, within the atrium, are fine sculp- 
tures of Giaeoinct/i, representing the " Ecce Homo," — and 
the " Kiss of Judas," purchased and placed here by Pius IX, 


Between these statues the pilgrims kneel to commence 
the ascent of the Santa Scala. The effect of the staircase 
(especially on Fridays in Lent, and most of all on Good 
Friday), with the figures ascending on their knees in the 
dim light, and the dark vaulted ceiling covered with faded 
frescoes, is exceedingly picturesque. 

"Reason may condemn, but feeling cannot resist the claim to rever- 
ential sympathy in the spectacle daily presented by the Santa Scala. 
Numerous indulgences have been granted by different popes to those 
who ascend it with prayer at each step. Whilst kneeling upon these 
stairs public penance used to be performed in the days of the Church's 
more rigorous discipline ; as the saintly matron Fabiola there appeared 
a penitent before the public gaze, in sackcloth and ashes, a.d. 390. 

There is no day on which worshippers' may not be seen 

slowly ascending those stairs ; but it is during Holy Week the concourse 
is at its height ; and on Good Friday I have seen this structure com- 
pletely covered by the multitude, like a swarm of bees settling on 
flowers ! "—Jffananf Ancient Sacred Art. 

"Brother Martin Luther went to accomplish the ascent of the Santa 
Scala — the Holy Staircase — which once, they say, formed part of 
Pilate's house. He slowly mounted step after step of the hard stone, 
worn into hollows by the knees of penitents and pilgrims. An indulg- 
ence for a thousand years — indulgence from penance — is attached to 
this act of devotion. Patiently he crept half-way up the staircase, when 
he suddenly stood erect, lifted his face heavenward, and, in another 
moment, turned and walked slowly down again. 

"He said that, as he was toiling up, a voice as if from heaven, seemed 
to whisper to him the old, well-known words, which had been his battle- 
cry in so many a victorious combat, — 'The just shall live by faith.' 

" He seemed awakened, as if from a nightmare, and restored to him- 
self. He dared not creep up another step ; but, rising from his knees, 
he stood upright, like a man suddenly loosed from bonds and fetters, 
and with the firm step of a freeman, he descended the staircase, and 
walked from the place." — Schonberg-Colta Chronicles. 

"Did the feet of the Saviour actually tread these stops ? Are these 
reliques really portions of his cross, crown of thorns, &c, or is all this 
fictitious ? To me it is all one. 

" 'He is not here, he is risen!' said the angel at the tomb. The 

1 1 2 WALKS IN R OME. 

worship of the bodily covering which the spirit has cast off belongs to 
the soul still in the larva condition ; and the ascending of the Scala 
Santa on the knees is too convenient a mode for obtaining the forgive- 
ness of sins, and at the same time a hindrance upon the only true way." 
— Fredkrika Bremer. 

Ascending one of the lateral staircases — no foot must 
touch the Santa Scala — we reach the outside of the Sancta 
Sanctorum, a chapel held so intensely sacred that none but 
the pope can officiate at its altar, and that it is never open 
to others, except on the morning before Palm Sunday, when 
the canons of the Lateran come hither to worship, in solemn 
procession, with torches and a veiled crucifix, and, even 
then, none but the clergy are allowed to pass its threshold. 
The origin of the sanctuary is lost in antiquity, but it was 
the private chapel of the mediaeval popes in the old palace, 
and is known to have existed already, dedicated to St. 
Laurence, in the time of Pelagius I. (578 — 590), who de- 
posited here some relics of St. Andrew and St. Luke. It 
was restored by Honorius III. in 12 16, and almost rebuilt 
by Nicholas III. in 1277. 

It is permitted to gaze through a grating upon the pic- 
turesque glories of the interior, which are chiefly of the 
thirteenth century. The altar is in a recess, supported by 
two porphyry columns. Above it a beautiful silver taber- 
nacle, presented by Innocent III. (n 98 — 12 16), to con- 
tain the great relic, which invests the chapel with its pe- 
culiar sanctity, — a portrait of our Saviour (placed here by 
Stephen III. in 752), held by the Roman Church as 
authentic, — to have been begun by St. Luke and finished 
by an angel, whence the name by which it is known, 
" Acheirotopeton," or, the "picture made without hands." 

"The different theories as to the acheirotopeton picture, and the 


manner in which it reached tin's city, are stated with naivete by Maroni — 
i.e., that the apostles and the Madonna, meeting after the ascension, 
resolved to order a portrait of the Crucified, for satisfying the desire 
of the faithful, and commissioned St. Luke to execute the task ; that 
after three days' prayer and fasting, such a portrait was drawn in outline 
by that artist, but, before he had begun to colour, the tints were found 
to have been filled in by invisible hands ; that this picture was brought 
from Jerusalem to Rome, either by St. Peter, or by Titus (together with 
the sacred spoils of the temple) ; or else expedited hither in a miracu- 
lous voyage of only twenty-four hours by S. Germanus, patriarch of 
Constantinople, who desired thus to save such a treasure from the out- 
rages of the Iconoclasts; and that, about a.d. 726, Pope Gregory II., 
apprised of its arrival at the mouth of the Tiber by revelation, proceeded 
to carry it thence, with due escort, to Rome ; since which advent it has 
remained in the Sancta Sanctorum." — Hemans' Mediceval Christian Art. 

Above the altar is, in gilt letters, the inscription, " non est 
in tota sanctior urbe locus." Higher up, under gothic arches, 
and between twisted columns, are pictures of sainted popes 
and martyrs, but these have been so much retouched as to 
have lost their interest. The gratings here are those of the 
relic chamber, which contains the reputed sandals of Our 
Saviour, fragments of the true cross, &c. On the ceiling is 
a grand mosaic, — a head of Our Saviour within a nimbus, 
sustained by six-winged seraphim — ascribed to the eighth 
century. The sill in front of the screen is covered with 
money, thrown in as offerings by the pilgrims. 

The chapel was once much larger. Its architect was pro- 
bably Deodatus Cosmati. An inscription near the door 
tells us, " Magister Cosmatus fecit hoc opus." 

Here, in the time when the Lateran palace was inhabited, 
the feet of twelve sub-deacons were annually washed by the 
pope on Holy Thursday. On the Feast of the Assumption 
the sacred picture used to be borne in triumph through the 
city, halting in the Forum, where the feet of the pope 
vol. 11. 8 


were washed in perfumed waters on the steps of Sta. Maria 
Nuova, and the " Kyrie Eleison " was chaunted a hundred 
times. This custom was abolished by Pius V. in 1566. 

The Modern Palace of the Lateran was built from designs 
of Fontana by Sixtus V. In 1693 Innocent XII. turned 
it into a hospital,— in 1438 Gregory XVI. appropriated 
it as a museum. The entrance faces the obelisk in the 
Piazza di San Giovanni. The palace is always shown, but 
the terrible cold which pervades it makes it a dangerous 
place except in the late spring months, and a visit to it is 
often productive of fever. 

The ground floor is the principal receptacle for antiqui- 
ties, found at Rome within the last few years. It contains 
a number of very beautiful sarcophagi and bas-reliefs. 

Entering under the corridor on the right, the most 
remarkable objects are : — 

1st Room. — 
Left wall : 

Relief of the Abduction of Helen. 
Right Wall : 

High relief of two pugilists, ' Dares and Entellus.' 

Grand relief of Trajan followed by senators, from the Forum 

of Trajan. 
The sacred oak of Jupiter, with figures. 
Bust of Marcus Aurelius. 

2nd Room. — 

Beautiful architectural fragments, chiefly from the Forum of 

3rd Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

Statue of /Esculapius. 
Right Wall : 

Statue of Antinous, called the Braschi, found at Palestrina. 


Bought from the Braschi family by Gregory XVI. for 
12,000 scudi. 
Wall of Egress : 

Sarcophagus of a child, with a relief representing pugilists. 

4th Room — 
Entrance Wall : 

Greek relief of Medea and the daughters of Peleus. 

Above (one of a number of busts), 762. Beautiful head of a 

Statue of Germanicus. 

Right Wall : 
Statue of Mars. 

Wall of Egress : 

Copy of the Faun of Praxiteles. 

In the Centre : 

A fine vase of Lumachella. 

A passage is crossed to the 

$th Room. — 
In the Centre : 

1. Sacrifice of Mithras. 

2. A stag of basalt. 

3. A cow. 
Right Wall : 

Sepulchral urn, with a curious relief representing children and 

6th Room. — 

An interesting collection of statues, from Cervetri (Caere), 
including those of Tiberius and Claudius ; between them 
Agrippina, sixth wife of Claudius, — and others less certain. 
Between the Windows : 

Drusilla, sister of Claudius, and, on the wall, part of her 

"jt/i Room. — 
Right Wall: 

Faun dancing, — found near Sta. Lucia in Selce. 

1 1 6 WALK'S IN ROME. 

Facing the Entrance : 

A grand statue of Sophocles (the gem of the collection), found 

at Terracina, 1838. Given by the Antonelli family. 

" Sophocle, dans une pose aisee et here, un pied en avant, un bras 

enveloppe dans son manteau qu'il serre contre son corps, contemple 

avec une majestueuse serenite la nature humaine et la domine d'un 

regard sur et tranquille." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 573. 

8f/i Room. — 

Statue of Neptune, from Porto — the legs and arms restored. 

gf/i Room. — 

Architectural fragments from the Via Appia and Forum. 

10/// Room. — 

A series of interesting reliefs, found 1848, at the tomb of the 
Aterii at Centocellse, representing the preparations for the 
funeral solemnities of a great Roman lady. 
Entrance Wall : 

The building of the sepulchre. A curious machine for raising 
heavy stones is introduced. 
Right Wall : 

The body of the dead surrounded by burning torches, the 
mourners tearing their hair and beating their breasts. 
Wall of Egress : 

Showing several Roman buildings which the funeral proces- 
sion would pass, — among them the Coliseum and the Arch of 
Titus — inscribed, " Arcus in sacra via summa." 
.Signor Rosa has considered this last relief of great importance, as 
indicating by the different monuments the route which a well-ordered 
funeral procession ought to pursue. 

A second passage is crossed to the 
1 \th Room. — 

Containing several fine sarcophagi. 

Xlth Room. — - 
Entrance Wall : 

Sarcophagus, with the story of Orestes. 
Right Wall : 

Sarcophagus decorated with Cupids bearing garlands, and 
supporting a head of Augustus. 


Wall of Egress : 

Sarcophagus representing the destruction of the children of 


13/// Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

Statue of C. Lrelius Saturninus. 
In the Centre : 

Sarcophagus of P. Ccecilius Vallianus, representing a funeral 
Left Wall : 

Unfinished statue of a captive barbarian, with sculptor's marks 
remaining, to guide the workman's chisel. 

\$th Room. — 

This and the next room are devoted to objects recently found 
in the excavations at Ostia. 
Left Wall : 

Mosaic in a niche. 

16th Room. — 
In the Centre : 

Reclining statue of Atys. 
Right Wall : 

Frescoes of the story of Orpheus and Eurydice, from a tomb at 

The Christian Museum, founded by Pius IX., and ar- 
ranged by Padre Marchi and the Cavaliere Rossi, is of great 
interest. In the first hall is a statue of Christ by Sosnowsky, 
and in the wall behind it three mosaics, — two from the 
catacombs, that in the centre — of Christ with SS. Peter and 
Paul-— from the old St, Peter's. Hence we ascend a stair- 
case lined with Christian sarcophagi. At the foot are two 
statues of the Good Shepherd. 

" Une des compositions de Calamis ne doit pas etre oubliee a Rome, 
car ce sujet paien a ete adopte par l'art chretien des premiers temps. 
Les representations du Bon Pasteur rapportant la brebis, expressions 
touchante de la misericorde divine, ont leur origine dans le Mercure 

1 1 8 WALK'S IX ROME. 

porte-belier (Criophore). Quelquefois c'est uh berger qui porte un 
belier, une brebis ou un agneau ; Ton se rapproche ainsi a Fidee du bon 
pasteur. En general, le bon pasteur, dans les monuments Chretiens, 
porte une brebis, la brebis egaree de l'Evangile ; mais quelquefois aussi 
il porte un belier, et alors le souvenir de l'original pa'i'en dans la compo- 
sition chretienne est manifeste." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 256. 

The sarcophagus on the left, which tells the story of 
Jonah, is especially fine. The corridor above is also lined 
with sarcophagi. The best are on the left ; of these the 
most remarkable are, the 1st, the marriage at Cana ; 4th, the 
Good Shepherd repeated several times among vines, with 
cherubs gathering the grapes ; 7th, a sarcophagus with a 
canopy supported by two pavonazzetto columns, and on the 
wall behind, frescoes of the Good Shepherd, &c. At the 
raised end of the corridor is the seated statue of Hippolytus, 
Bishop of Porto in the third century (the upper part a restor- 
ation), found in the Catacomb of Sta. Cyriaca, and moved 
hither from the Vatican Library ; upon the chair is engraved 
the celebrated Paschal Calendar, which is supposed to settle 
the unorthodoxy of those ■ early Christians who kept Easter 
at the same time as the Jews. 

Hence, three rooms lined with drawings from the paint- 
ings in the different catacombs, lead to, — 

The Picture Gallery. 
1st Room. — 
Entrance Wall: 

Cartoon of stoning of Stephen : Giulio Romano. 

Below this is the celebrated mosaic called Asarotos, representing an 
unswept floor after a banquet. It is inscribed with the name of its 
artist, Heraclilus, but is a copy from one of the two famous mosaics of 
Sosus of Pergamus (the other is " Pliny's Doves "). It was found on the 
Aventine in 1833 in the gardens of Servilius, and "probably adorned 
a dining-room where Ccesar may have supped with Servilia, the sister of 


Cato, and mother of Brutus." A similar pavement is alluded to by 
Statins : — 

" Varias ubi picta per artes 
Gaudet humus superare novis asarota figuris." 

Sylv. i. 3, 55- 
Left Wall: 

Christ and St. Thomas — a cartoon: Camuccini. 
Window Wall: 

The rirst sketch for the famous fresco of the Descent from the 
Cross at the Trinita de' Monti: Daniele da Volterra. 

On the right is the entrance of the 

2nd Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

Annunciation : Cav. d'Arpino. 
Right Wall : 

George IV. of England (most strangely out of place) : 
Wall of Egress: 

Assumption of the Virgin : After Gaercino. 

From the corner of this room, on the right, a staircase 
leads to a gallery, whence one may look down upon the huge 
and hideous mosaic pavement — with portraits of twenty-eight 
athletes— found in the Baths of Caracalla in 1822. 

" Les gladiateurs de la mosaique de Saint Jean de Latran ont recu la 
forte alimentation qu'on donnait a leurs pareils ; ils ont bien cet air de 
resolution brutale que devaient avoir ceux qui prononcaient ce feroce 
sernient que nous a conserve Petrone: 'Nous jurons d'obeir a notre 
maitre Eumolpe, qu'il nous ordonne de nous laisser bruler, enchainer, 
frapper, tuer par le fer ou autrement; et comme vrais gladiateurs, 
nous devotions a notre maitre nos corps et nos vies.'" — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iv. 33. 

On the left of 1st room is the 

yd Room. — 
Entrance Wall: 

Madonna with SS. Peter, Dominic, and Anthony on the right, 


and SS. John Baptist, Laurence, and Francis on the left : 
Marco Palmczzano di Forli, 1537. 
In the Left Corner: 

Madonna and Saints: Carlo Crivelli, 14S2. 
Left Wall : 

St. Thomas receiving the girdle of the Virgin (the Sacra 
C in tola of Prato) — with a predella : Benozzo Gozzoli. 
Wall of Egress : 

Madonna with St. John Baptist and St. Jerome : Palmezzano. 

qt/i Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

Sixtus V. as Cardinal : Sassoferrato. 

Madonna : Carlo Crivelli, 1482 — very highly finished. 
Left Wall : 

Sixtus V. as Pope : Domcnichino (?). 

Two Gobelins from pictures of Fra Bartolommeo at the 
Wall of Egress : 

Christ with the Tribute Money : Caravaggio. 

$th Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

Entombment : Venetian School. 
Left Wall : 

Greek Baptism : Pietro Nocchi, 1S40. 
Wall of Egress : 

Holy Family : Andrea del Sarto. 

6th Room. — 
Entrance Wall: 

Baptism of Christ : Cesare da Sesto. 
Left Wall : 

SS. Agnes and Emerentiana : Luca Signorelli ; Annuncia- 
tion: F. Francia J SS. Laurence and Benedict (very pe- 
culiar, as scarcely showing their faces at all, but magnificent 
in colour) : Luca Signorelli. 
Wall of Egress : 

Coronation of the Virgin, with wings, of saints, angels, and 
doves : F. Filippo Lippi. 


Between the Windows: S. Jerome, in tempera: Giovanni 
Sanzio, father of Raphael. 

1th Room. — 
Entrance Wall: 

Pagan sacrifice : Caravaggio (?). 
Left Wall : 

Altar-piece by Antonio da Murano, 1464. 
Wall of Egress : 

Christ at Emmaus : Caravaggio. 

Wi Room. — 

An oil copy of the fresco of the Flagellation of St. Andrew by 
Domenichino, at S. Gregorio. 

qth Room. — 

A set of beautiful terracotta busts and reliefs by Pettrich, 
illustrative of North American Indian life. This room is 
called the Hall of Council, and is surrounded by fresco 
portraits of popes, and pictures allegorical of their arms, &c. 

The walls of the open galleries on this floor of the palace 
have been covered with early Christian inscriptions from the 
catacombs, which have been thus arranged in arches : — 

I — 3. Epitaphs of martyrs and others of temp. Damasus I. (366 

to 3S4). 
4 — 7. Dated inscriptions from 238 to 557. 
8 — 9. Inscriptions relating to doctrine. 

10. — Inscriptions relating to popes, presbyters, and deacons. 
11 — 12. Inscriptions relating to simple ecclesiastics. 
13.— Inscriptions of affection to relations and friends. 
14 — 16. Symbolical. 
17. — Simple epitaphs from different catacombs. 

On the third floor of the palace are casts from the bas- 
reliefs on the column of Trajan. 

Before leaving the Lateran altogether, we must notice 
amongst its early institutions, the famous school of music 
which existed here throughout the middle ages. 


"Gregory the Great, whose object it seems to have been to render 
religion a thing of the senses, was the founder of the music of the 
Church. He instituted the school for it in the Lateran, whence the 
Carlovingian monarchs obtained teachers of singing and organ -playing. 
The Frankish monks were sent thither for instruction." — Dyer's Hist, 
of the City of Rome. 

Opposite the palace is the entrance of the Villa Massimo 
Arsoli, to which admission may be obtained by a permesso 
given at the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne. There is little 
to see here, however, except a casino beautifully decorated 
with scenes taken from the great Italian poets by the modem 
German artists, Schnorr, Kock, Ph. Veit, Overbeck, and 

" Les sujets sont tires de Dante, de l'Arioste, et du Tasse. Dante a 
ete confide a Cornelius, l'Arioste a Schnorr, le Tasse a Overbeck, les 
trois plus celebres noms de cette ecole qui croit pouvoir remonter par 
une imitation savante a la naivete du xv e . siecle. " — Ampere, Voyage 

Leading from the Piazza di San Giovanni to Sta. Maria 
Maggiore is the Via Immerulana, where, in the hollow, is 
the strange-looking Church of SS. Pielro e Marccllino, in 
which is preserved a miraculous painting of the Crucifixion ; 
the figure upon the cross is supposed to move the eyes, 
when regarded by the faithful. This picture, a small replica 
of the magnificent Guido at S. Lorenzo in Lucina, is shown, 
behind a grille, by a nun of Sta. Theresa, veiled from head 
to foot in blue, like an immovable pillar of blue drapery. 

" SS. Tietro e Marccllino stands in the valley behind the Esquiline, 
in the long, lonely road between Sta. Maria Maggiore and the Lateran. 
SS. Peter Exorcista and Marcellinus are always represented together in 
priestly habits, bearing their palms. Their legend relates, that in the 
persecution under Diocletian they were cast into prison. Artemius, 
keeper of the dungeon, had a daughter named Paulina, and she fell 


sick ; and St. Peter offered to restore her to health, if her father would 
believe in the true God. And the jailer mocked him, saying, ' If I put 
thee into the deepest dungeon, and load thee with heavier chains, will 
thy God deliver thee ? If he doth, I will believe in him.' And Peter 
answered, ' Be it so, not out of regard to thee ; for it matters little to 
our God whether such an one as thou believe in him or not, but that 
the name of Christ may be glorified, and thyself confounded.' 

"And in the middle of the night Peter and Marcellinus, in white 
shining garments, entered the chamber of Artemius as he lay asleep, 
who, being struck with awe, fell down and worshipped the name of 
Christ ; and he, his wife, daughter, and three hundred others, were 
baptized. . After this the two holy men were condemned to die for the 
faith, and the executioner was ordered to lead them to a forest three 
miles from Rome, that the Christians might not discover their place of 
sepulture. And when he had brought them to a solitary thicket over- 
grown with brambles and thorns, he declared to them that they were 
to die, upon which they cheerfully fell to work and cleared away a 
space fit for the purpose, and dug the grave in which they were to be 
laid. Then they were beheaded (June 2), and died encouraging each 

"The fame of SS. Pietro e Marcellino is not confined to Rome. In 
the reign of Charlemagne they were venerated as martyrs throughout 
Italy and Gaid ; and Eginhard, the secretary of Charlemagne who 
married his daughter Emma, is said to have held them in particular 
honour. Every one, I believe, knows the beautiful story of Eginhard 
and Emma, — and the connection of these saints with them, as their 
chosen protectors, lends an interest to their solitary deserted church. 
In the Roma Sotterranea of Bosio, p. 126, there is an ancient fragment 
found in the catacombs, which represents St. Peter Exorcista, St. Mar- 
cellinus, and Paulina, standing together." — Mrs. Jameson. 

Behind the Santa Scala, a narrow lane leads to the Villa 
Wolkonski (a " permesso " may be obtained through your 
banker), a most beautiful garden, running along the edge of 
the hill, intersected by the broken arches of the Aqua 
Claudia, and possessing exquisite views over the Campagna, 
with its lines of aqueducts to the Alban and Sabine moun- 
tains. No one should omit to visit this villa. 

" Where the aqueducts, just about to enter the city, most nearly con- 


verge, and looking across the Campagna — which their arches only seem 
able to span — towards Albano and the hills, stands the Villa. Em- 
bosomed in olive and in ilex trees, it is rich in hoar cypresses, in urns, 
and in those pathetic fragments of old workmanship which an under- 
growth of violets and acanthus half hides, and half reveals." — Vera. 

About a mile beyond the Porta S. Giovanni, a road 
branches off on the left to the Porta Furba, an arch of the 
Aqua Felice, founded on the line of the Claudian and 
Marcian aqueducts. Artists may find a picturesque subject 
here in a pretty fountain, with a portion of the decaying 
aqueduct. Beyond the arch is the mound called Monte del 
Grano, which has been imagined to be the burial-place of 
Alexander Severus. Beyond this, the road (to Frescati) 
passes on the left the vast ruins, called Sette Bassi. 

The direct road — which leads to Albano — reaches, about 
two miles from the gate, a queer building, called the Casa 
del Diavolo, on the outside of which some rude frescoes 
testify to the popular belief as to its owner. Just beyond 
this a field track on the left leads to the Via Latina, of 
which a certain portion, paved with huge polygonal blocks 
of lava, is now laid bare. Here are some exceedingly inter- 
esting and well-preserved tombs, richly ornamented with 
painting and stucco. The view, looking back upon Rome, 
or forward to the long line of broken arches of the Claudian 
aqueduct, seen between these ruined sepulchres, is most 
striking and beautiful. 

Close by have been discovered remains of a villa of the 
Servilii, which afterwards belonged to the Asinarii. Here 
also, in 1858 (on the left of the Via Latina), Signor Fortu- 
nati discovered the long buried and forgotten Basilica of S. 
Stefano. It is recorded by Anastasius that this basilica was 


founded in the time of Leo I. (440 — 461) by Demetria, a 
lady who escaped from the siege by the Goths, with her 
mother, to Carthage, where she became a nun. It was 
restored by Leo III. at the end of the eighth century. The 
remains are interesting, though they do little more than 
show perfectly the substruction and plan of the ancient 
building. An inscription relating to the foundation of the 
church by Demetria has been found among the ruins. 
Not far from this is the Catacomb of the Santi-Quattro, 
Three and a half miles from Rome is the Osteria of Tavo- 
tato, near which is one of the most striking and picturesque 
portions of the Claudian Aqueduct. It is on the rising 
ground between this aqueduct and the road, that the Temple 
of Fortuna Muliebris is believed to have stood. This was 
the temple which Valeria, the sister of Publicola, and Vo- 
lumnia, the mother of Coriolanus, claimed to erect at their 
own expense, when the senate asked them to choose their 
recompense for having preserved Rome by their entreaties. 

"As Valeria, sister of Publicola, was sitting in the temple, as a sup- 
pliant before the image of Jupiter, Jupiter himself seemed to inspire her 
with a sudden thought, and she immediately rose, and called upon all 
the other noble ladies who were with her, to arise also, and she led them 
to the house of Volumnia, the mother of Caius (Coriolanus). There she 
found Virgilia, the wife of Caius, with his mother, and also his little 
children. Valeria then addressed Volumnia and Virgilia, and said, 
' Our coming here to you is our own doing ; neither the senate nor any 
mortal man have sent us ; but the god in whose temple we were sitting 
as suppliants put it into our hearts, that we should come and ask you to 
join with us, women with women, without any aid of men, to win for 
our country a great deliverance, and for ourselves a name, glorious 
above all women, even above those Sabine wives in the old time, who 
stopped the battle between their husbands and their fathers. Come, then, 
with us to the camp of Caius, and let us pray to him to show us mercy.* 
Volumnia said, ' We will go with you : ' and Virgilia took her young 
children with her, and they all went to the camp of the enemy. 


"It was a sad and solemn sight to see this train of noble ladies, and 
the very Volscian soldiers stood in silence as they passed by, and pitied 
them and honoured them. They found Caius sitting on the general's 
seat, in the midst of the camp, and the Volscian chiefs were standing 
round him. When he first saw them he wondered what it could be ; 
but presently he knew his mother, who was walking at the head of the 
train, and then he could not contain himself, but leapt down from his seat, 
and ran to meet her, and was going to kiss her. But she stopped him, 
and said, ' Ere thou kiss me, let me know whether I am speaking to an 
enemy or to my son ; whether I stand in thy camp as thy prisoner or 
thy mother ? ' Caius could not answer her ; and then she went on and 
said, • Must it be, then, that had I never borne a son, Rome never would 
have seen the camp of an enemy ; that had I remained childless, I 
should have died a free woman in a free city ? But I am too old to bear 
much longer either thy shame or my misery. Rather look to thy wife 
and children, whom, if thou persistest, thou art dooming to an un- 
timely death, or a long life of bondage.' Then Virgilia and his children 
came up to him and kissed him, and all the noble ladies wept, and be- 
moaned their own fate and the fate of their country. At last Caius 
cried out, ' O mother, what hast thou done to me ? ' and he wrung her 
hand vehemently, and said, ' Mother, thine is the victory ; a happy 
victory for thee and for Rome, but shame and ruin to thy son.' Then 
he fell on her neck and embraced her, and he embraced his wife and 
his children, and sent them back to Rome ; and led away the army of 
the Volscians, and never afterwards attacked Rome any more. The 
Romans, as was right, honoured Volumnia and Valeria for their deed, 
and a temple was built and dedicated to ' Woman's Fortune,' just on 
the spot where Caius had yielded to his mother's words ; and the first 
priestess of the temple was Valeria, into whose heart Jupiter had first 
put the thought to go to Volumnia, and to call upon her to go out 
to the enemy's camp and entreat her son." — Arnold's Hist, of Rome, 
vol. i. 

" II y a pen de scenes dans 1'histoire plus emouvantes que celle-la. et 
elle ne perd rien a la decoration du theatre ; en se placant sur un tertre 
a quatre milles de Rome, pres de la voie Latine, dans un lieu oil il n'y a 
aujourd'hui que des tombeaux et des mines, on peut se figurer le camp 
des Volsques, dont les armes et les tentes etincellent au soleil. Les mon- 
tagnes s'elevent a l'horizon. A travcrs la plaine ardente et poudreuse 
defile one foule voilee dont les gemissements retentissent dans le silence 
de la campagne romaine. Bientot Coriolan est entoure de cette mul- 
titude suppliante dont les plaintes, les cris, devaient avoir la vivacite des 
demonstrations passionecs des Romaines de nos jours. Coriolan eut re- 


siste a tout ce bruit, il eut peut-etre resiste aux larmes de sa femme et 
aux caresses de ses enfants ; il ne resista pas a la severite de sa more. 

" Le soir, par un glorieux coucher du soleil de Rome qui eclaire leur 
joie, la procession triomphante s'eloigne en adressantun chant de recon- 
naissance aux dieux, et lui se retire dans sa tentc, etonne d' avoir pu 
ceder." — Amplre, Hist. Rom. ii. 402. 

The return drive to Rome may be varied by turning to 
the right about a mile beyond this, into a lane which leads 
past the so-called temple of Bacchus to the Via Appia 

We may now follow the lines of white mulberry-trees 
across the open space in front of St. John Lateran, which is 
a continuation of the ancient papal promenade of " the 
Mirror," to Sta. Croce. The sister basilicas look at each 
other, and at Sta. Maria Maggiore, down avenues of trees. 
On the left are the walls of Rome, upon which run the 
arches of the Aqua Marcia. 

" Few Roman churches are set within so impressive a picture as 
Santa Croce, approached on every side through these solitudes of vine- 
yards and gardens, quiet roads, and long avenues of trees, that occupy 
such immense extent within the walls of Rome. The scene from the 
Lateran, looking towards this basilica across the level common, between 
lines of trees, with the distance of Campagna and mountains, the castel- 
lated walls, the arcades of the Claudian aqueduct, amid gardens and 
groves, is more than beautiful, full of memory and association. The 
other approach, by the unfrequented Via di Sta. Croce, presents the' 
finest distances, seen through a foliage beyond the dusky towers of the 
Honorian walls, and a wide extent of slopes covered with vineyards, 
amid which stand at intervals some of those forlorn cottage farms, grey 
and dilapidated, that form characteristic features in Roman scenery. 
The majestic ruins of Minerva-Medica, the so-called temple of Venus 
and Cupid, the fragments of the Baths of St. Helena, the Castrense 
Amphitheatre, the arches of the aqueduct, halt concealed in cypress 
and ivy, are objects which must increase the attractions of a walk to this 
sanctuary of the cross. But the exterior of the church is disappointing 
and inappropriate, retaining nothing antique except the square Lombardic 


tower of the twelfth century, in storeys of narrow-arched windows, its 
brickwork ornamented with disks of coloured marble, and a canopy, 
with columns, near the summit, for a statue no longer in its place." — 
Hcnums 1 Catholic Italy, vol. i. 

The site of the Basilica of Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme 
was once occupied by the garden of Heliogabalus, and 
afterwards by the palace of the Empress Helena, mother of 
Constantine, whose residence here was known as the Pala- 
tium Sessorianum, whence the name of Sessorian, sometimes 
given to the basilica. 

The church was probably once a hall in the palace of 
Helena, to which an apse was added by Constantine, in 
whose reign it was consecrated by Pope Sylvester. It was 
repaired by Gregory II. early in the eighth century; the 
monastery was added by Benedict VII. about 975, and the 
whole was rebuilt by Lucius II. in n 44. The church was 
completely modernized by Benedict XIV. in the last century, 
and scarcely anything, except the tower, now remains exter- 
nally, which is even as old as the twelfth century. The fine 
columns of granite and bigio-lumachellato, which now adorn 
the fagade, were plundered from the neighbouring temple in 

The interior of the church is devoid of beauty, owing to 
modernizations. Four out of twelve fine granite columns, 
which divided its nave and aisles, are boxed up in senseless 
plaster piers. The high altar is adorned with an urn of green 
basalt, sculptured with lions' heads, which contains the 
bodies of SS. Anastasius and Csesarius. Two of the pillars 
of the baldacchino are of breccia-corallina. The fine 
frescoes of the tribune by Pinturicc/iio have been much 
retouched. They were executed under Alexander VI., on 
a commission from Cardinal Carvajal, who is himself repre- 


sented as kneeling before the cross, which is held by the 
Empress Helena. 

"The very important frescoes of the choir apsis of Sta. Croce (now 
much .over-painted) are of Pinturicchio's better time. They represent 
the finding of the Cross, with a colossal Christ in a nimbus among 
angels above, — a figure full of wild grandeur." — Kngler. 

" Near the entrance of the church is a valuable monument of the 
papal history of the tenth century, in a metrical epitaph to Benedict 
VII., recording his foundation of the adjoining monastery for monks, 
who were to sing day and night the praises of the Deity ; his cha- 
rities to the poor ; and the deeds of the anti-pope Franco, called by 
Baronius (with play upon his assumed name Boniface) Malefacius, who 
usurped the Holy See, imprisoned and strangled the lawful pope, 
Benedict VI., and pillaged the treasury of St. Peter's, but in one month 
was turned out and excommunicated, when he fled to Constantinople. 
The chronology of this epitaph is by the ancient system of Indictions, 
the death of the pope dated XII. Indiction, corresponding to the year 
984 : and the Latin style of the tenth century is curiously exemplified in 
lines relating to the anti-pope : 

'Hie primus repulit Franconis spurca superbi 
Culmina qui invasit sedis apostolicse 
Qui dominumque suum captum in castro habebat 
Careens interea auctis constrictus in uno 
Strangulatus ubi exuerat hominem.' " 

Ilcmans' Catholic Italy. 

The consecration of the Golden Rose, formerly sent to 
foreign princes, used to take place in this church. The 
principal observances here now are connected with the ex- 
hibition of the relics, of which the principal is the Title of 
the True Cross. 

" In 1492, when some repairs were ordered by Cardinal Mendoza, a 
niche was discovered near the summit of the apse, enclosed by a brick 
front, inscribed' ' Titulus Crucis.' In it was a leaden coffer, containing 
an imperfect plank of wood, 2 inches thick, 1/4 palm long, 1 palm 
broad. On this, in letters more or less perfect, was the inscription in 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, Jesus Nazarene King. It was venerated 
by Innocent VIII., with the college of cardinals, and enclosed by Men- 
vol. n. 9 


doza in the silver shrine, where it is exposed three times a year from the 
balcony. The relics are exposed on the 4th Sunday in Lent. On 
Good Friday the rites are more impressive here than in any other 
church, the procession of white-robed monks, and the deep toll of the 
bell announcing the display of the relics by the mitred abbot, are very 
solemn, and it is surprising, that while crowds of strangers submit to be 
crushed in the Sistine, scarcely one visits this ancient basilica on that 
day." — Hemanf Catholic Italy. 

"The list of relics on the right of the apsis of Sta. Croce includes, 
the finger of St. Thomas Apostle, with which he touched the most holy 
side of our Lord Jesus Christ ; one of the pieces of money with which 
the Jews paid the treachery of Judas ; great part of the veil and of the 
hair of the most blessed Virgin ; a mass of cinders and charcoal, united 
in the form of a loaf, with the fat of St. Lawrence, martyr ; one bottle 
of the most precious blood of our Lord Jesus Christ ; another of the 
milk of the most blessed Virgin ; a little piece of the stone where 
Christ was born ; a little piece of the stone where our Lord sate when 
he pardoned Mary Magdalen ; of the stone where our Lord wrote the 
law, given to Moses on Mount Sinai ; of the stone where reposed SS- 
Peter and Paul ; of the cotton which collected the blood of Christ ; of 
the manna which fed the Israelites ; of the rod of Aaron, which 
flourished in the desert ; of the relics of the eleven prophets ! " — Percy s 

Two staircases near the tribune lead to the subterranean 
church, which has an altar with a pieta, and statues of SS. 
Peter and Paul of the twelfth century. Hence opens the 
chapel of Sta. Helena,* which women (by a perversion espe- 
cially strange in this case) are never allowed to enter except 
on the festival of the saint, August 18. It is built upon a 
soil composed of earth brought by the empress from Pales- 
tine. Her statue is over the altar. The vault has mosaics 
(originally erected under Valentinian III., but restored by 
Zucchi in 1593) representing, in ovals, a half-length figure of 

* Sta. Helena is claimed as an English saint, and all the best authorities allow that 
she was born in England, — according to Gibbon, at York — according to others, at Col- 
chester, which town bears as its arms a cross between three crowns, in allusion to this 
claim. Some say that she was an innkeeper's daughter, others that her father was a 
powerful British prince, Coilus or Coel. 


the Saviour ; the Evangelists and their symbols ; the Finding 

of the True Cross ; SS. Peter and Paul ; St. Sylvester, the 

conservator of the church ; and Sta. Helena, with Cardinal 

Carvajal kneeling before her. 

Here the feast of the " Invention of the True Cross " 

(May 3) is celebrated with great solemnity, when the hymns 

" Pange Lingua " and " Vexilla Regis " are sung, and the 

antiphon : — 

"O Cross, more glorious than the stars, world famous, beauteous of 
aspect, holiest of things, which alone wast worthy to sustain the weight 
of the world : dear wood, dear nails, dear burden, bearing ; save those 
present assembled in thy praise to-day. Alleluia." 

And the collect : — 

" O God, who by the glorious uplifting of the salvation-bearing cross, 
hast displayed the miracles of thy passion, grant that by the merit of 
that life-giving wood, we may attain the suffrages of eternal life, &c." 

The adjoining Monastery belongs to the Cistercians. Only 
part of one wing is ancient. The library formerly contained 
many curious MSS., but most of these were lost to the basilica, 
when the collection was removed to the Vatican during the 
French occupation and the exile of Pius VII. 

The garden of the monastery contains the ruin generally 
known as the Temple of Venus and Cupid, but considered 
by Dr Braun to be the Sessorian Basilica or law-court, where 
the causes of slaves (who were allowed to appeal to no other 
court) were wont to be heard. Behind the monastery is the 
Amphithcatrian Castrense, attributed to the time of Nero, 
when it is supposed to have been erected for the games of 
two cohorts of soldiers, quartered near here. It is ingrafted 
into the line of the Honorian walls, and is best seen from the 
outside of the city. Its arches and pillars, with Corinthian 
capitals, are all of brick. 


(On the left of the Via Sta. Croce, which leads hence to 
Sta. Maria Maggiore, is the gate of the Villa Altieri, chiefly- 
remarkable for its grand umbrella pine, the finest in the 
city. Further, on the right, is a tomb of unknown origin, 
now used as a farm-house and a wine-shop.) 

Turning to the right from the basilica, we follow a lane 
which leads beneath some fine brick arches of an aqueduct 
of the time of Nero, cited by Ampere,* as exemplifying the 
perfection to which architecture attained in the reign of this 
emperor, " by the quality of the bricks, and the excellence 
and small quantity of the cement." These ruins are popu- 
larly called the Baths of Sta. Helena. 

Passing these arches we find ourselves facing the Porta 
Maggiore, formed by two arches of the Claudian Aqueduct, 
formerly known as the Porta Labicana, and Porta Prenes- 
tina, of which the former was closed in the time of 
Honorius, and has never been re-opened. Three inscrip- 
tions remain, the first relating to the building of the aque- 
duct by the Emperor Tiberius Claudius ; — the second and 
third to its restoration by Vespasian and Titus. Above the 
Aqua Claudia flowed a second stream, the Anio Novus. 

Outside the gate, only lately disclosed, upon the removal 
of constructions of the time of Honorius (the fragments of 
those worth preserving are placed on the opposite wall), is 
the Tomb of tlie Baker Eurysaces, who was also one of the 
inspectors of aqueducts. The tomb is attributed to the 
early years of the Empire. Its first storey is surmounted by 
the inscription : " Est hoc MONUMENTUM Marcei Vergiu:i 
Evrvsaces Pistoris Redemptoris Apparet." Its second 
storey is composed of rows of the mortars used in baking, 

* Emp. ii. 43. 


placed sideways, and supporting a frieze with bas-reliefs 
telling the story of a baker's work, from the bringing of the 
corn into the mill to its distribution as bread. In the front 
of the tomb was formerly a relief of the baker and his wife, 
with a sarcophagus, and the inscription : " fuit atistia 



has been foolishly removed, and is now to be seen upon the 
opposite walk 

From this gate many pleasant excursions may be taken. 
The direct road leads to Palestrina by Zagarolo, and at 1^ 
mile from the gate passes, on the left, Torre Pignatarra, the 
tomb of Sta. Helena, whence the magnificent porphyry 
sarcophagus, now in the Vatican, was removed. The name 
is derived from the pignatte, or earthen pots, used in the 
building. Beneath it is a catacomb, now closed. The 
adjoining Catacomb of SS. Pietro e Marcellino contains some 
well preserved paintings ; the most interesting is that of the 
Divine Lamb on a mound (from which four rivers flow as 
in the mosaics of the ancient basilicas), with figures of 
Petrus, Gorgonius, Marcellinus, and Tiburtius. At three 
miles from the gate the road reaches Centocellce, whence, 
near the desolate tower called Torre Pernice, there is a most 
picturesque view of the aqueduct Aqua Alexandrina, built 
by Alexander Severus, with a double line of arches crossing 
the hollow. At five miles, on the right, is the Borghese 
farm of Torre Nuova, with a fine group of old stone pines. 

The road which turns left from the gate leads by the Aqua 
BoUicantc, where the Arvales sang their hymn, to the pic- 
turesque ruins of the Torre del Schiavi, the palace of the 


Emperors Gordian (a.d. 238), adjoining which are the re- 
mains of a round temple of Apollo. This is, perhaps, one 
of the most striking scenes in the Campagna and — backed 
by the violet mountains above Tivoli — is a favourite subject 
with artists. 

"Les Gordiens, tres-grands personnages, furent de tres-petits em- 
pereurs. Us montrent ce qu'etait devenu l'aristocratie romaine de- 
generee. Le premier, honnete et pusillanime, comme le prouvent son 
election et sa mort, etait un peu replet et avait dans l'air du visage quel- 
que chose de solennel et de theatre! {pompali vultu). II aimait et cul- 
tivait les lettres. Son fils egalement se fit quelque reputation en ce 
genre, grace surtout a sa bibliotheque de soixante mille volumes ; mais 
il avait d'autres gouts encore que celui des livres : on lui donne jusqu'a 
vingt-deux concubines en titre, et de chacune d'elles, il eut trois ou 
quatre enfants. II menait une vie epicurienne dans ses jardins et sous 
des ombrages delicieux: c'etaient les jardins et les ombrages d'une villa 
magnifique que les Gordiens avaient sur la voie Prenestine, et dont 
Capitolin, au temps duquel elle existait encore, nous a laisse une de- 
scription detaillee. Le peristyle etait forme de deux cents colonnes des 
marbres les plus precieux, le cipollin, le pavonazetto, le jaune et le 
rouge antiques. La villa renfermait trois basiliques et les thermes que 
ceux de Rome surpassaient a peine. Telle etait 1' opulence d'une habi- 
tation privee vers le milieu du troisieme siecle de l'empire." — Aniph-e, 
Enip. ii. 328. 

The road which continues in a straight line from hence 
passes, on the left, the Torre Tre Teste. The eighth mile- 
stone is of historic interest, being described by Livy (v. 49) 
as the spot where the dictator Camillus overtook and exter- 
minated the army of Gauls who were retreating from Rome 
with the spoils of the Capitol. 

At the ninth mile is the Ponte di Nona, a magnificent old 
bridge with seven lofty arches of lapis-gabinus. This leads 
(twelve miles from Rome) to the dried-up lake and the ruins 
of Gabii (Castiglione), including that of the temple of Juno 
Gab in a. 


"Quique arva Gabinae 
Junonis, gelidumque Anienem, et roscida rivis 
Hcrnica saxa colunt." 

Virgil, Alii. vii. 682. 

The road which branches off on the left leads (twelve miles 
from Rome) to Lunghczza, the fine old castle, of the Strozzi 
family, situated on the little river Osa. Hence a beautiful walk 
through a wood leads to Castello del Osa, the ruins of the 
ancient Collatia, so celebrated from the tragedy of Lucretia. 
Two miles beyond the Torre dei Schiavi, on the left, is the 
fine castellated farm of Cervaletto, a property of the Bor- 
ghese. A field road of a mile and half, passing in front of 
this (practicable for carriages), leads to another fine old 
castellated farm (five miles from Rome), close to which are 
the extraordinary Grottoes of Cerbara, — a succession of 
romantic caves of great size, in the tufa rocks, from which 
the material of the Coliseum was excavated. Here the 
" Festa degli Artisti " is held in May, which is well worth 
seeing, — the artists in costume riding in procession, and 
holding games, amid these miniature Petra-like ravines. 
Beyond Cerbara are remains of a villa of Lucius Verus, and, 
on the bank of the Anio, the romantically-situated castle of 

From the Porta Maggiore we may follow a lane along 
the inside of the wall, crossing the railway — whence there is 
a picturesque view of the temple of Minerva Medica — to 
The Porta S. Lorenzo, anciently called the Porta Tiburtina 
(the road to Tivoli passes through it), built in 402, by the 
Emperors Arcadius and Honorius, on the advice of Stilicho, 
as we learn from an inscription over the archway of the 
Marcian, Tepulan, and Julian Aqueducts, now half buried 
within the later brick gateway. 


The road just beyond the gate is connected with the 
story of the favourite saint of the Roman people. 

"When Sta. Francesca Romana had no resource but to beg for the 
sick under her care, she went to the basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori Mura, 
where was the station of the day, and seated herself amongst the 
crowd of beggars, who, according to custom, were there assembled. 
From the rising of the sun to the ringing of the vesper-bell, she sate 
there, side by side with the lame, the deformed, and the blind. She 
held out her hand as they did, gladly enduring, not the semblance, but 
the reality, of that deep humiliation. When she had received enough 
wherewith to feed the poor at home, she rose, and entering the old 
basilica, adored the Blessed Sacrament, and then walked back the long 
and weary way, blessing God all the while." — Lady G. Fullerton. 

A quarter of a mile beyond the gate we come in sight of 
the church and monastery, but the effect is much spoilt by 
the hideous modern cemetery, formed since the following 
description was written : — 

" S. Lorenzo is as perfect a picture of a basilica externally, as S. 
Clemente is internally. Viewing it from a little distance, the whole 
pile — in its grey reverend dignity — the row of stones indicating the 
atrium, with an ancient cross in the centre — the portico overshadowing 
faded frescoes — the shelving roof, the body-wall bulging out and lapping 
over, like an Egyptian temple — the detached Lombard steeple — with 
the magic of sun and shadow, and the background of the Campagna, 
bounded by the blue mountains of Tivoli — together with the stillness, 
the repose, interrupted only by the chirp of the grasshopper, and the 
distant intermitted song of the Contadino — it forms altogether such a 
scene as painters love to sketch, and poets to re-people with the shadows 
of past ages ; and I open a wider heaven for either fraternity to fly 
their fancies in, when I add that it was there the ill-fated Peter de 
Courtenay was crowned Emperor of the East." — Lord Lindsay, Christian 

"To St. Laurence was given a crown of glory in heaven, and upon 
earth eternal and universal praise and fame ; for there is scarcely a city 
or town in all Christendom which does not contain a church or altar 
dedicated to his honour. The first of these was built by Constantine 
outside the gates of Rome, on the spot where he was buried ; and 


another was built on the summit of the hill, where he was martyred ; 
besides these, there are at Rome four others ; and in Spain the Escurial, 
and at Genoa the Cathedral." — Mrs. Jameson. 

We have already followed St. Laurence to the various 
spots in Rome connected with his story, — to the green space 
at the Navicella, where he distributed his alms before the 
house of St. Cyriaca (in whose catacomb he was first buried) ; 
to the basilica in the Palace of the Caesars, where he was 
tried and condemned ; to S. Lorenzo in Fonte, where he 
was imprisoned ; to S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna, where he 
died ; to S. Lorenzo in Lucina, where his supposed gridiron 
is preserved ; and now we come to his grave, where a 
grand basilica has arisen around the little oratory, erected 
by Constantine, which marked his first burial-place in the 

The first basilica erected here was built in the end of the 
sixth century, by Pope Pelagius II., but this was repeatedly 
enlarged and beautified by succeeding popes, and at length 
was so much altered in 12 16, by Honorius III., that the old 
basilica became merely the choir or tribune of a larger and 
more important church. So many other changes have 
since taken place, that Bunsen remarks upon S. Lorenzo as 
more difficult of explanation than any other of the Roman 

In front of the basilica stands a bronze statue of St. 
Laurence, upon a tall granite pillar. 

The portico is supported by six Ionic columns, four of 
them spiral. Above these is a mosaic frieze of the thirteenth 
century. In the centre is the Spotless Lamb, having, on the 
right, St. Laurence, Honorius III., and another figure; and 
on the left three heads, two of whom are supposed to be 


the virgin martyr Sta. Cyriaca, and her mother Tryphoena, 
buried in the adjoining cemetery. Above this is a very 
richly decorated marble frieze, boldly relieved with lions' 
heads. The gable of the church is faced with modern 
mosaics of saints. Within the portico are four splendid 
sarcophagi ; that on the left of the entrance is adorned with 
reliefs representing a vintage, with cupids as the vine- 
gatherers, and contains the remains of Pope Damasus II., 
who died in 1049, after a reign of only twenty-three days. 
At the sides of the door are two marble lions. The walls 
of the portico are covered with a very curious series of 
frescoes, lately repainted. They represent four consecutive 

On the right : — 

A holy hermit, living a life of solitude and prayer, heard a rush- 
ing noise, and, looking out of his window, saw a troop of demons, 
who told him that the Emperor Henry II. had just expired, and that 
they were hurrying to lay claim to his soul. The hermit trembled, 
and besought them to let him know as they returned how they 
had succeeded. Some days after, they came back and narrated that 
when the Archangel was weighing the good and evil deeds of the 
emperor in his balance, the weight was falling in their favour — when 
suddenly the roasted St. Laurence appeared, bearing a golden chalice, 
which the emperor, shortly before his death, had bestowed upon the 
Church, and cast it into the scale of good deeds, and so turned the balance 
the other way, but that in revenge they had broken off one of the golden 
handles of the chalice. And when the hermit heard these things he re- 
joiced greatly ; and the soul of the emperor was saved and he became a 
canonized saint, — and the devils departed blaspheming. 

The order of the frescoes representing this legend is : — 

I, 2. Scenes in the life of Henry II. 

3. The Emperor offers the golden chalice. 

4. A banquet scene. 

5. The hermit discourses with the devils. 

6. The death of Henry II.— 1024. 


7. The dispute for the soul of the Emperor. 

8. It is saved by St. Laurence. 

The second series represents the whole story of the acts, 
trial, martyrdom, and burial of St. Laurence ; one or two 
frescoes in this were entirely effaced, and have been added 
by the restorer. Of the old series were : — 

1. The investiture of St. Laurence as deacon. 

2. St. Laurence washes the feet of poor Christians. 

3. He heals Sta. Cyriaca. 

4. He distributes alms on the Ccelian. 

5. He meets St. Sixtus led to death, and receives his blessing. 

6. He is led before the prefect. 

7. He restores sight to Lucillus. 

8. He is scourged. 

9. He baptizes St. Hippolytus. 

11. He refuses to give up the treasures of the Church. 
13, 14, 15. His burial by St. Hippolytus. 

The third series represents the story of St. Stephen, fol- 
lowed by that of the translation of his relics to this basilica. 

The relics of St. Stephen were preserved at Constantinople, whither 
they had been transported from Jerusalem by the Empress Eudoxia, 
wife of Theodosius II. Hearing that her daughter Eudoxia, wife of 
Valentinian II., Emperor of the West, was afflicted with a devil, she 
begged her to come to Constantinople that her demon might be driven 
out by the touch of the relics. The younger Eudoxia wished to comply, 
— but the devil refused to leave her, unless St. Stephen was brought 
to Rome. An agreement was therefore made that the relics of St. 
Stephen should be exchanged for those of St. Laurence. St. Stephen 
arrived, and the empress was immediately relieved of her devil, but 
when the persons who had brought the relics of St. Stephen from 
Constantinople were about to take those of St. Laurence back with 
them, they all fell down dead ! Pope Pelagius prayed for their restora- 
tion to life, which was granted for a short time, to prove the efficacy of 
prayer, but they all died again ten days after ! Thus the Romans 
knew that it would be criminal to fulfil their promise, and part with the 
relics of St. Laurence, and the bodies of the two martyrs were laid in 
the same sarcophagus. 


The frescoes in the left wall represent a separate story : — 

A holy sacristan arose before the dawn to enjoy solitary prayers before 
the altars of this church. Once when he was thus employed, he found 
that he was not alone, and beheld three persons, a priest, a dea- 
con, and sub-deacon, officiating at the altar, and the church around 
him filled with worshippers, whose faces bore no mortal impress. 
Tremblingly he drew near to him whom he dreaded the least, and 
inquired of the deacon, who this company might be. ' The priest whom 
thou seest is the blessed apostle Peter,' answered the spirit, 'and I 
am Laurence who suffered cruel torments for the love of my master 
Christ, upon a Wednesday, which was the day of his betrayal ; and in 
remembrance of my martyrdom we are come to-day to celebrate here 
the mysteries of the Church ; and the sub-deacon who is with us is the 
first martyr, St. Stephen, — and the worshippers are the apostles, the 
martyrs, and virgins who have passed with me into Paradise, and have 
come back hither to do me honour ; and of this solemn service thou art 
chosen as the witness. When it is day, therefore, go to the pope and 
tell what thou hast seen, and bid him, in my name, to come hither 
and to celebrate a solemn mass with all his clergy, and to grant 
indulgences to the faithful.' But the sacristan trembled and said, ' If I 
go to the pope he will not believe me : give me some visible sign, then, 
which will show what I have seen.' And St. Laurence ungirt his robe, 
and giving his girdle to the sacristan, bade him show it in proof of 
what he told. In the morning the old man related what he had seen 
to the abbot of the monastery, who bore the girdle to the then pope, 
Alexander II. The pope accompanied him back to the basilica, — 
and on their way they were met by a funeral procession, when, to test 
the powers of the girdle, the pope laid it on the bier, and at once the 
dead arose and walked. Then all men knew that the sacristan had told 
what was true, and the pope celebrated mass as he had been bidden, 
and promised an indulgence of forty years to all who should visit on a 
Wednesday any church dedicated to St. Laurence. 

This story is told in eight pictures : — 

1. The sacristan sees the holy ones. 

2. The Phantom Mass. 

3. The sacristan tells the abbot. 

4. The abbot tells the pope. 

5. The pope consults his cardinals. 

6. The dead is raised by the girdle. 


7. Mass is celebrated at St. Lorenzo, and souls are freed from 
purgatory by the intercession of the saint. 

8. Prayer is made at the shrine of St. Laurence. 

The nave — which is the basilica of Honorius III. — is 
divided from its side aisles by twenty-two Ionic columns of 
granite and cipollino. The sixth column on the right has a 
lizard and a frog amongst the decorations of its capital, which 
led Winckelmann to the supposition that these columns 
were brought hither from the Portico of Octavia, because 
Pliny describes that the architects of the Portico of Me- 
tellus, which formerly occupied that site, were two Spartans, 
named Sauros and Batrachus, who implored permission to 
carve their names upon their work j and that when leave 
was refused, they introduced them under this form, — 
Batrachus signifying a frog, and Sauros a lizard. 

Above the architrave are frescoes by Fracassini, of the 
lives and martyrdoms of SS. Stephen and Laurence. Higher 
up are saints connected with the history of the basilica. 
The roof is painted in patterns. The splendid opus- 
alexandrinum pavement is of the tenth century. On the 
left of the entrance is a baptismal font, above which are 
more frescoes relating to the story of St. Laurence. On the 
right, beneath a mediaeval canopy, is a very fine sarcophagus, 
sculptured with a wedding scene, — adapted as the tomb of 
Cardinal Fieschi, nephew of Innocent IV., who died in 
1256. Inside the canopy, is a fresco of Christ throned, to 
whom St. Laurence presents the cardinal, and St. Stephen 
Innocent IV. Behind stand St. Eustace and St. Hippolytus. 
The west end of the church is closed by the inscription., 
" Hi sunt qui venerunt de tribulatione magna, et laverunt 
stolas suas in sanguine agni." 


The splendid ambones in the nave, inlaid with serpentine 
and porphyry, are of the twelfth century. That on the right, 
with a candelabrum for the Easter candle, was for the 
gospel ; that on the left for the epistle. 

At the end of the left aisle, a passage leads down to a 
subterranean chapel, used for prayer for the souls in pur- 
gatory. Here is the entrance to the Catacombs of Sta. Ciriaca, 
which are said to extend as far as Sant' Agnese, but which 
have been much and wantonly injured in the works for the 
new cemetery. Here the body of St. Laurence is related to 
have been found. Over the entrance is inscribed : — 

"H?ec est tumba ilia toto orbe terrarum celeberrima ex cimeterio S. 
Cyriacte Matronse ubi sacrum si quis fecerit pro defunctis eorum 
animas e purgatorii pcenis divi Laurentii meritis evocabit." * 

Passing the triumphal arch, we enter the early basilica of 
Pope Pelagius II. (572 — 590), which is on a lower level 
than that of the nave. Here are twelve splendid columns of 
pavonazzetto, of which the two first bear trophies carved 
above the acanthus leaves of their capitals. These support 
an entablature formed from various antique fragments, put 
together without uniformity, — and a triforium, divided by 
twelve small columns. 

On the inside, which was formerly the outside, of the 
triumphal arch, is a restored mosaic of the time of Pelagius, 
representing the Saviour seated upon the world, having on 
the right St. Peter, St. Laurence, and St. Pelagius, and on 
the left St. Paul and St. Stephen, and with them, in a war- 
rior's dress, St. Hippolytus, the soldier who was appointed to 
guard St. Laurence in prison, and who, being converted by 

* The existence of this inscription makes the destruction of this catacomb under 
Pius IX. the more extraordinary. 


him, was dragged to death by wild horses, after seeing nine- 
teen of his family suffer before his eyes. He is the patron 
saint of horses. Here also are the mystic cities, Bethlehem 
and Jerusalem. 

A long poetical inscription is known to have once existed 
here ; only two lines remain round the arch : — 

" Martyrium flaminis olim Levita subisti 
Juretuis templis lux veneranda redit." 

The high altar, with a baldacchino, supported by four 
porphyry columns, covers the remains of SS. Laurence and 
Stephen, enclosed in a silver shrine by Pelagius II., a pope 
so munificent that he had given up his own house as a 
hospital for aged poor. St. Justin is also buried here. 

"No one knew what had become of the body of St. Stephen for 400 
years, when Lucian, a priest of Carsamagala, in Palestine, was visited 
in a dream by Gamaliel, the doctor of the law at whose feet Paul was 
brought up in all the learning of the Jews; and Gamaliel revealed to 
him that after the death of Stephen he had carried away the body 
of the saint, and had buried it in his own sepulchre, and had also 
deposited near it the body of Nicodemus and other saints ; and this 
dream having been repeated three times, Lucian went with others 
deputed by the bishop, and dug with mattocks and spades in the spot 
which had been indicated, — a sepulchre in a garden, — and found what 
they supposed to be the remains of St. Stephen, their peculiar sanctity 
being proved by many miracles. These relics were first deposited in 
Jerusalem, in the church of Sion, and afterwards by the younger 
Theodosius carried to Constantinople, whence they were taken to 
Rome, and placed by Pope Pelagius in the same tomb with St. 
Laurence. It is related that when they opened the sarcophagus, 
and lowered into it the body of St. Stephen, St. Laurence moved on 
one side, giving the place of honour on the right hand to St. Stephen : 
hence the common people of Rome have conferred on St. Laurence the 
title of 'II cortese Spagnuolo ' — the courteous Spaniard." — Jamesons 
Sacred and Legendary Art. 

Behind the altar is a mosaic screen, with panels of 
porphyry and serpentine, and an ancient episcopal throne. 


The lower church was filled up with soil till 1864, when 
restorations were ordered here. These were entrusted to 
Count Vespignani, and have been better carried out than 
most church alterations in Rome ; but an interesting portico, 
with mosaics by one of the famous Cosmati family, has 
been destroyed to make room for some miserable arrange- 
ments connected with the modern cemetery. 

It was in this basilica that Peter Courtenay, Count of 
Auxerre, with Yolande his wife, received the imperial 
crown of Constantinople from Honorius III. in 121 7. 

Adjoining the church is the very picturesque Cloister of 
the Afonastery, built in n 90, for Cistercian monks, but 
assigned as a residence for any Patriarchs of Jerusalem 
who might visit Rome. Here are preserved many ancient 
inscriptions, and other fragments from the neighbouring 

The basilica is now almost engulfed in the Cemetery of 
S. Lorenzo, the great modern burial-ground of Rome. It 
was opened in 1837, but has been much enlarged in the last 
ten years. Hither wend the numerous funerals which are 
seen passing through the streets after Ave-Maria, with a 
procession of monks bearing candles. A frightful gate, with 
a laudatory inscription to Pius IX., and a hideous modern 
chapel, have been erected. There are very few fine mo- 
numents. The best are those in imitation of the cinque- 
cento tombs of which there are so many in the Roman 
churches. That by Podesti, the painter, to his wife, in the 
right corridor of the cloister, is touching. The higher 
ground to the left, behind the church, is occupied by the 
tombs of the rich. Those of the poor are indiscriminately 
scattered over a wide plain. A range of cliffs on the left 


were perforated by the catacombs of Sta. Cyriaca, which, with 
the bad taste .so constantly displayed in Rome, have been 
wantonly and shamefully broken up. Those who do not 
wish to descend into a catacomb, may here see (from with- 
out) all their arrangements — in the passages lined with sepul- 
chres, and even some small chapels, lined with rude frescoes, 
laid open to the air, where the cliff has been cut away. 

A Roman funeral is a most sad sight, and strikes one with 
an unutterable sense of desolation. 

"After a death the body is entirely abandoned to the priests, who 
take possession of it, watch over it, and prepare it for burial ; while the 
family, if they can find refuge anywhere else, abandon the house and 

remain away a week The body is not ordinarily allowed 

to remain in the house more than twelve hours, except on condition 
that it is sealed up in lead or zinc. At nightfall a sad procession of 
becchini and /rati may be seen coming down the street, and stopping 
before the house of the dead. The becchini are taken from the lowest 
classes of the people, and hired to carry the corpse on the bier and to 
accompany it to the church and cemetery. They are dressed in shabby 
black cappe, covering their head and face as well as their body, and 
having two large holes cut in front of the eyes to enable them to see. 
These cappe are girdled round the waist, and the dirty trousers and 
worn-out shoes are miserably manifest under the skirts of their dress — 
showing plainly that their duty is occasional. All the/ratiaxid becchini, 
except the four who carry the bier, are furnished with wax candles, for 
no one is buried in Rome without a candle. You may know the rank 
of the person to be buried by the lateness of the hour and the number 
of the /rati. If it be the funeral of a person of wealth or a noble, it 
takes place at a late hour, the procession of /rati is long, and the bier 
elegant. If it be a state-funeral, as of a prince, carriages accompany it 
in mourning, the coachman and lackeys are bedizened in their richest 
liveries, and the state hammer-cloths are spread on the boxes, with the 
family arms embossed on them in gold. But if it be a pauper's funeral, 
there are only becchini enough to carry the bier to the grave, and two 
/rati, each with a little candle ; and the sunshine is yet on the streets 
when they come to take away the corpse. 

"You will see this procession stop before the house where the corpse 
is lying. Some of the becchini go up-stairs, and some keep guard below. 


Scores of shabby men and boys are gathered round the /rati ; some 
attracted simply by curiosity, and some for the purpose of catching the 
wax, which gutters down from the candles as they are blown by the 
wind. The latter may be known by the great horns of paper which 
they carry in their hands. While this crowd waits for the corpse, the 
/rati light their candles, and talk, laugh, and take snuff together. 
Finally comes the body, borne down by four of the becchini. It is in 
a common rough deal coffin, more like an ill-made packing-case than 
anything else. No care or expense has been laid out upon it to make it 
elegant, for it is only to be seen for a moment. Then it is slid upon the 
bier, and over it is drawn the black velvet pall with golden trimmings, 
on which a cross, death's head, and bones are embroidered. Four of 
the becchini hoist it on their shoulders, the /rati break forth into their 
hoarse chaunt, and the procession sets out for the church. Little and 
big boys and shabby men follow along, holding up their paper horns 
against the sloping candles to catch the dripping wax. Every one takes 
off his hat, or makes the sign of the cross, or mutters a prayer, as the 
body passes ; and with a dull, sad, monotonous chaunt, the candles 
gleaming and flaring, and casting around them a yellow flickering glow, 
the funeral winds along through the narrow streets, and under the 
sombre palaces and buildings, where the shadows of night are deepening 
every moment. The spectacle seen from a distance, and especially 
when looked down upon from a window, is very effective ; but it loses 
much of its solemnity as you approach it; for the /rati are so vulgar, 
dirty, and stupid, and seem so utterly indifferent and heartless, as they 
mechanically croak out their psalms, that all other emotions yield to a 
feeling of disgust." — -Story's Roba di Roma. 

" Ces rapprochements soudains dd'antiquite et des temps modernes, 
provoques par la vue d'un monument dont la destinee se lie a 1'une et 
aux autres, sont ties-frequents a. Rome. L'histoire poetique d'Enee 
aurait pu m'en fournir plusieurs. Ainsi dans l'Eneide, aux funerailles 
de Pallas, une longue procession s'avance, portant des flambeaux 
funebres, suivant l'usage antique, dit Virgile. En effet, on se souvient 
que l'usage des cierges remontait a l'abolition des sacrifices humains, 
accompli clans les temps heroiques par le dieu pelasgique Hercule. La 
description que fait Virgile des funerailles de Pallas pourrait convenir a 
mi de ces enterrements romains ou Ton voit de longues files de capucins 
marchant processionnellcmcnt en portant des cierges. 

' Lucet via longo 
Ordine flammarum.' " 

j£n. xi. 143. 
— Atnpire, i. 217. 


On the other side of the road from S. Lorenzo is the 
Catacomb of St. Hippolytus, interesting as described by the 
Christian poet Prudentius, who wrote at the end of the 
fourth century. 

"Not far from the city walls, among the well-trimmed orchards, 
there lies a crypt buried in darksome pits. Into its secret recesses a 
steep path in the winding stairs directs one, even though the turnings 
shut out the light. The light of clay, indeed, comes in through the 
doorway, as far as the surface of the opening, and illuminates the 
threshold of the portico ; and when, as you advance further, the dark- 
ness as of night seems to get more and more obscure throughout the 
mazes of the cavern, there occur at intervals apertures cut in the roof 
which convey the bright rays of the sun upon the cave. Although the 
recesses, twisting at random this way and that, form narrow chambers 
with darksome galleries, yet a considerable quantity of light finds its 
way through the pierced vaulting down into the hollow bowels of the 
mountain. And thus throughout the subterranean crypt it is possible 
to perceive the brightness and enjoy the light of the absent sun. To 
such secret places is the body of Hippolytus conveyed, near to the spot 
where now stands the altar dedicated to God. That same altar-slab 
(mensa) gives the sacrament, and is the faithful guardian of its martyrs' 
bones, which it keeps laid up there in expectation of the Eternal Judge, 
while it feeds the dwellers by the Tiber with holy food. Wondrous is 
the sanctity of the place ! The altar is at hand for those who pray, and 
it assists the hopes of men by mercifully granting what they need. 
Here have I, when sick with ills both of soul and body, oftentimes 
prostrated myself in prayer and found relief. .... Early in the 
morning men come to salute (Hippolytus): all the youth of the place 
worship here : they come and go until the setting of the sun. Love 
of religion collects together into one dense crowd both Latins and 
foreigners; they imprint their kisses on the shining silver; they pour 
out their sweet balsams; they bedew their faces with tears." — See 
Roma Sotterranea, p. 98. 



S. Antonio dei Portoguesi — Torre della Scimia — S. Agostino — S. 
Apollinare — Palazzo A'ltemps — Sta. Maria dell' Anima — Sta. 
Maria della Pace — Palazzo del Governo Vecchio — Monte Giordano 
and Palazzo Gabrielli — Sta. Maria Nuova — Sta. Maria di Mon- 
serrato — S. Girolamo della Carita — Sta. Brigitta — S. Tommaso 
degl' Inglese — Palazzo Farnese — Sta. Maria della Morte — Palazzo 
Falconieri — Campo di Fiore — Palazzo Cancelleria — SS. Lorenzo e 
Damaso — Palazzo Linote — Palazzo Spada — Trinita dei Pellegrini 
— Sta. Maria in Monticelli — Palazzo Santa Croce — S. Carlo a Cati- 
nari — Theatre of Pompey — S. Andrea della Valle — Palazzo Vidoni 
— Palazzo Massimo alleColonne — S . Pantaleone — Palazzo Braschi — ■ 
Statue of Pasquin — Sant' Agnese — Piazza Navona — Palazzo Pamfili 
— S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli — Palazzo Madama — S. Luigi dei 
Francesi — The Sapienza — S. Eustachio — Pantheon — Sta. Maria 
sopra Minerva — II Pie die Marmo. 

HP HE Campus Martius, now an intricate labyrinth of 
streets, occupying the wide space between the Corso 
and the Tiber, was not included within the walls of 
ancient Rome, but even to late imperial times continued to 
be covered with gardens and pleasure-grounds, interspersed 
with open spaces, which were used for the public exercises 
and amusements of the Roman youth. 

" Tunc ego me memini ludos in gramine Campi 
Aspicere, et didici, lubrice Tibri, tuos." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 237. 


"Tot jam abiere dies, cum me, nee cura theatri, 
Nee tetigit Campi, nee mea musa juvat." 

Propcrt. ii. El. 13. 

The vicinity of the Tiber afforded opportunities for prac- 
tice in swimming. 

" Quamvis non alius flectere equum sciens 
/Eque conspicitur gramine Martio." 

Hoi: iii. Od. 7. 

"Altera gramineo spectabis Equina campo, 
Quem Tiberis curvis in latus urget aquis." 

Ovid, Fast. iii. 519. 

"Once, upon a raw and gusty day, 
The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores, 
Caesar said to me, ' Dar'st thou, Cassius, now 
Leap in with me into this angry flood, 
And swim to yonder point ? ' Upon the word, 
Accoutred as I was, I plunged in, 
And bade him follow, — so, indeed, he did : 
The torrent roared ; and we did buffet it 
With lusty sinews ; throwing it aside, 
And stemming it with hearts of controversy." 

Sliakspeare, Julius Ccesar. 

It was only near the foot of the Capitol that any build- 
ings were erected under the republic, and these only public 
offices ; under the empire a few magnificent edifices were 
scattered here and there over the plain. In the time of 
Cicero, the Campus was quite uninhabited ; it is supposed 
that the population were first attracted here when the 
aqueducts were cut during the Lombard invasion, which 
drove the inhabitants from the hills, and obliged them to 
seek a site where they could avail themselves of the Tiber. 

The hills, which were crowded by a dense population in 
ancient Rome, are now for the most part deserted ; the 


plain, which was deserted in ancient Rome, is now thickly 
covered with inhabitants. 

The plain was bounded on two sides by the Quirinal and 
Capitoline hills, which were both in the hands of the 
Sabines, but it had no connection with the Latin hill of 
the Palatine. Thus it was dedicated to the Sabine god, 
Mamers or Mars, either before the time of Servius Tullius, 
as is implied by Dionysius, or after the time of the Tarquins, 
as stated by Livy. 

Tarquinius Superbus had appropriated the Campus 
Martius to his own use, and planted it with corn. After he 
was expelled, and his crops cut down and thrown into the 
Tiber, the land was restored to the people. Here the 
tribunes used to hold the assemblies of the plebs in the 
Prata Flaminia at the foot of the Capitol, before any build- 
ings were erected as their meetingqjlace. 

The earliest building in the Campus Martius of which 
there is any record, is the Temple of Apollo, built by the 
consul C. Julius, in B.C. 430. Under the censor C. Flami- 
nius, in B.C. 220, a group of important edifices arose on a 
site which is ascertained to be nearly that occupied by the 
Palazzo Caetani, Palazzo Mattei, and Sta. Caterina dei 
Funari. The most important was the Circus Flaminius, 
where the plebeian fames were celebrated under the care of 
the plebeian aediles, and which in later times was flooded 
by Augustus, when thirty-six crocodiles were killed there 
for the amusement of the people.* 

Close to this Circus was the Villa Publica, erected B.C. 
438, for taking the census, levying troops, and such other 
public business as could not be transacted within the city. 

* Dyer's Rome, 70. 


Here, also, foreign ambassadors were received before their 
entrance into the city, as afterwards at the Villa Papa 
Giulio, and here victorious generals awaited the decree 
which allowed them a triumph.* It was in the Villa 
Publica that Sylla cruelly massacred three thousand parti- 
sans of Marius, after he had promised them their lives. 

" Tunc flos llesperiae, Latii jam sola juventus, 
Concidit, et misera? maculavit ovilia Romae." 

Lucan, ii. 196. 

The cries of these dying men were heard by the senate 
who were assembled at the time in the Temple of Bellona 
(restored by Appius Claudius Caucus in the Samnite War), 
which stood hard by, and in front of which at the extremity 
of the Circus Flarninius, where the Piazza Paganica now is, 
stood the Columna Bellica, where the Ferialis, when war 
was declared, flung a lance into a piece of ground, supposed 
to represent the enemy's country, when it was not possible 
to do it at the hostile frontier itself. Julius Csesar flung the 
spear here when war was declared against Cleopatra.t 

" Prospicit a templo summum brevis area Circum. 
Est ibi non parvae parva columna notae. 
Hinc solet hasta manu, belli praenuncia, mitti ; 
In regem et gentes, cum placet arma capi." 

Ovid, Fast vi. 205. 

Almost adjoining the Villa Publica was the Septa, 
where the Comitia Centuriata of the plebs assembled 
for the election of their tribunes.* The other name of this 
place of assembly, Ovilia, or the sheepfolds, bears wit- 
ness to its primitive construction, when it was surrounded 
by a wooden barrier. In later times the Ovilia was more 

* Ampere, Tlist. ii. 10. t AmpCre, Emp. i. 184. 


richly adorned ; Pliny describes it as containing two groups 
of sculpture — Pan and the young Olympus, and Chiron and 
the young Achilles — for which the keepers were responsible 
with their lives ; * and under the empire it was enclosed in 
magnificent buildings. 

In B.C. 189 the Temple of Hercules Musagetes was built by 
the censor Fulvius Nobilior. It occupied a site on the 
north-west of the portico of Octavia.t Sylla restored it : — 

"Altera pars Circi custode sub Hercule tuta est; 
Quod Deus Euboico carmine raunus habet. 
Muneris est tempus, qui Nonas Lucifer ante est : 
Si titulos quceris; Sulla probavit opus." 

Ovid, Fast. vi. 209. 

This temple was rebuilt by L. Marcius Philippus, step- 
father of Augustus, and surrounded by a portico called after 
him Porticus Philippic 

" Vites censeo porticum Philippi, 
Si te viderit Hercules, peristi." 

Martial, v. Ep. 50. § 

The Portico of Octavia itself was originally built by the 
praetor, Cn. Octavius, in e.g. 167, and rebuilt by Augustus, 
who re-dedicated it in memory of his sister. Close adjoin- 
ing was the Porticus Metelli, built B.C. 146, by Csecilius 
Metellus. [| It contained two Temples of Juno and Jupiter. %. 
Another Temple of Juno stood between this and the theatre 
of Pompey, having been erected by M. ^Emilius Lepidus in 

* Pliny, H. N. xxxv. 37, 2 ; and 49, 4. 

t 1 >yer, tix. t Dyer, 211. 

§ It was close to this temple of Hercules that the bodies of Sta. Symphorosa and 
her seven sons, martyred under Hadrian (" the seven Biothanati "), were buried by 
order of the emperor. Sta. Symphorosa herself had been hung up here by her hair, 
b I IN l"ing drowned in the 'liber. 

|| Dyer, 113, 115. II AmpOre, Hist. Rom. iii. 198. 


B.C. 170, together with a Temple of Diana* Near the same 
spot was a Temple of Fortuna Equestris, erected in conse- 
quence of a vow of Q. Fulvius Flaccus when fighting 
against the Celtiberians in B.C. 176; a Temple of /sis and 
Serapis ; and a Temple of Mars, erected by D. Junius 
Brutus, for his victories over the Gallicians in b.c. 136 ;f at 
this last-named temple the people, assembled in their cen- 
turies, voted the war against Philip of Macedon. In the 
same neighbourhood was the Theatre of Balbus, a general 
under Julius Coesar, occupying the site of the Piazza della 

The munificence of Pompey extended the public build- 
ings much further into the Campus. He built, after his 
triumph, a Temple of Minerva on the site now occupied by 
the Church of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, on which the 
beautiful statue called " the Giustiniani Minerva " was found, 
and the Theatre of Pompey, surrounded by pillared porticoes 
and walks shaded with plane-trees. 

" Scilicet umbrosis sordet Pompeia columnis 
Porticus aulreis nobilis Attalicis : 
F.t creber pariter platanis surgentibus ordo, 
Flumina sopito quaeque Marone cadunt. " 

Propcriiiis, ii. El. 32. 
" Tu modo Pompeia lentus spatiare sub umbra, 
Cum Sol Herculei terga leonis adit." 

Ovid, de Art. Am. i. 67. 
" Inde petit centum pendentia tecta columnis, 
Illinc Pompeii dona, nemusque duplex." 

Martial, ii. Ep. 14. 

Under the empire important buildings began to rise up 
further from the city. The Amphitheatre of Sta till us Taurus, 
whose ruins are supposed to be the foundation of the 

* Dyer, 115. f Dyer, 115, 116. 


Monte-Citorio, was built by a general under Augustus ; the 
magnificent Pantheon, the Baths of Agrippa, and the Di- 
ribitorium — where the soldiers received their pay — whose 
huge and unsupported roof was one of the wonders of the 
city,* were due to his son-in-law. Agrippa also brought 
the Aqua Virgo into the city to supply his baths, convey- 
ing it on pillars across the Flaminian Way, the future 

" Qua vicina pluit Vipsanis porta columnis, 
Et madet assiduo lubricus imbre lapis, 
In jugulum pueri, qui roscida templa subibat, 
Decidit hiberno pra?gravis unda gelu." 

Martial, iv. Ep. iS. 

Near this aqueduct was a temple of Juturna ; 

"Te quoque lux eadem, Turni soror, cede recepit ; 
Hie ubi Virginea campus obitur aqua." 

Ovid, Fast. i. 463. 

and another of Isis. 

"A Meroe portabit aquas, ut spargat in cede 
Isidis, antique* quae proxima surgit ovili." 

Juvenal, Sat. vi. 528. 

These were followed by the erection of the Temple oj 
Neptune — by some ascribed to Agrippa, who is said to have 
built it in honour of his naval victories, by others to the 
time of the Antonines ; by the great Imperial Mausoleum, 
then far out in the country ; and by the Baths of Nero, on 
the site now occupied by S. Luigi and the neighbouring 

"... Quid Nerone pejus ? 
Quid llicnnis melius Neronianis ? " 

Martial, vii. Ep. 33. 

* Pliny, H. N. xxxvi. 15, 24. 


" . . . Fas sit componere magnis 
Farva, Neronca nee qui modo totus in unda 
Hie iterum sudare negat." 

Statins, Silv. i. 5- 

Besides these were an Arch of Tiberius, erected by 
Claudius ; a Temple of Hadrian and Basilica of Matidia, 
built by Antoninus Pius, in honour of his predecessors ; 
the Temple and Arch of Marcus Aurelius, near the site of 
the present Palazzo Chigi ; and an Arch of Gratiau, Valen- 
tinian II, and Theodosius. 

Of all these various buildings nothing remains except the 
Pantheon, a single arch of the Baths of Agrippa, some dis- 
figured fragments of the Mausoleum, a range of columns 
belonging to the temple of Neptune, and a portion of the 
Portico of Octavia. The interest of the Campus Martius 
is almost entirely mediaeval or modern, and the objects 
worth visiting are scattered amid such a maze of dirty and 
intricate streets, that they are seldom sought out except by 
those who make a long stay in Rome, and care for every- 
thing connected with its history and architecture. 

Following the line of streets which leads from the Piazza 
di Spagna to St. Peter's (Via Condotti, Via Fontanella 
Borghese), beyond the Borghese Palace, let us turn to the 
left by the Via della Scrofa,* at the entrance of which is 
the Palazzo Galitzin on the right, and the Palazzo Cardclli 
on the left. 

Passing, on the right, St. Ivo of Brittany, the national 
church of the Bretons, the second turn on the right, Via S. 

* So called from a fountain adorned with the figure of a sow, which once existed 


Antonio dei Portoguesi, shows a church dedicated to St. 
Anthony of Padua, and the fine mediaeval tower called 
Torre della Scimia. 

In this tower once lived a man who had a favourite ape. 
One day this creature seized upon a baby, and rushing to 
the summit, was seen from below, by the agonized parents, 
perched upon the battlements, and balancing their child to 
and fro over the abyss. They made a vow in their terror 
that if the baby were restored in safety, they would make 
provision that a lamp should burn nightly for ever before an 
image of the Virgin on the summit. The monkey, without 
relaxing its hold of the infant, slid down the wall, and 
bounding and grimacing, laid the child at its mother's feet. 
Thus a lamp always burns upon the battlements before an 
image of the Madonna. 

This building is better known, however, as " Hilda's 
Tower," a fictitious name which it has received from Haw- 
thorne's mysterious novel. 

" Taking her way through some of the intricacies of the city, Miriam 
entered what might be called either a widening of a street or a small 
piazza. The neighbourhood comprised a baker's oven, emitting the 
usual fragrance of sour bread ; a shoe shop ; a linendraper's shop ; a 
pipe and cigar shop ; a lottery office ; a station for French soldiers, with 
a sentinel pacing in front ; and a fruit stand, at which a Roman matron 
was selling the dried kernels of chesnuts, wretched little figs, and some 
bouquets of yesterday. A church, of course, was near at hand, the 
facade of which ascended into lofty pinnacles, whereon were perched 
two or three winged figures of stone, either angelic or allegorical, blow- 
ing stone trumpets in close vicinity to the upper windows of an old 
and shabby palace. This palace was distinguished by a feature not 
very common in the architecture of Roman edifices ; that is to say, a 
mediaeval tower, square, massive, lofty, and battlemented and machico- 
lated at the summit. 

" At one of the angles of the battlements stood a shrine of the Virgin, 


such as we see everywhere at the street-corners of Rome, but seldom or 
never, except in this solitary instance, at a height above the ordinary 
level of men's views and aspirations. Connected with this old tower and 
its lofty shrine, there is a legend ; and for centuries a lamp has been 
burning before the Virgin's image at noon, at midnight, at all hours of 
the twenty-four, and must be kept burning for ever, as long as the tower 
shall stand ; or else the tower itself, the palace, and whatever estate be- 
longs to it, shall pass from its hereditary possessor, in accordance with 
an ancient vow, and become the property of the Church. 

" As Miriam approached, she looked upward, and saw — not, indeed, 
the flame of the never-dying lamp, which was swallowed up in the broad 
sunlight that brightened the shrine — but a flock of white doves, shining, 
fluttering, and wheeling above the topmost height of the tower, their 
silver wings flashing in the pure transparency of the air. Several of 
them sat on the ledge of the upper window, pushing one another off by 
their eager struggle for this favourite station, and all tapping their beaks 
and flapping their wings tumultuously against the panes ; some had 
alighted in the street, far below, but flew hastily upward, at the sound 
of the window being thrust ajar, and opening in the middle, on rusty 
hinges, as Roman windows do." — Transformation. 

The next street, on the right, leads to the Church of S. 
Agostiiio, built originally by Bacio Pintelli, in 1483, for 
Cardinal d'Estouteville, archbishop of Rouen and Legate 
in France (the vindicator of Joan of Arc), but altered in 
1740 by Vanvitelli. The delicate work of the front, built 
of travertine robbed from the Coliseum, is much admired 
by those who do not seek for strength of light and shadow. 
This church — dedicated to her son — contains the remains 
of Sta. Monica, brought hither from Ostia, where she died. 
The chapel of St. Augustin, in the right transept, contains 
a gloomy picture by Guercino of St. Augustin between St. 
John Baptist and St. Paul the Hermit. The high altar, by 
Bernini, has an image of the Madonna brought from Sta. 
Sophia at Constantinople, and attributed to St Luke. 
The second chapel in the left aisle has a group of the 


Virgin and Child with St. Anna, by Andrea Sansovino, 15 12. 
On the third pilaster, to the left of the nave, is a fresco 
of Isaiah by Raphael, painted in 15 12, but retouched by 
Daniele de Volterra in the reign of Paul IV. The prophet 
holds a scroll with words from Isaiah xxvi. 2. Few will 
agree with the stricture of Kugler : — 

" In a fresco, representing the prophet Isaiah and two angels, who 
hold a tablet, the comparison is unfavourable to Raphael. An effort to 
rival the powerful style of Michael-Angelo is very visible in this picture ; 
an effort which, notwithstanding the excellence of the execution in 
parts, has produced only an exaggerated and affected figure." — Kugler, 
ii. 371. 

The church overflows with silver hearts and other votive 
offerings, which are all addressed to the Madonna and 
Child of Andrea Sansovino, close to the west entrance, 
which is really a fine piece of sculpture — for an object of 
Roman Catholic idolatry. 

"On the pedestal of the image is inscribed — ' N. S. Pio VII. con- 
cede in perpetuo 100 giorni d'indulgenza da lucrarsi una volta al 
giorno da tutte quelle che divotamente toccheranno il piede di questa S. 
Immagine recitando un Ave Maria per il bisogno di S. Chiesa. 7 Giug. 

Around this statue are, or were a short time ago, a whole 
array of assassins' daggers hung up, strange instances of 

" The Church of S. Agostino is the Methodist meeting-house, so to 
speak, of Rome, where the extravagance of the enthusiasm of the lower 
orders is allowed the freest scope. Its Virgin and Child are covered, 
smothered, with jewels, votive offerings of those whose prayers the image 
ha'l heard and answered. All round the image the walls are covered 
with votive offerings likewise ; some of a similar kind — jewels, watches, 
valuables of different descriptions. Some offerings again consist of 


pictures, representing, generally in the rudest way, some sickness or 
accident, cured or averted by the appearance in the clouds of the 
Madonna, as seen in the image. Almost the whole side of the church 
is covered, from pavement to roof, with these curious productions." — 
A /ford's Letters from Abroad. 

"It is not long since the report was spread, that one day when a 
poor woman called upon this image of the Madonna for help, it began 
to speak, and replied, 'If I had only something, then I could help 
thee, but I myself am so poor ! ' 

"This story was circulated, and very soon throngs of credulous 
people hastened hither to kiss the foot of the Madonna, and to present 
her with all kinds of gifts. The image of the Virgin, a beautiful figure 
in brown marble, now sits shining with ornaments of gold and precious 
stones. Candles and lamps burn around, and people pour in, rich and 
poor, great and small, to kiss, some of them two or three times — the 
Madonna's foot, a gilt foot, to which the forehead also is devotionally 
pressed. The marble foot is already worn away with kissing, the 
Madonna is now rich. . . Below the altar it is inscribed in golden 
letters that Pius VII. promised two hundred days' absolution to all such 
as should kiss the Madonna's foot, and pray with the whole heart Ave 
Maria ." — Frederika Bremer. 

Passing the arch, just beyond this, is the Church of S. 
Afollinare, built originally by Adrian I. (772 — 795), but 
modernized under Benedict XIV. by Fuga. It contains a 
number of relics of saints brought from the East by Basi- 
lian monks. Over the altar, on the left, in the inner vesti- 
bule, is a Madonna by Perugino. The church now belongs 
to the German college. 

S. Apollinare is said to have accompanied St. Peter from Antioch 
to Rome, and to have remained here as his companion and assistant 
(whence the church dedicated to him here). He was afterwards sent 
to preach the faith in Ravenna, where he became the first Christian 
bishop, and suffered martyrdom outside the Rimini gate, July 23, 
a.d. 79. 

Adjoining this church is the Seminario Romano, founded 
by Pius IV., on a system drawn up by his nephew, S. Carlo 


Borromeo. Eight hundred young boys are annually edu- 
cated here. In order to gain admittance, it is necessary to 
be of Roman birth, to be acquainted with grammar, and to 
wish to take orders. Pupils are held to their first intention 
of entering the priesthood, by being compelled to refund all 
the expenses of their education, if they renounce it. 

Nearly opposite the church is the Palazzo Altcmps, built 
1580, by Martino Lunghi. Its courtyard, due, like all 
the best palace work in Rome, to Baldassare Peruzzi, 
is exceedingly graceful and picturesque. Ancient statues 
and flowering shrubs occupy the spaces between the 
arches of the ground-floor, and on the first-floor is a 
loggia, richly decorated with delicate arabesques in the 
style of Giovanni da Udine. Near this loggia is a 
chapel of exceedingly beautiful proportions, and delicately 
worked detail. It has several good frescoes, especially 
the Flight into Egypt, and Sta. Cecilia singing to the 
Virgin and the Child. At the west end is a small grace- 
fully proportioned music-gallery, in various coloured 
marbles ; in an inner chapel is a fine bronze crucifix. The 
palace, of which the most interesting parts are shown on 
request, is now the property of the Duke of Gallese, to 
whom it came by the marriage of Jules Hardouin, Duke of 
Gallese, with Donna Lucrezia dAltemps. 

Following the Via S. Agostino by the mediaeval Torre 
Sanguinea, whose name bears witness to the mediaeval 
frays of popes and anti-popes, we reach the German 
national church of Sta. Maria del? Anima, which derives its 
name from a marble group of the Madonna invoked by two 
souls in purgatory, found among the foundations, and now 
inserted in the tympanum of the portal. It was originally 


built c. 1440, with funds bequeathed by "un certo Gio- 
vanni Pietro," but enlarged in 1514; the facade is by 
Giuliano da Sangallo. The door-frames, of delicate work- 
manship, are by Antonio Giamberti. 

The front entrance is generally closed, but one can 
always gain admittance from behind, through the courtyard 
of the German hospital. 

The interior is peculiar, from its great height and width 
in comparison with its length. It is divided into three 
almost equal aisles. Over the high altar is a damaged 
picture of the Holy Family with saints, by Giulio Romano. 
On the right is the fine tomb of Pope Adrian VI., Adrian 
Florent (1522 — 23), designed by Baldassare Peruzzi, and 
carried out by Michelangelo Sanese and Niccolo Tribolo. 
This pope, the son of a ship-builder at Utrecht, was pro- 
fessor at the university of Louvain, and tutor of Charles V. 
After the witty, brilliant age of Julius II. and Leo X., he 
ushered in a period of penitence and devotion. He drove 
from the papal court the throng of artists and philosophers 
who had hitherto surrounded it, and he put a stop to the 
various great buildings which were in progress, saying, " I 
do not wish to adorn priests with churches, but churches 
with priests." Still he found the times so much too fri- 
volous for him, that he only survived a year. In his 
epitaph we read : — 

"Hadrianus hie situs est, qui nihil sibi infelicius in vita quam quod 
imperaret, duxit."* 

and — 

" Proh dolor ! quantum refert in quae tempora vel optimi. 
. . . Cujusque virtus incidat ! " 

"Here rest;. Hadrian, who found his greatest misfortune in being obliged to 


The tomb was erected at the expense of Cardinal William 
of Enkenfort, the only prelate to whom he had time to give 
a hat. 

"It is an irony, that Adrian, who despised all the arts on prin- 
ciple, and looked upon Greek statues as idolatrous, had a more, artistic 
monument than I-eo X. of the house of Medici. Baldassare Pe- 
ruzzi made the design, its sculptures were carried out by Michelangelo 
Sanese and Tribolo, and they merit the highest acknowledgment. Here, 
as is so often the case, the architecture is, as it were, a frontispiece ; but 
the way in which the pope is represented, resembles, in conformity with 
his character, the type of the middle ages. He is stretched upon a 
simple marble sarcophagus, and slumbers with his head supported by 
his hand. His countenance (Adrian was very handsome) is deeply 
marked and sorrowful. In the lunette above, following the ancient 
type, appears Mary with the Child between St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Below, in the niches, stand the figures of the four cardinal virtues : 
Temperance holds a chain ; Courage a branch of a tree, while a lion 
stands by her side; Justice has an ostrich by her side; Wisdom carries 
a mirror and a serpent. These figures are executed with great care. 
Lastly, under the sarcophagus is a large bas-relief representing the entry 
of the pope to Rome. He sits on horseback in the dress of a cardinal ; 
behind him follow cardinals and monks ; the senator of Rome renders 
homage on his knees, while from the gate the eternal Rome comes forth 
to meet him. This Cypria, so well adorned by his predecessors, seems 
ill-pleased to do homage to this cross old man. With secret pleasure 
one sees a pagan idea carried out in the corner: the Tiber is represented 
as a river god with his horn of abundance ; and thus the devout pope 
could not defend himself against the heathen spirit of the time, which 
has at least attached itself to his tomb." — Gregorovius, Grabmaler der 

Opposite the pope, on the left of the choir, is the fine 
tomb of a Duke of Cleves, who died 1575, by Egidius of 
Riviere and Nicolaus of Arras. 

The body of the church has several good pictures. In 
the 1 st chapel of the right aisle is St. Bruno receiving the 
keys of the cathedral of Miessen in Saxony from a fisherman, 
who had found them in the inside of a fish, by Carlo Sara- 


Cent; in the 2nd chapel, the monument of Cardinal Slusius; 
m the 3rd chapel, an indifferent copy of the Pieta. of Michael 
Angelo, by Nanni di Bacio Bigio. In the 1st chapel of the 
left aisle is the martyrdom of St. Lambert, C. Saraccni. 

The two pictures in this church are cited by Lanzi as the best works 
of this comparatively rare artist, sometimes called Carlo Veneziano, 
1 585 — 1625. He sought to follow in the steps of Caravaggio ; many will 
think that he surpassed him, when they look upon the richness of colour 
and grand effect of light and shadow which is displayed here. 

In the 3rd chapel (del Christo Morto), frescoes from the 
life of Sta. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie, altar-piece (the entomb- 
ment) and frescoes by Salviati. 

On the left of the west door is the tomb of Cardinal 
Andrea of Austria, nephew of Ferdinand II., who died 1650 ; 
on the right that of Cardinal Enckenovirt, died 1500. In 
the passage towards the sacristy is a fine bas-relief, repre- 
senting Gregory XIII. giving a sword to the Duke of 

Close to this church is that of Sta. Maria dclla Pace, 
built in 1487, by Baccio Pintelli, to fulfil a curious ex-voto 
made by Sixtus IV. Formerly there stood here a little 
chapel dedicated to St. Andrew, in whose portico was an 
image of the Virgin. One day a drunken soldier pierced 
the bosom of this Madonna with his sword, when blood 
miraculously spirted forth. Sixtus IV. (Francesco della 
Rovere, 1471—84) visited the spot with his cardinals, and 
vowed to compensate the Virgin by building her a church, 
if she would grant peace to Europe and the Church, then 
afflicted by a cruel war with the Turks. Peace was restored, 
and the Church of " St. Mary of Peace " was erected by the 
grateful pope. Pietro da Cortona added the peculiar semi- 


circular portico under Alexander VII. The interior has 
only a short nave ending under an octagonal cupola. 

Above the ist chapel on the right (that of the Chigi 
family) are the Four Sibyls of Raphael. 

"This is one of Raphael's most perfect works: great mastery is 
shown in the mode of filling and taking advantage of the apparently un- 
favourable space. The angels who hold the tablets to be written on, or 
read by the Sibyls, create a spirited variety in the severe symmetrical 
arrangement of the whole. Grace in the attitudes and movements, 
with a peculiar harmony of form and colour, pervade the whole picture ; 
but important restorations have unfortunately become necessary in 
several parts. An interesting comparison may be instituted between 
this work and the Sibyls of Michael Angelo. In each we find the pecu- 
liar excellence of the great masters ; for while Michael Angelo's figures 
are grand, sublime, profound, the fresco of the Pace bears the impress of 
Raphael's severe and ingenious grace. The four Prophets, on the wall 
over the Sibyls, were executed by Timoteo della Vite, after drawings 
by Raphael.' " — Kugler. 

"The Sibyls have suffered much from time, and more, it is said, 
from restoration ; yet the forms of Raphael, in all their loveliness, 
all their sweetness, are still before us ; they breathe all the soul, the 
sentiment, the chaste expression, and purity of design that characterize 
his works. The dictating angels hover over the heads of the gifted 
maids, one of whom writes with rapid pen the irreversible decrees of 
Fate. The countenances and musing attitudes of her sister Sibyls 
express those feelings of habitual thoughtfulness and pensive sadness 
natural to those who are cursed with the knowledge of futurity, and all 
its coming evils." — Eatorfs Rome. 

"The Sibyls are simply beautiful women of antique form, to whom, 
with the aid of books, scrolls, and inscriptions, the Sibyllic idea has 
been given, but who would equally pass for the abstract personifications 
of virtues or cities. They are four in number, — the Cumana, Phrygia, 
Persica, and Tiburtina ; all, with the exception of the last, in the ful- 
ness of youth and beauty, and occupied, apparently, with no higher aim 
than that of displaying both. Indeed, the Tiburtina matches ill with 
the rest, either in character or action. She is aged, has an open book 
on her Jap, but turns with a strange and rigid action as if suddenly 
called. The very comparison with her tends to divest the others of the 
Sibylline character. In this, the angels who float above, and obviously 
inspire them, also help, for while adding to the charm of the compo- 


sition, which is one of the most exquisite as to mere art, they interfere 
with that inwardly inspired expression which all other art has given to 
these women. 

" The inscription on the scroll of the Cumrean Sibyl gives in Greek 
the words, ' The Resurrection of the Dead.' The Persica is writing on 
the scroll held by the angel, 'He will have the lot of Death.' The 
beautiful Phrygia is presented with a scroll, 'The heavens surround the 
sphere of the earth ; ' and the Tiburtina has under her the inscription, 
' I will open and arise.' The fourth angel floats above, holding the 
seventh line of Virgil's Eclogue, 'Jam nova progenies.'" — Lady East- 
lake's ' History of Our Lord! 

The i st chapel on the left has monuments of the Ponzetti 
family. The 2nd chapel on the left has an altar-piece of the 
Virgin between St. Bridget and St. Catherine, by Baldassare 
Pernzzi ; in the front of the picture kneels the donor, Car- 
dinal Ponzetti. The 1st altar on the right has the Adoration 
of the Shepherds by Sermoneta. The 2nd chapel, the 
burial-place of the Santa Croce family, has rich carved 
work of the sixteenth century. The high altar, designed by 
Carlo Maderno, has an ancient (miracle-working) Madonna. 
Of the four paintings of the cupola, the Nativity of the 
Virgin is by Francesco Vanni; the Visitation, Carlo Ma- 
ratta ; the Presentation in the Temple, Baldassare Pcruzzi ; 
the Death of the Virgin, Morandi. 

Newly-married couples have the touching custom of at- 
tending their first mass here, and invoking " St. Mary of 
Peace " to rule the course of their new life. 

The Cloister of the Convent, entered on the left under the 
dome, was designed by Bramante for Cardinal Caraffa in 

From the portico of the church the Via in Parione leads 
to the Via del Governo VeccJiio. Here, on the right, is the 
Palazzo del Governo Veccliio, with a richly-sculptured door- 
way, and ancient cloistered court. 


Proceeding as far as the Piazza del Orologio, we see on 
the right an eminence known as Monte Giordano, supposed 
to be artificial, and to have arisen from the ruins of ancient 

Its name is derived from Giordano Orsini, a noble of one of the 
oldest Roman families, who built the palace there, which is now known 
as the Palazzo Gabrielli, and which has rather a handsome fountain. It 
was probably in consequence of the name Jordan, that this hillock was 
chosen in mediaeval times as the place where the Jews in Rome received 
the newly-elected pope on his way to the Lateran, and where their 
elders, covered with veils, presented him, on their knees, with a copy of 
the Pentateuch bound in gold. Then the Jews spoke in Hebrew, say- 
ing, " Most holy Father, we Hebrew men beseech your Holiness, in the 
name of our synagogue, to vouchsafe to us that the Mosaic Law, given 
on Mount Sinai by the Almighty God to Moses our priest, may be con- 
firmed and approved, as also other eminent popes, the predecessors of 
your Holiness, have approved and confirmed it. " And the pope replied, 
" We confirm the Law, but we condemn your faith and interpretation 
thereof, because He who you say is to come, the Lord Jesus Christ, is 
come already, as our Church teaches and preaches." 

Turning to the left, we enter a piazza, one side of which 
is occupied by the convent of the Oratorians, and the vast 
Church of Santa Maria in Valicella, or the Chiesa Nuova, 
built by Martino Lunghi for Gregory XIII. and S. Filippo 
Neri. The facade is by Rughesi. The decorations of 
the magnificently-ugly interior are partly due to Pietro 
da Cortona, who painted the roof and cupola. 

On the left of the tribune is the gorgeous Chapel of S. 
Filippo Neri, containing the shrine of the saint, rich in lapis- 
lazuli and gold, surmounted by a mosaic copy of the picture 
by Guido in the adjoining convent. 

On the right, in the ist chapel, is the Crucifixion, by Sci- 
pionc Gaetani; in the 3rd chapel, the Ascension, Maziano. 
On the left, in the 2nd chapel, is the Adoration of the Magi, 


Cesare Ncbbia ; in the 3rd chapel, the Nativity, Durante 
Alberti; in the 4th chapel, the Visitation, Baroccio. In the 
left transept are statues of SS. Peter and Paul, by Fa/so/do, 
and the Presentation in the Temple, by Baroccio. When S. 
Filippo Neri saw this picture, he said to the painter " Ma 
come avete ben fatto ! — Che vera somiglianza ! — E cosi che 
mi ha apparato tante volte la Santa Vergine." 

The high altar has four columns of porta-santa. Its 
pictures are by Rubens in his youth ; — that in the centre re- 
presents the Virgin in a glory of angels ; on the right are 
St. Gregory, S. Mauro, and St. Papias • on the left St. 
Domitilla, St. Nereus, and St. Achilleus. 

The Sacristy, entered from the left transept, is by Maru- 
celli. It has a grand statue of S. Filippo Neri, by Algardi. 
The ceiling is painted by Pietro da Cortona — the subject 
is an angel bearing the instruments of the passion to 

The Monastery, built by Borromini, contains the magni- 
ficent library founded by S. Filippo. The cell of the saint 
is accessible, even to ladies. It retains his confessional, 
chair, shoes, rope-girdle, — and also a cast taken from his 
face after death, and some pictures which belonged to him, 
including one of Sta. Francesca Romana, and the portrait 
of an archbishop of Florence. In the private chapel ad- 
joining, is the altar at which he daily said mass, over which 
is a picture of his time. Here also are the crucifix which 
was in his hands when he died, his candlesticks, and some 
sacred pictures on tablets which he carried to the sick. The 
door of the cell is the same, and the little bell by which he 
summoned his attendant. In a room below is the carved 
coffin in which he lay in state, a picture of him lying dead, 


and the portrait by Guercino from which the mosaic in the 
church is taken. A curious picture in this chamber repre- 
sents an earthquake at Beneventum, in which Pope Gregory 
XIV. believed that his life was saved by an image of S. 
Filippo. When S. Filippo Nero died, — as in the case of S. 
Antonio, — the Catholic world exclaimed intuitively, "II 
Santo e morto ! " 

" Let the world flaunt her glories ! each glittering prize, 
Though tempting to others, is naught in my eyes. 
A child of St. Philip, my master and guide, 
I would live as he lived, and would die as he died. 

" If scanty my fare, yet how was he fed ? 

On olives and herbs and a small roll of bread. 

Are my joints and bones sore with aches and with pains ? 

Philip scourged his young flesh with fine iron chains. 

" A closet his home, where he, year after year, 
Bore heat or cold greater than heat or cold here ; 
A rope stretch' d across it, and o'er it he spread 
His small stock of clothes ; and the floor was his bed. 

" One lodging besides; God's temple he chose, 
And he slept in its porch his few hours of repose ; 
Or studied by light which the altar-lamp gave, 
Or knelt at the martyr's victorious grave." 

J. H. Newman, 1857. 

The church of the Chiesa Nuova belongs exclusively to 
the Oratorian Fathers. Pope Leo XII. wished to turn it 
into a parish church. 

" It was said that the superior of the house took, and showed, to the 
Holy Father, an autograph memorial of the founder St. Philip Neri to 
the pope of his day, petitioning that his church should never be a parish. 
And below it was written that pope's promise, also in his own hand, that 
it never should. This pope was St. Pius V. Leo bowed to such au- 
thorities, said that lie could not contend against two saints, and altered 
his plans.'' — WUemaris Life of Leo XII. 

" S. Filippo Neri was good-humoured, witty, strict in essentials, 


indulgent in trifles. He never commanded; he advised, or perhaps 
requested : he did not discourse, he conversed : and he possessed, in a 
remarkable degree, the acuteness necessary to distinguish the peculiar 
merit of every character." — Ranke. 

" S. Filippo Neri laid the foundation of the Congregation of Orato- 
rians in 1 55 1. Several priests and young ecclesiastics associating them- 
selves with him, began to assist him in his conferences, and in reading 
prayers and meditations to the people in the Church of the Holy Trinity. 
They were called Oratorians, because at certain hours every morning 
and afternoon, by ringing a bell, they called the people to the church to 
prayers and meditations. In 1564, when the saint had formed his con- 
gregation into a regular community, he preferred several of his young 
ecclesiastics to holy orders ; one of whom was the eminent Csesar Ba- 
ronius, whom, for his sanctity, Benedict XIV., by a decree dated on 
the I2th of January, 1745, honoured with the title of 'Venerable Servant 
of God. ' At the same time he formed his disciples into a community, 
using one common purse and table, and he gave them rules and statutes. 
He forbade any of them to bind themselves to this state by vow or oath, 
that all might live together joined only by the bands of fervour and holy 
charity ; labouring with all their strength to establish the kingdom of 
Christ in themselves by the most perfect sanctification of their own souls, 
and to propagate the same in the souls of others, by preaching, instruct- 
ing the ignorant, and teaching the Christian doctrine." — A/ban Butler. 

"S. Filippo Neri exacted from his scholars and associates various 
undignified outward acts. He required from a young Roman prince, 
who wished to enjoy the distinction of being a member of his Order, 
that he should walk through Rome with a fox's tail fastened on behind: 
and when the prince declined to submit to this, he was declined 
admission to the Order. Another was made to go through the city 
without a coat ; and another, with torn and tattered sleeves. A noble- 
man took compassion on the last, and offered him a new pair of sleeves: 
the youth declined, but afterwards, by command of the master, was 
obliged gratefully to fetch and wear them. During the building of the 
new church, he compelled his disciples to bring up the materials like day 
labourers, and to lay their hands to the work." — Goethe, Romisc he Brief e- 

It was in the piazza in front of this church that (during 
the reign of Clement XIV.) a beautiful boy was wont to 
improvise wonderful verses to the admiration of the crowds 
who surrounded him. This boy was named Trapassi, and 


was the son of a grocer in the neighbourhood. The Arca- 
dian Academy changed his name into Greek, and called 
him " Metastasio." 

From the corner of the piazza in front of the Chiesa 
Nuova, the Via Calabraga leads into the Via Monserrato, 
which it enters between Sta. Lucia del Gonfalone on the 
right, and S. Stefano in Piscinula on the left ; — then, passing 
on the right S. Giacomo in Aino — behind which, and the 
Palazzo Ricci, is Santo Spirito dei Napolitani, a much 
frequented and popular little church — we reach Sta. Maria 
di Monserrato, built by Sangallo, in 1495, where St. Ignatius 
Loyola was wont to preach and catechise. 

Here, behind the altar, under a stone unmarked by any 
epitaph, repose at last the remains of Pope Alexander VI., 
B.odrigo Borgia (1492 — 1503), — the infamous father of the 
beautiful and wicked Cagsar and Lucretia Borgia, who is 
believed to have died from accidentally drinking in a vine- 
yard-banquet the poison which he had prepared for one of 
his own cardinals. When exhumed and turned out of the 
pontifical vaults of St. Peter's by Julius II., he found a 
refuge here in his national church. The bones of his uncle 
Calixtus III., Alfonso Borgia (1455 — 58), rest in the same 

A little further, on the left, is the Church of S. Tommaso 
degli Inglesi, rebuilt 1870, on the site of a church founded 
by Offa, king of the East Saxons in 775, but destroyed by 
fire in 817. It was rebuilt, and was dedicated by Alexander 
III. (1159) to St. Thomas a Becket, who had lodged in the 
adjoining hospital when he was in Rome. Gregory XIII., 
in 1575, united the hospital which existed here with one for 
English sailors on the Ripa Grande, dedicated to St. Edmund 


the Martyr, and converted them into a college for English 

"Nothing like a hospice for English pilgrims existed till the first 
great Jubilee, when John Shepherd and his wife Alice, seeing this want, 
settled in Rome, and devoted their substance to the support of poor 
palmers from their own country. This small beginning grew into suffi- 
cient importance for it to become a royal charity; the King of England 
became its patron, and named its rector, often a person of high con- 
sideration. Among the fragments of old monuments scattered about the 
house by the revolution, and now collected and arranged in a corridor of 
the college, is a shield surmounted by a crown, and carved with the 
ancient arms of England, lions or lionceaux, and fleur-de-lis, quarterly. 
This used formerly to be outside the house, and under it was inscribed : 

' Haec conjuncta duo, 

Successus debita legi, 
Anglia dant, regi 
Francia signa suo. 
Laurentius Chance me fecit M.ccc.xrj.'" 

Cardinal Wiseman. 

In the hall of the college are preserved portraits of Roman 
Catholics who suffered for their faith in England under 
Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. 

The small cloister has a beautiful tomb of Christopher 
Bainbrigg, archbishop of York, British envoy to Julius II., 
who died at Rome 15 14, and a monument of Sir Thomas 
Dereham, ob. 1739. Against the wall is the monument of 
Martha Swinburne, a prodigy of nine years old, inscribed : 

" Memoriae Marthae, Henrici et Marthae Swinburne . Nat . Angliae . 
ex . A n tiqua . et . Nobili . Familia . Caphaeton . Northumbrian . Paren- 
tis . Mcestiss . Filiae . Carissimae . Pr . Quae . Ingenio . Excellenti . 
Forma . Eximia . Incredibili . Doctrina . Moribus . Suavissimis . Vix . 
Ann . viii . Men . xi. Tantum . Praerepta . Roma; . v . id . sept . an . 


"Martha Swinburne, born Oct. x. mdcclviii. Died Sept. vnr. 
mdcclxvii. Her years were few, but her life was long and full. 
She spoke English, French, and Italian, and had made some pro- 


gress in the Latin tongue; knew the English and Roman histories, 
arithmetic, and geography ; sang the most difficult music at sight with 
one of the finest voices in the world, was a great proficient on the harpsi- 
chord, wrote well, and danced many sorts of dances with strength and ele- 
gance. Her face was beautiful and majestic, her body a perfect model, 
and all her motions graceful. Her docility in doing everything to make 
her parents happy, could only be equalled by her sense and aptitude. 
With so many perfections, amidst the praises of all persons, from the 
sovereign down to the beggar in the street, her heart was incapable of 
vanity; affectation and arrogance were unknown to her. Her beauty 
and accomplishments made her the admiration of all beholders, the love 
of all that enjoyed her company. Think, then, what the pangs of her 
wretched parents must be on so cruel a separation. Their only comfort 
is in the certitude of her being completely happy beyond the reach of 
pain, and for ever freed from the miseries of this life. She can never 
feel the torments they endure for the loss of a beloved child. Blame 
them not for indulging an innocent pride in transmitting her memory to 
posterity as an honour to her family and to her native country England. 
Let this plain character, penned by her disconsolate father, draw a tear 
of pity from every eye that peruses it." 

The arm of St. Thomas a Becket is the chief " relic " 
preserved here. 

At the end of the street are two exceedingly ugly little 
churches— very interesting from their associations. On the 
right is St. Girolamo della Caritd, founded on the site of the 
house of Sta. Paula, where she received St. Jerome upon his 
being called to Rome from the Thebaid by Pope Damasus 
in 392. Here he remained for three years, till, embittered 
by the scandal excited by his residence in the house of the 
widow, he returned to his solitude. 

In 1519 S. Filippo Neri founded here a Confraternity for 
the distribution of dowries to poor girls, for the assistance of 
debtors, and for the maintenance of fourteen priests for the 
visitation and confession of the sick. 

" Lorsque St. Philippe de Neri fut pretre, il alia se loger a Saint- 
Jerome della Carita, oil il demeura trentc-cinq ans, dans la societe des 


pieux ecclesiastiques qui administraient les sacrements clans cette pa- 
roisse. Chaque soir, Philippe ouvrait, clans sa chambre qui existe encore, 
des conferences sur tous les points du dogme catholique ; les jeunes 
gens affluaient a ces saintes reunions : on y voyait Baronius ; Bordini, 
qui fut archeveque ; Salviati, frere du cardinal ; Tarugia, neveu du pape 
Jules III. Un ciesir ardent d'exercer ensemble le ministere de la predi- 
cation et les devoirs de la charite porta ces pieux jeunes gens a vivre en 
commun, sous la discipline du vertueux pretre, dont le parole etait si 
puissante sur leurs cceurs." — Gournerie. 

The masterpiece of Domenichino, the Last Communion 
of St. Jerome, in which Sta. Paula is introduced kissing the 
hand of the dying saint, hung in this church till carried off 
to Paris by the French. 

Opposite this is the Church of Sta. Brigitta, on the site of 
the dwelling of the saint, a daughter of the house of Brahe, 
and wife of Walfon, duke of Nericia, who came hither in 
her widowhood, to pass her declining years near the Tomb 
of the Apostles. With her, lived her daughter St. Catherine 
of Sweden, who was so excessively beautiful, and met with 
so many importunities in that wild time (1350), that she 
made a vow never to leave her own roof except to visit the 
churches. The crucifix, prayer-book, and black mantle of 
St. Bridget are preserved here.* 

" St. Bridget exercised a reformatory influence as well upon the 
higher class of the priesthood in Rome as in Naples. For she did not 
alone satisfy herself with praying at the graves of the martyrs, she earn- 
estly exhorted bishops and cardinals, nay, even the pope himself, to a 
life of the true worship of God and of good works, from which they had 
almost universally fallen, to devote themselves to worldly ambition. 
She awoke the consciences of many, as well by her prayers and remon- 
strances, as by her example. For she herself, of a rich and noble race, 
that of a Brahe, one of the nobles in Sweden, yet lived here in Rome, 
and laboured like a truly humble servant of Christ. ' We must walk 

* There is a chapel dedicated to St. Bridget in S. Paolo fuori Mura. Sion House, 
in England, was a famous convent of the Brigittines. 


barefoot over pride, if we would overcome it,' said she, and Brigitta 
Brahe did so ; and, in so doing, overcame those proud hearts, and won 
them to God." — -Frederika Bremer. 

We now reach the Palazzo Farnese, — the most magnificent 
of all the Roman palaces, — begun by Paul III., Alessandro 
Farnese (1534 — 50), and finished by his nephew, Cardinal 
Alessandro Farnese. Its architects were Antonio di San- 
gallo, Michael Angelo, and Giacomo della Porta, who 
finished the facade towards the Tiber. The materials were 
plundered partly from the Coliseum and partly from the 
theatre of Marcellus ; the granite basons of the fountains 
in front are from the baths of Caracalla. The immense size 
of the blocks of travertine used in the building give it a 
solid grandeur. 

This palace was inherited by the Bourbon kings of Naples 
by descent from Elizabetta Farnese, who was the last of her 
line, and it has for the last few years been the residence of 
the Neapolitan Court, who have lived here in the utmost se- 
clusion since their exile. For this reason the palace is now 
very seldom shown. Its vast halls are painted with the 
masterpieces of Annibale Caracci- — huge mythological sub- 
jects, — and a few frescoes by Guido, Domenichino, Daniele 
da Volterra, Taddeo Zucchero, and others ; but there has 
not been much to see since the dispersion of the Farnese 
gallery of sculpture, of which the best pieces (the Bull, Her- 
cules, Flora, &c.) are in the museum at Naples. In the 
courtyard is the sarcophagus which is said once to have held 
the remains of Cecilia Metella. 

"The painting the gallery at the Farnese Palace is supposed to have 
partly caused the death of Caracci. Without fixing any price he set 
aboul ii, and employed both himself and all his best pupils nearly seven 
years in perfecting the work, never doubting that the Farnese family, 


who had employed him, would settle a pension upon him, or keep him 
in their service. When his work was finished they paid him as you 
would pay a house-painter, and this ill-usage so deeply affected him, that 
he took to drinking, and never painted anything great afterwards." — 
Miss Berry 's Journals. 

Behind the Palazzo Farnese runs the Via Giulia, which 
contains the ugly fountain of the Mascherone. Close to the 
arch which leads to the Farnese gardens is the church of 
Sta. Maria della Morte, or Dell' Orazione, built by Fuga. It 
is in the hands of a pious confraternity who devote them- 
selves to the burial of the dead, 

" L'eglise de la Bonne-Mori a son caveau, de'core dans le style funebre 
comme le couvent-des Capucins. On y conserve aussi elegamment 
que possible les os des noyes, asphyxies et autres victimes des accidents. 
La confrerie de la Bonne-Mort va chercher les cadavres ; un sacristain 
assez adroit les desseche et les dispose en ornements. J'ai cause quel- 
que temps avec cet artiste : ' Monsieur,' me disait-il, ' je ne suis heureux 
qu'ici, au milieu de mon ceuvre. Ce n'est pas pour les quelques ecus que 
je gagne tous les jours en montrant la chapelle aux e'trangers ; non ; 
mais ce monument que j'entretiens, que j'embellie, quej'egaye par mon 
talent, est devenu l'orgueil et la joie de ma vie.' II me montra ses 
materiaux, c'est-a-dire quelques poignees d'ossements jetds en tas dans 
un coin, fit l'eloge de la pouzzolane, et temoigna de son me'pris pour la 
chaux. 'La chaux brule les os,' me dit-il, 'elle les fait tomber en 
poussiere. On ne peut faire rien de bon avec les os qui ont ete dans la 
chaux. C'est de la drogue (robbaccia).' " — Aboul. 

Beyond the arch is the Palazzo Falconieri (with falcons 
at the corners), built by Borromini about 1650. There is 
something rather handsome in its tall three-arched loggia, 
as seen from the back of the courtyard, which overhangs 
the Tiber opposite the Farnesina. Cardinal Fesch (uncle 
of Napoleon I.) lived here, and here formed his fine gallery 
of pictures. 

"The whole of Cardinal Fesch's collection was dispersed at liis 
death, having been vainly offered by him, during the last years of his 


life, for sale to the English government, for an annuity of 4000/. per 
annum." — Eaton's Rome. 

Further on are the Carceri Nuove, prisons established by 
Innocent X. (appropriately reached by the Via del Mal- 
passo), and then the Palazzo Sacchetti, built by Antonio da 
Sangallo for his own residence, and adorned by him with 
the arms of his patron, Paul III., and the grateful inscription, 
" Tu mihi quodcumque hoc rerum est." The collection of 
statues which was formed here by Cardinal Ricci, was re- 
moved to the Capitol by Benedict XIV., and became the 
foundation of the present Capitoline collection. 

In front of the Palazzo Farnese, beyond its own piazza, is 
that known as the Campo di Fiore, a centre of commerce 
among the working classes. Here the most terrible of the 
Autos da Fe were held by the Dominicans, in which many 
Jews and other heretics were burnt alive. 

One of the most remarkable sufferers here was Giordano Bruno, 
who was born at Nola, a.d. 1550. His chief heresy was ardent 
advocacy of the Copernican system, — the author of which had died ten 
years before his birth. He was also strongly opposed to the philosophy 
of Aristotle, and gave great offence by setting forth views of his own, 
which strongly tended to pantheism. He visited Paris, England, and 
Germany, and everywhere excited hostility by the uncompromising ex- 
pression of his opinions. It was at Venice that he first came into the 
power of his ecclesiastical enemies. After six years of imprisonment in 
that city, he was brought to Rome to be put to death. His execution 
took place in the Campo di Fiore on the 1 7th of February, 1600, in the 
presence of an immense concourse. It was noted that when the monks 
offered him the crucifix as he was led to the stake, he turned away and 
refused to kiss it. This put the finishing touch to his career, in the 
estimation of all beholders. Scioppus, the Latinist, who was present at 
the execution, with a sarcastic allusion to one of Bruno's heresies, the 
infinity of worlds, wrote, "The flames carried him to those worlds 
which he had imagined."* 

* See Penny Cyclopxdia, and Lcvvcs's Hist, of Philosophy. 


On the left of this piazza is the gigantic Palace of the Can- 
celler ia, begun by Cardinal Mezzarota, and finished in 1494 
by Cardinal Riario, from designs of Bramante. The huge 
blocks of travertine of which it is built were taken from the 
Coliseum. The colonnades have forty-four granite pillars, 
said to have belonged to the theatre of Pompey. The roses 
with which their (added) capitals are adorned are in refer- 
ence to the arms of Cardinal Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV. 

This palace was the seat of the Tribunal of the Cancelleria 
Apostolica. In June, 1S48, the Roman Parliament, sum- 
moned by Pius IX., was held here. In July, while the 
deputies were seated here, the mob burst into the council- 
chamber, and demanded the instant declaration of war 
against Austria. On the 16th of November, its staircase 
was the scene of the murder of Count Rossi. 

" C'etait le 16 Novembre, 1848, le ministre de Pie IX., voue des 
longtemps a la mort, dont la presse seditieuse disait : ' Si la victime 
condamnee parvient a s'echapper, elle sera poursuivie sans relache, en 
tout lieu, le coupable sera frappe par une main invisible, se fut-il refugie 
sur le sein de sa mere ou dans le tabernacle du Christ.' 

"Dans la nuit du 14 an 15 Novembre, de jeunes etudiants, reunis 
dans cette pensee, s'exercent sans fremir sur un cadavre apporte a prix 
d'or au theatre Capranica, et quand leurs mains infames furent devenues 
assez sures pour le crime, quand ils sont certains d'atteindre au premier 
coup la veine jugulaire, chacun se rend a. son poste — ' Gardez-vous 
d'aller au Palais Legislatif, la mort vous y attend,' fait dire au ministre 
une Francaise alors a Rome, Madame la Comtesse de Menon : ' Ne 
sortez pas, ou vous serez assassine ! ' lui ecrit de son cote la Duchesse 
de Rignano Mais l'intrepide Rossi, n'ecoutant que sa conscience, 
arrive au Quirinal. A son tour le pape le conjure d'etre prudent, de ne 
point s'exposer, arm, lui dit-il, 'd'eviter a nos ennemis un grand crime, 
et a moi une immense douleur.' — ' Ils sont trop laches, ils n'oseront 
pas.' Pie IX. le benit et il continue de se dinger vers la chancel- 
Ierie .... 

". . . . Sa voiture s'arrete, il descend au milieu d'hommes si- 
nistres, leur lance un regard de dedain, et continuant sans crainte ni 
VOL. 11. 12 


peur, il commence a monter ; la foule le presse en sifflant, l'un le frappe 
sur l'epaule gauche, d'un mouvement instinctif, il retourne la tete, 
decouvrant la veine fatale, il tombe, se releve, monte quelques marches, 
et retombe inonde de sang." — M. de Bellevue. 

Entered from the courtyard of the palace is the Church 
of SS. Lorenzo e Damaso, removed by Cardinal Riario in 
1495, from another site, where it had been founded in 560 
by the sainted pope Damasus. It consists of a short nave 
and aisles, and is almost square, with an apse and chapels. 
The doors are by Vignola. At the end of the left aisle is a 
curious black virgin, much revered. Opening from the 
right aisle is the chapel of the Massimi, with several tombs ; 
a good modern monument of Princess Gabrielli, &c. Against 
the last pilaster is a seated statue of S. Hippolytus, Bishop 
of Porto, taken from that at the Lateran. His relics are 
preserved here, with those of S. Giovanni Calabita, and 
many other saints. The tomb of Count Rossi is also here, 
inscribed " Optimam mihi causam tuendam assumpsi, mise- 
rebitur Deus." The story of his death is told in the words : 
" Impiorum consilio meditata casde occubuit." He was em- 
balmed and buried on the very night of his murder, for fear 
of further outrage. St. Francis Xavier used to preach in 
this church in the sixteenth century. 

Standing a little back from the street, in the Via de' 
Baullari, is a pretty little palace, carefully finished in all its 
details, and attributed to Baldassare Peruzzi. It is some- 
times called Palazzctto Par/iese, sometimes Palazzo Linote, 
and is now almost in a state of ruin. 

Turning to the left, in front of the Palazzo Farnese, we 
reach the Piazza Capo di Ferro, one side of which is occu- 
pied by the Palazzo Sftada alia Regola, built in 1564, by 
Cardinal Capodifero, but afterwards altered and adorned by 


Borromini. The courtyard is very rich in sculptured orna- 
ment. The palace is always visible, but has a rude and 
extortionate porter. 

In a picturesque and dimly-lighted hall on the first-floor, 
partially hung with faded tapestries, is the famous statue 
believed to be that of Pompey, at the foot of which Julius 
Caesar fell. Suetonius narrates that it was removed by 
Augustus from the Curia, and placed upon a marble Janus 
in front of the basilica. Exactly on that spot was the 
existing statue found, lying under the partition-wall of two 
houses, whose proprietors intended to evade disputes by 
dividing it, when Cardinal Capodifero interfered, and in re- 
turn received it as a gift from Pope Julius III., who bought 
it for 500 gold crowns. 

" And thou, dread statue ! yet existent in 
The austerest form of naked majesty, — 
Thou who beheldest, 'mid the assassins' din, 
At thy bathed base the bloody Ca;sar lie, 
Folding his robe in dying dignity, 
An offering to thine altar from the queen 
Of gods and men, great Nemesis ! did he die, 
And thou, too, perish, Pompey ? have ye been 
Victors of countless kings, or puppets of a scene ? " 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

" I saw in the Palazzo Spada, the statue of Pompey : the statue at 
whose base Caesar fell. A stern, tremendous figure ! I imagined one 
of greater finish : of the last refinement : full of delicate touches : losing 
its distinctness in the giddy eyes of one whose blood was ebbing before 
it, and settling into some such rigid majesty as this, as Death came 
creeping over the upturned face. " — Dickon. 

" Caesar was persuaded at first by the entreaties of his wife Calpurnia, 
who had received secret warning of the plot, to send an excuse to the 
senate ; but afterwards, being ridiculed by Brutus for not going, was 

carried thither in a litter At the moment when Csesar 

descended from his litter at the door of the hall, Popilius Laena ap- 
proached him, and was observed to enter into earnest conversation with 


him. The conspirators regarded one another, and mutually revealed 
their despair with a glance. Cassius and others were grasping their 
daggers beneath their robes ; the last resource was to despatch them- 
selves. But Brutus, observing that the manner of Popilius was that of 
one supplicating rather than warning, restored his companions' confi- 
dence with a smile. Caesar entered ; his enemies closed in a dense 
mass around him, and while they led him to his chair kept off all in- 
truders. Trebonius was specially charged to detain Antonius in con- 
versation at the door. Scarcely was the victim seated, when Tillius 
Cimber approached with a petition for his brother's pardon. The 
others, as was concerted, joined in the supplication, grasping his hands, 
and embracing his neck. Caesar at first put them gently aside, but, as 
they became more importunate, repelled them with main force. Tillius 
seized his toga with both hands, and pulled it violently over his arms. 
Then P. Casca, who was behind, drew a weapon, and grazed his 
shoulder with an ill-directed stroke. Caesar disengaged one hand, and 
snatched at the hilt, shouting, ' Cursed Casca, what means this ? ' — 
' Help,' cried Casca to his brother Lucius, and at the same moment the 
others aimed each his dagger at the devoted object. Caesar for an in- 
stant defended himself, and even wounded one of his assailants with his 
stylus ; but when he distinguished Brutus in the press, and saw the steel 
flashing in his hand also, ' What, thou too, Brutus ! ' he exclaimed, let 
go his hold of Casca, and drawing his robe over his face, made no 
further resistance. The assassins stabbed him through and through, for 
they had pledged themselves, one and all, to bathe their daggers in his 
blood. Brutus himself received a wound in their eagerness and trepida- 
tion. The victim reeled a few paces, propped by the blows he received 
on every side, till he fell dead at the foot of Pompeius' statue." — Meri- 
vale, ch. xxi. 

The collection of pictures in this palace is little worth 
seeing. Among its other sculptures are eight grand reliefs, 
which, till 1620, were turned upside down, and used as a 
pavement in Sant' Agnese fuori Mura ; and a fine statue of 

" Aristote est a Rome, vous pouvons Taller voir au palais Spado., tel 
que le peignent scs biographes et des vers de Christodore sur une statue 
qui c'tiiit a Constantinople, les jambes grcles, les joues maigres, le bras 
hors du manteau, exscrto brachio, comme dit Sidoine Apollinaire d'une 
autre statue qui etait a Rome. Le philosophe est ici sans barbe aussi 


bien que sur plusieurs pierres gravees ; on attribuait a Aristote l'habitude 
de se raser, rare parmi les philosophes et convenable a un sage qui 
vivait a la cour. Du reste, c'est bien la le mattre de ceux qui savent, 
selon l'expression de Dante, corps use par l'etude, tete petite mais qui 
er.ferme et comprend tout." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 547. 

A little further, on the right, is the Church of the Trinita 
dei Pellegrini, built in 16 14; the facade designed by Fran- 
cesco de' Sanctis. It contains a picture of the Trinity by 

The hospital attached to this church was founded by S. 
Filippo Neri for receiving and nourishing pilgrims of pious 
intention, who had come from more than sixty miles' 
distance, for a space of from three to seven days. It is 
divided into two parts, for males and females. Here, during 
the Holy Week, the feet of the pilgrims are publicly 
washed, those of the men by princes, cardinals, &c, those 
of the women by queens, princesses, and other ladies of 
rank. In this case the washing is a reality, the feet not 
having been " prepared beforehand," as for the Lavanda at 
St. Peter's. 

An authentic portrait of S. Filippo Neri is preserved 
here, said to have been painted surreptitiously by an artist 
who happened to be one of the inmates of the hospital. 
When S. Filippo saw it, he said, "You should not have 
stolen me unawares." 

The building in front of this church is the Monte 
di Pieta, founded by the Padre Calvo, in the fifteenth 
century, to preserve the people from suffering under the 
usury of the Jews. It is a government establishment, where 
money is lent at the rate of five per cent, to every class 
of person. Poor people, especially " Donne di facenda," 
who have no work in the summer, thankfully avail them- 


selves of this and pawn their necklaces and earrings, 
which they are able to redeem when the means of sub- 
sistence come back with the return of the forestieri. Many 
Roman servants go through this process annually, and 
though the Monte di Pieta is often a scene of great suffer- 
ing when unredeemed goods are sold for the benefit of the 
establishment, it probably in the main serves to avert much 
evil from the poorer classes. 

A short distance further, following the Via dei Specchi, 
surrounded by miserable houses (in one of which is a beau- 
tiful double gothic window, divided by a twisted column), 
is the small Church of Sta. Maria in MonticeHi, which has a 
fine low campanile of ino. Admission may always be 
obtained through the sacristy to visit the famous " miracle- 
working " picture called " Gesu Nazareno," a modern half- 
length of Our Saviour, with the eyelids drooping and half- 
closed. By an illusion of the painting, the eyes, if watched 
steadily, appear to open and then slowly to close again as 
if falling asleep, — in the same way that many English family 
portraits appear to follow the living bystanders with their 
eyes ; but the effect is very curious. In the case of this 
picture, the pope turned Protestant, and disapproving of 
the attention it excited, caused its secret removal. Re- 
monstrance was made, that the picture had been a " regalo" 
to the church, and ought not to be taken away, and when 
it was believed to be sufficiently forgotten, it was sent back 
by night. The mosaics in the apse of this obscure church 
are for the most part quite modern, but enclose a very 
grand and expressive head of the Saviour of the World, which 
dates from 1099, when it was ordered by Pope Paschal II. 

A little to the left of this church is the Palazzo Santa 


Croce. This palace will bring to mind the murder of the 
Marchesa Costanza Santa Croce, by her two sons (because 
she would not name them her heirs), on the day when the 
fate of Beatrice Cenci was trembling in the balance, which 
brought about her condemnation — the then pope, Clement 
VIII., determining to make her terrible punishment "an 
example to all parricides." 

Prince Santa Croce claims to be a direct descendant of 
Valerius Publicola, the " friend of the people," who is com- 
memorated in the name of a neighbouring church, " Sancta 
Maria de Publicolis." 

This is one of the few haunted houses in Rome : it is said 
that by night two statues of Santa Croce cardinals descend 
from their pedestals, and rattle their marble trains about 
its long galleries. 

Hence a narrow street leads to the Church of S. Carlo a 
Catinari, built in the seventeenth century, from designs of 
Rosati and Soria. It is in the form of a Greek cross. The 
very lofty cupola is adorned with frescoes of the cardinal 
virtues by Domcnichino, and a fresco of S. Carlo, by Guido, 
once on the facade of the church, is now preserved in the 
choir. Over the high altar is a large picture by Pietro da 
Cortona, of S. Carlo in a procession during the plague at 
Milan. In the first chapel on the right, is the Annunciation, 
by Lanfra7ico ; in the second chapel, on the left, the Death 
of St. Anna, by Andrea Sacchi. On the pilaster of the last 
chapel on the right is a good modern tomb, with delicate 
detail. The cord which S. Carlo Borromeo wore round his 
neck in the penitential procession during the plague at Milan, 
is preserved as a relic here. The Catinari, from whom this 
church is named, were makers of wooden dishes, who had 


stalls in the adj oining piazza, or sold their wares on its steps. 
The street opening from hence (Via de Giubbonari) contains 
on its right the Palazzo Pio ; at the back of which are the 
principal remains of The Theatre of Pompey, which was once 
of great magnificence. In the portico (of a hundred columns) 
attached to this theatre, Brutus sate as praetor,, on the morn- 
ing of the murder of Julius Ccesar, and close by was the 
Curia, or senate-house, where : 

" In his mantle muffling up his face, 

Even at the base of Pompey's statue, 

Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell."* 

Behind the remains of the theatre, perhaps on the 
very site of the Curia, rises the fine modern Church of 
S. Andrea della Vallc,\ begun in 1591, by Olivieri, and 
finished by Carlo Maderno. The facade is by Carlo 
Rainaldi. The cupola is covered with frescoes by Lan- 
franco, those of the four Evangelists at the angles being 
by Domenichino, who also painted the flagellation and 
glorification of St. Andrew in the tribune. Beneath the 
latter are frescoes of events in the life of St. Andrew by 

"In the fresco of the Flagellation, the apostle is bound by his hands 
and feet to four short posts set firmly in the ground ; one of the execu- 
tioners, in tightening a cord, breaks it, and falls back; three men pre- 
pare to scourge him with thongs : in the foreground we have the usual 
group of the mother and her frightened children. This is a composition 
full of dramatic life and movement, but unpleasing. "— Jameson s Sacred 
Art, p. 229. 

In the second chapel on the left is the tomb of Giovanni 
della Casa, archbishop of Beneventum, 1556. 

* Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, act iii. sc. 2. 

t So called from a slight hollow, scarcely now perceptihle, left by a reservoir made 
by Agrippa for the public benefit, and used by Nero in his ffites. 


The last piers of the nave are occupied by the tombs of 
Pius II., Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini (1458 — 64), and Pius 
III., Todeschini (1503), removed from the old basilica of 
St. Peter's. The tombs are hideous erections in four stages, 
by Niccolo della Guardia and Pietro da Todi. The 
epitaph of tke famous Eneas Sylvius is as good as a 

"Pius II., sovereign pontiff, a Tuscan by nation, by birth a native 
of Siena, of the family of the Piccolomini, reigned for six years. His 
pontificate was short, but his glory was great. He reunited a Christian 
Council (Basle) in the interests of the faith. He resisted the enemies of 
the holy Roman see, both in Italy and abroad. He placed Catherine 
of Siena amongst the saints of Christ. He abolished the Pragmatic 
Sanction in France. He re-established Ferdinand of Arragon in the 
kingdom of Sicily. He increased the power of the Church. He estab- 
lished the alum mines which were discovered near Talpha. Zealous 
for religion and justice, he was also remarkable for his eloquence. As 
he was setting out for the war which he had declared against the Turks, 
he died at Ancona. There he had already his fleet prepared, and the 
doge of Venice, with his senate, as companions in arms for Christ. 
Brought to Rome by a decree of the fathers, he was laid in this spot, 
where he had ordered the head of St. Andrew, which had been brought 
him from the Peloponnese, to be placed. He lived fifty-eight years, 
nine months, and twenty-seven days. Francis, cardinal of Siena, raised 
this to the memory of his revered uncle, mcdlxiv." 

Pius III., who was the son of a sister of Eneas Sylvius, 
only reigned for twenty-six days. His tomb was the last to 
be placed in the old St. Peter's, which was pulled down by 
his successor. 

To the right, from S. Andrea della Valle runs the Via 
della Valle, on the right of which is the Palazzo Vidoni 
(formerly called Caffarelli, and Stoppani), the lower portion 
of which was designed by Raphael, in 15 13, the upper floor 
being a later addition. There are a few antiquities pre- 
served here, among them the " Calendarium Praenestinum " 


of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of a Roman calendar 
found by Cardinal Stoppani at Palestrina. At the foot of 
the stairs is a statue of Marcus Aurelius. At one corner of 
the palace on the exterior is the mutilated statue familiarly 
known as the Abbate Luigi, which was made to carry on 
witty conversation with the Madama Lucrezia near S. Marco, 
as Pasquin did with Marforio. 

To the left from St. Andrea della Valle runs the Via S. 
Pantaleone, on the right of which, cleverly fitting into an angle 
of the street, is the gloomy but handsome Palazzo Massimo 
alle Colonne, built c. 1526 by Baldassare Peruzzi. The semi- 
circular portico has six Doric columns. The staircase and 
fountain are peculiar and picturesque. In the loggia is a 
fine antique lion. 

The palace is not often shown, but is a good specimen of 
one of the smaller Roman princely houses. In the drawing- 
room, well placed, is the famous Statue of the Discobolus, a 
copy of the bronze statue of Myron, found in 1761, upon 
the Esquiline, near the ruined nymphaeum known as the 
Trophies of Marius. This is more beautiful and better 
preserved than the Discobolus of the Vatican, of which the 
head is modern. 

"Le tete du discobole Massimi se retourne vers le bras qui lance le 
disque, aTTiarpafifi'tvov 6i'c ti)v SioKotyopov. Cette tete est admirable, ce 
qui est encore une resemblance avec Myron, qui excellait dans les tetes 
comme Polyclete dans les poitrines et Praxitele dans les bras." — 
AmpZre, iii. 271. 

The entrance-hall has its distinctive dais and canopy 
adorned with the motto of the family " Cunctando Resti- 
tuit," in allusion to the descent which they claim from the 
great dictator Fabius Maximus, who is described by Ennius 
as having " saved the republic by delaying." 


" Napoleon interpella un Massimo avec cette brusquerie qui intimidait 
tant de gens : 'Est il vrai,' lui dit-il, 'quevous descendiez de Fabius- 
Maximus ?' 

" ' — Je ne saurais le prouver,' rt'pondit le noble remain, ' mais e'est un 
bruit qui court depuis plus de mille ans dans notre famille.' " — About. 

On the second floor is a chapel in memory of the tem- 
porary resuscitation to life by S. Filippo Neri of Paul 
Massimo, a youth of fourteen, who had died of a fever, 
March 16th, 1584. 

" S. Filippo Neri was the spiritual director of the Massimo family; 
it is in his honour that the Palazzo Massimo is dressed up in festal guise 
every 16th of March. The annals of the family narrate, that the son 
and heir of Prince Fabrizio Massimo died of a fever at the age of fourteen, 
and that St. Philip, coming into the room amid the lamentations of the 
father, mother, and sisters, laid his hand upon the brow of the youth, 
and called him by his name, on which he revived, opened his eyes, and 
sate up — ' Art thou unwilling to die?' asked the saint. 'No,' sighed 
the youth. ' Art thou resigned to yield thy soul to God ? ' 'I am. ' 
'Then go,' said Philip. ' Va, che sii benedetto, e prega Dio per noi.' 
— The boy sank back on his pillow with a heavenly smile on his face 
and expired." — Jameson's Monastic Orders. 

The back of the palace towards the Piazza Navona is 
covered with curious frescoes in distemper by Daniele dl 

In buildings belonging to this palace, Pannartz and 
Schweinheim established the first printing office in Rome in 
1455. The rare editions of this time bear in addition to 
the name of the printers, the inscription, " In aedibus Petri 
de Maximis." 

" Conrad Sweynheim et Arnold Pannartz s'etablirent pies de 
Subiaco, au monastere de Sainte-Scholastique, qui etait occupe par les 
Benedictins de leur nation, et publierent successivement, avec le con- 
cours des moines, les QEuvres de Lactance, la Cite de Dieu de saint 
Augustin, et le traite de Oratore de Ciceron. En 1467, ils se transpor- 
terent a Rome, au palais Massimi, ou ils s'associerent Jean Andre de 
Bussi, eveque d'Aleria, qui avait etudie sous Victorin de Feltre, et 


dont la science leur fut d'une haute utilite pour la correction de leurs 
textes. Le savant eveque leur donnait son temps, ses veilles : — ' Mal- 
heureux metier,' disait-il, 'qui consiste non pas a chercher des perles 
dans le fumier, mais du fumier parmi les perles ! ' — Et cependant il s'y 
adonnait avec passion, sans meme y trouver l'aisance. Les livres, 
en effet, se vendirent d'abord si mal que Jean-Andre de Bussi n'avait 
pas toujours de quoi se faire faire la barbe. Les premiers livres qu'il 
publia chez Conrad et Arnold furent la Grammaire de Donatus, a trois 
cents exemplaires, et les Epitres familleres de Ciceron, a cinq cent 
cinquante." — Gournerie, Rome Chretienne, ii. 79> *• 

Further, on the right, is the modernized Church of S. ParJa- 
leone, built originally in 1216 by Honorius III., and given 
by Gregory XV., in 1641, to S. Giuseppe Calasanza, founder 
of the Order of the Scolopians, and of the institution of the 
Scuola Pia. He died in 1648, and is buried here in a por- 
phyry sarcophagus. 

Adjoining this, is the very handsome Palazzo Braschi, the 
last result of papal nepotism in Rome, — built at the end 
of the last century by Morelli, for the Duke Braschi, nephew 
of Pius VI. The staircase, which is, perhaps, the finest in 
Rome, is adorned with sixteen columns of red oriental 
granite. Annual subscription balls for charities are held in 
this palace. 

At the further corner of the Braschi palace stands the muti- 
lated but famous statue called Pasquino, from a witty tailor, 
who once kept a shop opposite, and who used to entertain 
his customers with all the clever scandal of the day. After 
the tailor's death his name was transferred to the statue, on whose 
pedestal were appended witty criticisms on passing events, 
sometimes in the form of dialogues which Pasquino was 
supposed to hold with his friend Marforio, another statue 
at the foot of the Capitol. From the repartees appended 
to this statue the term Pasquinade is derived. 

PASQU1N0. 189 

Pasquin has naturally been regarded as a mortal enemy 
by the popes, who, on several occasions, have made vain 
attempts to silence him. The bigoted Adrian VI. wished 
to have the statue burnt and then thrown into the Tiber, 
but it was saved by the suggestion of Ludovico Suessano, 
that his ashes would turn into frogs, who would croak 
louder than he had done. When Marforio, in the hope of 
stopping the dialogues, was shut up in the Capitoline 
museum, the pope attempted to incarcerate Pasquino also, 
but he was defended by his proprietor, Duke Braschi. 
Among offensive Pasquinades which have been placed 
here are : 

" Venditur hie Christus, venduntur dogmata Petri, 
Descendam infernum ne quoque vendar ego." 

Among the earliest Pasquinades were those against the 
venality and evil life of Alexander VI. (Rodrigo Borgia, 
I49 2 — 1 5°3): 


" Vendit Alexander claves, altaria, Christum: 
Emerat ille prius, vendere jure potest." 

" Sextus Tarquinius, Sextus Nero — Sextus et iste; 
Semper sub Sextis perdita Roma fuit." 

and, upon the body of his son Giovanni, murdered by his 
brother Caesar Borgia, being fished up on the following day 
from the Tiber : 

"Piscatorem hominum re te non, Sexte, putemus, 
Piscaris natum retibus ecce tuum." 

In the reign of the warlike Julius II. (1503 — 13), of 
whom it is said that he threw the keys of Peter into the 
Tiber, while marching his army out of Rome, declaring that 
the sword of Paul was more useful to him : 


"Cum Petri nihil efficiant ad praelia claves, 
Auxilio Pauli forsitan ensis erit." 

and, in allusion to his warlike beard : 

"Hue barbam Pauli, gladium Pauli, omnia Pauli: 
Claviger ille nihil ad mea vota Petrus." 

At a moment of great unpopularity : 

"Julius est Romse, quid abest ? Date, numina, Brutum. 
Nam quoties Roma? est Julius, ilia perit." 

In reference to the sale of indulgences and benefices by 

Leo X. : 

"Dona date, astantes; versus ne reddite; sola 
Imperat aethereis alma Moneta deis." 

and to his love of buffoons : 

" Cur non te fingi scurram, Pasquille, rogasti? 
Cum Romas scurris omnia jam licent." 

and with reference to the death of Leo, suddenly, under 
suspicion of poison, and without the sacrament: 

' ' Sacra sub extrema, si forte requiritis, hora 
Cur Leo non potuit sumere : vendiderat." 

On Hie death of Clement VII. (1534), attributed to the 
mismanagement of his physician, Matteo Curzio : 

" Curtius occidit Clementem — Curtius auro 
Donandus, per quern publica parta salus." 

To Paul III. (1534 — 50) who attempted to silence him, 
Fasquin replied : 

" Ut canerent data mulla olim sunt vatibus rcra ; 
Ut taccam, quantum tu mihi, Paule, dabis." 

Upon the spoliation of ancient Rome by Urban 

VIII. : 

" Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt P.arberini." 

PASQU1N0. 191 

Upon the passion of Innocent X. (1644 — 55) for his 
sister-in-law, Olympia Maldacchini : 

"Magis amat Olympiam quam Olympum." 

Upon Christina of Sweden, who died at Rome, in 


"Regina senza Regno, 
Christiana senza Fede, 
E Donna senza Vergogna." 

In reference to the severities of the Inquisition during 
the reign of Innocent XI. (1676 — 89) : 

" Se parliamo, in galera ; se scriviamo, impiccati ; se stiamo in quiete, 
al santo uffizio. Eh ! — che bisogna fare? " 

To Francis of Austria, on his visit to Rome : 

" Gaudium urbis, — fletus provinciarum, — risus mundi. 

After an awful storm, and the plunder of the works of 
art by Napoleon occurring together : 

" L'Altissimo in su, ci manda la tempesta, 
L'Altissimo qua giu, ci toglia quel che resta, 
E fra le Due Altissimi, 
Stiamo noi malissimi." 

During the stay of the French in Rome : 
" I Francesi son tutti ladri." 

" Non tutti — ma Buona parte." 

Against the vain-glorious follies of Pius VI., Pasquin was 
especially bitter. Pius finished the sacristry of St. Peter's, 
and inscribed over its entrance, " Quod ad Templi Vaticani 
ornamentum publico vota flagitabant, Pius VI. fecit." The 
next day Pasquin retorted : 

" Publica ! mentiris ! Non publica vota fuere, 
Sed tumidi insjenii vota fuere tui." 


Upon his nepotism, when building the Braschi palace : 

"Tres habuit fauces, et terno Cerberus ore 
Latratus intra Tartara nigra dabat. 
Et tibi plena fame tria sunt vel quatuor ora 
Quae nulli latrant, quemque sed ilia vocant." 

And in allusion to the self-laudatory inscriptions of this 
pope upon all his buildings, at a time when the two- 
baiocchi loaf of the common people was greatly reduced 
in size ; one of these tiny loaves was exhibited here, with 
the satirical notice, " Munificentia Pii Sexti." 

But perhaps the most remarkable of all Pasquin's pro- 
ductions is his famous Antithesis Christi : 

" Christus regna fugit — Sed vi Papa subjugat urbem. 
Spinosam Christus — Triplicem gerit ille coronam. 
Abluit ille pedes — Reges his oscula proebent. 
Vectigal solvit — Sed clerum hie eximit omnem. 
Pavit oves Christus — Luxum hie sectatur inertem. 
Pauper erat Christus — Regna hie petit omnia mundi. 
Bajulat ille crucem — Hie servis portatur avaris. 
Spernit opes Christus— Auri hie ardore tabescit. 
Vendentes pepulit templo — Quos suscipit iste. 
Pace venit Christus — Venit hie radiantibus armis. 
Christus mansuetus venit — Venit ille superbus. 
Quas leges dedit hie — Praesul dissolvit iniquus. 
Ascendit Christus — Descendit ad infera Prcesul." 

The statue called Pasquin is said to represent Menelaus 
with the body of Patroclus, and to be the same as two 
groups which still exist at Florence, but so little remains of 
either of these heroes, that it could only have been when 
overpowered by " L'esprit de contradiction," that Bernini 
protested that this was " the finest piece of ancient sculpture 
in Rome." 

" A Tangle que forment deux rues de Rome se voit encore il Pasquino, 
nom donne par le peuple a un des plus beaux restes de la sculpture 


antique. Bernin, qui exagerait, disait Ie plus beau ; cette assertion fut 
sur le point d'attirer un duel a celui qui se l'etait permise. Tout homme 
qui s'avise d'avoir une opinion sur les monuments de Rome s'applau- 
dira pour son compte, en le regrettant peut-etre, qu'on ne prenne 
plus si a coeur les questions archeologiques." — Ampere, Hist. Route, 
iii. 440. 

"Jan. 16, 1870. The public opinion of Rome has only one tradi- 
tional organ. It is that mutilated block of marble called Pasquin's 

statue on which are mysteriously affixed by unknown 

hands the frequent squibs of Roman mother-wit on the events of the 
day. That organ has now uttered its cutting joke on the Fathers in 
Council. Some mornings ago there was found pasted in big letters on 
this defaced and truncated stump of a once choice statue the inscription, 
' Libero come il Concilio.' The sarcasm is admirably to the point." 
— Times. 

Following the Via dell' Anima from hence, on the right, 
opposite the mediaeval Torre Mellina, is the Church of Sanf 
Agnese. It was built in 1642 by Girolamo Rainaldi, in the 
form of a Greek cross, upon the site of the scaffold where 
St. Agnes, in her fourteenth ye^r, was compelled to be 
burnt alive.* When 

" The blessed Agnes, with her hands extended in the midst of the 
flames, prayed thus : ' It is to thee that I appeal, to thee, the all-power- 
ful, adorable, perfect, terrible God. O my Father, it is through thy 
most blessed Son that I have escaped from the menaces of a sacrilegious 
tyrant, and have passed unblemished through shameful abominations. 
And thus I come to thee, to thee whom I have loved, to thee whom I 
have sought, and whom I have always chosen." — Roman Breviary. 

Then the flames, miraculously changed into a heavenly 
shower, refreshed instead of burning her, and dividing in 
two, and leaving her uninjured, consumed her executioners, 
and the virgin saint cried : — ■ 

" I bless Thee, O Father of my God and Saviour Jesus Christ, who, 
by the power of this thy well-beloved Son, commanded the fire to 
respect me." . 

* The story of St. Agnes is told by St. Jerome. 
VOL. II. \\ 


"At this age, a young girl trembles at an angry look from her 
mother ; the prick of a needle draws tears as easily as a wound. Yet 
fearless under the bloody hands of her executioners, Agnes is immove- 
able under the heavy chains which weigh her down ; ignorant of deatl), 
but ready to die, she presents her body to the point of the sword of a 
savage soldier. Dragged against her will to the altar, she holds forth 
her arms to Christ through the fires of the sacrifice; and her hand forms 
even in those blasphemous flames the sign which is the trophy of a 
victorious Saviour. She presents her neck and her two hands to the 
fetters which they bring for her, but it is impossible to find any small 
enough to encircle her delicate limbs." — St. Ambrose. 

The statue of St. Sebastian in this church is an antique, 
altered by Maini, that of St. Agnes is by Ercole Ferrata; the 
bas-relief of St. Cecilia is by Antonio Raggi. Over the en- 
trance is the half-length figure and tomb of Innocent X. 
(Gio. Battista Pamfili, 1644 — 55), an amiable but feeble 
pope, who was entirely governed by his strong-minded and 
avaricious sister-in-law, Olympia Maldacchini, who deserted 
him on his death-bed, making off with the accumulated 
spoils of his ten years' papacy, which enabled her son, Don 
Camillo, to build the Palazzo Doria Pamfili, in the Corso, 
and the beautiful Villa Doria Pamfili.* 

"After the three days during which the body of Innocent remained 
exposed at St. Peter's, say the memoirs of the time, no one could be 
found who would undertake his burial. They sent to tell Donna 
Olympia to prepare for him a coffin, and an escutcheon, but she 
answered that she was a poor widow. Of all his other relations and 
nephews, not one gave any sign of life ; so that at length the body was 
carried away into a chamber where the masons kept their tools. Some 
one, out of pity, placed a lighted tallow-candle near the head ; and 
some one else having mentioned that the room was full of rats, and that 
they might eat the corpse, a person was found who was willing to pay 
for a watcher. And after another day had elapsed, Monsignor Scotti, 
the majordomo, had pity upon him, and prepared him a coffin of poplar- 
wood, and Monsignor Segni, ('anon of St. Peter's, who had been his 
majordomo, and whom he had dismissed, returned him good for evil, 
and expended five crowns for his burial" — Grtgorovius. 

* Donna Olympia soon after died of the plague at her villa near Vitcrbo. 


Beneath the church are vaulted chambers, said to be 
part of the house of infamy where St. Agnes was publicly 
exposed * before her execution. 

"As neither temptation nor the fear of death could prevail with 
Agnes, Sempronius thought of other means to vanquish her resist- 
ance ; he ordered her to be carried by force to a place of infamy, and 
exposed to the most degrading outrages. The soldiers, who dragged 
her thither, stripped her of her garments ; and when she saw herself 
thus exposed, she bent down her head in meek shame and prayed ; and 
immediately her hair, which was already long and abundant, became 
like a veil, covering her whole person from head to foot ; and those who 
looked upon her were seized with awe and fear as of something sacred, 
and dared not lift their eyes. So they shut her up in a chamber, and 
she prayed that the limbs which had been consecrated to Jesus Christ 
should not be dishonoured, and suddenly she saw before her a white 
and shining garment, with which she clothed herself joyfully, praising 
God, and saying, ' I thank thee, O Lord, that I am found worthy to 
put on the garment of thine elect ! ' and the whole place was filled with 
miraculous light, brighter than the sun at noon-day. 

"The chamber, which, for her preservation, was filled with heavenly 
light, has become, from the change of level all over Rome, as well as 
from the position of the church, a subterranean cell, and is now a chapel 
of peculiar sanctity, into which you descend by torchlight. The floor 
retains the old mosaic, and over the altar is a bas-relief, representing St. 
Agnes, with clasped hands, and covered only by her long tresses, while 
two ferocious soldiers drive her before them. The upper church, as a 
piece of architecture, is beautiful, and rich in precious marbles and 
antique columns. The works of art are all mediocre, and of the 17th 
century, but the statue over her altar has considerable elegance. Often 
have I seen the steps of this church, and the church itself, so crowded 
with kneeling worshippers at matins and vespers, that I could not make 
my way among them ; — principally the women of the lower orders, with 
their distaffs and market baskets, who had come thither to pray, through 
the intercession of the patron saint, for the gifts of meekness and chas- 
tity, — gifts not abounding in these regions." — Jameson s Sacred Art. 

Yorkshire maidens, anxious to know who their future 

* " Les maisons de la Place Navone sont assises sur la base ties anciens gradins 
du cirque de Domitien. Sous ces gradins ctaicnt les voutes habitoes par des felonies 
perdues." — Amfcic, Emj>. ii. 137. 


spouse is to be, still consult St. Agnes on St. Agnes' Eve, 

after 24 hours' abstinence from everything but pure spring 

water, in the distich : 

"St. Agnes, be a friend to me, 
In the boon I ask of thee; 
Let me this night my husband see." 

Here, on the festival of St. Agnes, the papal choir sing 
the antiphons of the virgin saint, and the hymn " Jesu 
Corona Virginum." 

The front of Sant' Agnese opens upon the Piazza Navona, 
a vast oblong square on the site of the ancient Circus 
Agonalis, decorated with three fountains. That in the centre, 
by Bernini, supports an obelisk brought from the Circus of 
Maxentius, where it was erected in honour of Domitian. 
Around the mass of rock which supports the obelisk are 
figures of the gods of the four largest rivers (Danube, Nile, 
Ganges, Rio de la Plata). That of the Nile veiled his face, 
said Bernini, that he might not be shocked by the facade 
which was added by Borromini to the Church of St. Agnes. 

" Bern in s'ingera de creuser un des fameux piliers de St. Pierre pour 
y pratiquer un petit escalier montant a la tribune ; aussitot le dome prit 
coup et se fendit. On fat oblige de le relier tout entier avec un cercle 
de fer. Ce n'est point raillerie, le cercle y est encore ; le mal n'a pas 
augmente depuis. Par malheur pour le pauvre cavalier, on trouva dans 
les Memoires de Michel- Ange qu'il avait recommande, sub poena capitis, 
de ne jamais toucher aux quatre piliers massifs faits pour supporter le 
dome, sachant de quelle masse cpouvantable il allait les charger ; le pape 
voulait faire pendre Ik-ruin, qui, pour se redimer, inventa la fontaine 
Navone." — De Brosscs. 

The lower fountain, also by Bernini, is adorned with 
tritons and the figure of a Moor. The great palace to the 
right of the church is the Palazzo Pamfili, built by Rainaldi 
for Innocent X. in 1650. It possesses a ceiling painted by 
Pictro di Cortona with the adventures of Eneas. Its 


music-hall is still occasionally used for public concerts. 
It was in this palace that the notorious Olympia Maldac- 
chini, foundress of the Pamfili fortunes, besported herself 
during the reign of her brother-in-law, Innocent X. 

"The great object of Donna Olympia was to keep at a distance from 
Innocent every person and every influence that could either lessen her 
own, or go shares in the profits to be extracted from it. For this, after 
all, was the great and ultimate scope of her exertions. To secure the 
profits of the papacy in hard cash ; this was the problem. No appoint- 
ment to office of any kind was made, except in consideration of a pro- 
portionable sum paid down into her own coffers. This often amounted 
to three or four years' revenue of the place to be granted. Bishoprics 
and benefices were sold as fast as they became vacant. One story is 
told of an unlucky disciple of Simon, who on treating with the popess, 
for a very valuable see, just fallen vacant, and hearing from her a price, 
at which it might be his, far exceeding all he could command, per- 
suaded the members of his family to sell all they had for the purpose of 
making this profitable investment. The price was paid, and the 
bishopric was given to him, but with a fearful resemblance to the case 
of Ananias, he died within the year; and his ruined family saw the see 
a second time sold by the insatiable and incorrigible Olympia. . . . 
During the last year of Innocent's life, Olympia literally hardly ever 
quitted him. Once a week, we read, she left the Vatican, secretly by 
night, accompanied by several porters carrying sacks of coin, the pro- 
ceeds of the week's extortions and sales, to her own palace. And, 
during these short absences, she used to lock the pope into his chamber, 
and take the key with her ! ' — Trollope's Life of Olympia Pamf/i. 

On the opposite side of the piazza, some architectural 
fragments denote the half-ruined Church of S. Giacomo degli 
Spagnuoli of the fifteenth century. It possesses a gothic 
rose window, which is almost unique in Rome. There is 
a handsome door on the other side towards the Via della 
Sediola. The lower end of the square near this is occupied 
by the Palazzo Lanccllotti, built by Pirro Ligorio, behind 
which is the frescoed front of Palazzo Massimo, men- 
tioned above. The Piazza Navona has been used as 
a market ever since 1447. In the hot months, the sin- 


gular custom prevails of occasionally stopping the escape 
of water from the fountains, and so turning the square 
into a lake, through which the rich splash about in car- 
riages, and eat ices and drink coffee in the water, while 
the poor look on from raised galleries. It is supposed that 
this practice is a remnant of the pleasures of the Nau- 
machia, once annually exhibited almost on this very spot, 
formerly the Circus Agonalis. 

Vitale Mascardi gives an extraordinary account of the 
magnificent tournament held here in 1634 in honour of the 
visit of Prince Alexander of Poland, when the piazza was 
hung with draperies of gold and silver, and Donna Anna 
Colonna and Donna Costanza Barberini awarded gorgeous 
prizes of diamonds to noble and princely competitors. 

Nearly opposite Sant' Agnese, a short street leads (pass- 
ing on the left, Arvotti's, the famous Roman-scarf shop) to 
the front of the Palazzo Madama, which is sometimes said 
to derive its name from Margaret of Parma, daughter ot 
Charles V., who once occupied it, and sometimes from 
Catherine de' Medici, who also lived here, and under whom 
it was altered in its present form by Paolo Marucelli. The 
balcony towards the piazza is the scene every Saturday at 
noon of the drawing of the Roman lottery. 

" In the middle of the balcony, on the rail, is fixed a glass barrel, with 
a handle to turn it round. Behind it stand three or four officials, who 
have been just now ushered in with a blast from two trumpeters, also 
stationed in the balcony. Immediately behind the glass barrel itself 
stands a boy of some twelve or thirteen years, dressed in the white uni- 
form of one of the orphan establishments, with a huge white shovel hat. 
Some time is occupied by the folding, and putting into the barrel, pieces 
of paper, inscribed with the numbers, from one onwards. Each of 
these is proclaimed, as folded and put in, by one of the officials who 
acts as spokesman or crier. At last, after eighty-seven, eighty-eight, 


and eighty-nine have been given out, he raises his voice to a chant, and 
sings forth, Numero Hovanta, 'number ninety,' this completing the 
number put in. 

' And now, or before this, appears on the balcony another character 
— no less a person than a Monsignore, who appears, not in his ordinary, 
but in his more solemn official costume; and this connects the cere- 
monial directly with the spiritual authority of the realm. And now 
commences the drawing. The barrel having been for some time turned 
rapidly round to shuffle the numbers, the orphan takes off his hat, makes 
the sign of the cross, and having waved his open hand in the air to show 
that it is empty, inserts it into the barrel, and draws out a number, 
giving it to the Monsignore, who opens it and hands it to the crier. 
This latter then proclaims it — ' Prima-estratta, numero venti cinque." 1 
Then the trumpets blow their blast, and the same is repeated four times 
more : the proclamation varying each time, Seconda estratta, Terza, 
Quatra, Quinta, etc., five numbers being thus the whole drawn, out of 
ninety put in. This done, with various expressions of surprise, delight, 
or disappointment from the crowd below, the officials disappear, the 
square empties itself, and all is as usual till the next Saturday at the 
same time 

" In almost every street in Rome are shops devoted to the purchase 
of lottery tickets. Two numbers purchased with the double chance 
of these two numbers turning up are called an ambo, and three pur- 
chased with the treble chance of those three turning up, are called a 
terno, and, of couise, the higher and more perilous the stake, the richer 
the prize, if obtained." — Alford's Letters from Abroad. 

" Les etrangers qui viennent a Rome commencent par blamer severe- 
ment la loterie. Au bout de quelque temps, l'esprit de tolerance qui 
est dans l'air penetre peu-a-peu jusqu'au fond de leur cerveau; ils ex- 
cusent un jeu philanthropique qui fournit au pauvre peuple six jours 
d'esperances pour cinq sous. Bientot, pour se rendre compte du me- 
canisme de la loterie, ils entrent euxmemes dans un bureau, en evitant 
de se laisser voir. Trois mois apres, ils poursuivent ouvertement une 
combinaison savante; ils ont une theorie mathematique qu'ils signeraient 
volontiers de leur nom ; ils donnent des lecons aux nouveaux arrives ; 
ils erigent le jeu en principe et jurent qu'un homme est impardonnable s'il 
ne laisse pas une porte ouverte a la Fortune." — About, Rome Content- 

The court at the back of the palazzo is now occupied by 
the General Post Office. 


Close by is the Church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, rebuilt 
1589, with a facade by Giacomo della Porta. It contains 
a number of tombs of eminent Frenchmen who have died 
in Rome, and some good pictures. 

Following the right aisle, the second chapel has frescoes 
from the life of Sta. Cecilia, by Domenkhino (she gives 
clothes to the poor, — is crowned by an angel with her 
husband Valerian, — refuses to sacrifice to idols, — suffers 
martyrdom, — enters into heaven). 

" Domenichino is often cold and studied in the principal subject, 
while the subordinate persons have much grace, and a noble character 
of beauty. Of this the two frescoes in S. Luigi at Rome, from the 
life of Sta. Cecilia, are striking examples. It is not the saint herself, 
bestowing her goods from a balcony, who contributes the chief subject, 
but the masterly group of poor people struggling for them below. The 
same may be said of the death of the saint, where the admiration and 
grief of the bystanders are inimitable." — Kugler. 

" Reclining on a couch, in the centre of the picture, her hand pressed 
on her bosom, her dying eyes raised to heaven, the saint is breathing 
her last ; while female forms, of exquisite beauty and innocence, are 
kneeling around, or bending over her. The noble figure of an old man, 
whose clasped hands and bent brow seem to bespeak a father's affection, 
appears on one side ; and lovely children, in all the playful graces of 
unconscious infancy, as usual in Domenichino's paintings, by contrast 
heighten, yet relieve, the deep pathos of the scene. From above, an 
angel — such an angel as Domenichino alone knew how to paint, a 
cherub form of light and loveliness — is descending on rapid wing, 
bearing to the expiring saint the crown and palm of glory." — Eaton's 

The copy of Raphael's Sta. Cecilia over the altar is by 
Guide The fourth chapel has on the right frescoes by 
Girolamo Sicciolantc, on the left by Pclhgrino da Bologna, 
the altar-piece is by Giacomo del Contc. The fifth chapel 
has on the right the monument of Agincourt (ob. 1814), the 
famous archaeologist, on the left that of Guerin the painter. 


The high altar has an Assumption by Bassano. 

The first chapel in the left aisle has a St. Sebastian by 
Massci. In the fifth chapel, of St. Matthew, three pictures 
by Caravaggio represent the vocation and martyrdom of 
that saint. 

"The paintings of Caravaggio at S. Luigi belong to his most com- 
prehensive works. The Martyrdom of St. Matthew, with the angel 
with a palm branch squatting upon a cloud, and a boy running away, 
screaming, though highly animated, is an offensive production. On the 
other hand, the Calling of the Apostle may be considered as a genre 
picture of grand characteristic figures ; for instance, those of the money- 
changers and publican at the table ; some of them counting money, 
others looking up astonished at the entrance of the Saviour." — Kugler. 

" Over the altar is St. Matthew writing his Gospel ; he looks up at 
the attendant angel, who is behind with outspread wings, and in the act 
of dictating. On the left is the Calling of St. Matthew : the saint, who 
has been counting money, rises with one hand on his breast, and turns 
to follow the Saviour : an old man, with spectacles on his nose, examines 
with curiosity the personage whose summons has had such a miraculous 
effect : a boy is slyly appropriating the money which the apostle has 
thrown down. The third picture is the martyrdom of the saint, who, 
in the sacerdotal habit, lies extended on a block ; while a half-naked 
executioner raises the sword, and several spectators shrink back with 
horror. There is nothing dignified or poetical in these representations ; 
and though painted with all that power of effect which characterized 
Caravaggio, then at the height of his reputation, they have also his 
coarseness of feeling and execution : the priests were (not without reason) 
dissatisfied ; and it required all the influence of his patron, Cardinal 
Giustiniani, to induce them to retain the pictures in the church where 
we now see them." — Jameson's Sacred Art, p. 146. 

Amongst the monuments scattered over this church are 
those of Cardinal d'Ossat, ambassador of Henry IV. ; Car- 
dinal de la Grange d' Arquien, father-in-law of Sobieski, who 
died at the age of 105 ; Cardinal de la Tre'mouil'e, ambas- 
sador of Louis XIV. ; Madame de Montmorin, with an 
epitaph by Chateaubriand ; and Claude Lorraine, who is 
buried at the Trinita di Monti. 


The pillars which separate the nave and aisles are of 
splendid Sicilian jasper. They were intended for S. 
Ignazio, but when the Order of the Jesuits was dissolved 
by Clement XIV., he presented them to S. Luigi. 

The site of this church, the Palazzo Madama, and their 
adjoining buildings, was once occupied by the baths of 
Nero. They are commemorated by the name of the small 
church " S. Salvatore in Thermis." 

In front of S. Luigi are the Palaces Patrizi and Giusti- 
niani, and, following — to the right — the Via della Sediola, 
on the left is the entrance to the University of the Sapienza, 
founded by Innocent IV. in 1244 as a law school. Its 
buildings were begun by Pius III. and Julius II., and ex- 
tended by Leo X. on plans of Michael Angelo. The portico 
was built under Gregory XIII. by Giacomo della Porta. 
The northern fagade was erected by Borromini, with the 
ridiculous church (S. Ivo), built in the form of a bee to 
flatter Urban VIIL, that insect being his device. The build- 
ing is called the Sapienza, from the motto, " Initium Sapi- 
ential timor Domini," engraved over the window above the 
principal entrance. Forty professors teach here all the dif- 
ferent branches of law, medicine, theology, philosophy, and 

Behind the Sapienza is the small Piazza di S. Eustachio, 
containing on three sides the Giustiniani, Lante, and Mac- 
carini palaces, and celebrated for the festival of the Befana,* 
which takes place here. 

" The Piazza and all Ihe adjacent streets are lined with booths covered 
with every kind of plaything for children. These booths are gaily illu- 
minated with rows of candles and the three-wick'd brass lucerne of 
Rome ; and at intervals, painted posts are set into the pavement, crowned 

• A corruption of " Epiphania " — Epiphany. 


with pans of grease, with a wisp of tow for wick, from which flames 
blaze and flare about. Besides these, numbers of torches carried about 
by hand lend a wavering and picturesque light to the scene. By eight 
o'clock in the evening crowds begin to fill the piazza and the adjacent 
streets. Long before one arrives the squeak of penny-trumpets is heard 
at intervals ; but in the piazza itself the mirth is wild and furious, and 
the din that salutes one's ears on entering is almost deafening. The 
object of every one is to make as much noise as possible, and every kind 
of instrument for this purpose is sold at the booths. There are drums 
beating, tambureUi thumping and jingling, pipes squeaking, watchman's 
rattles clacking, penny-trumpets and tin-horns shrilling, the sharpest 
whistles shrieking, — and mingling with these is heard the din of voices, 
screams of laughter, and the confused burr and buzz of a great crowd. 
On all sides you are saluted by the strangest noises. Instead of being 
spoken to, you are whistled at. Companies of people are marching 
together in platoons, or piercing through the crowd in long files, and 
dancing and blowing like mad on their instruments. It is a perfect 
witches' Sabbath. Here, huge dolls dressed as Polichinello or Panta- 
loon are borne about for sale, — or over the heads of the crowd great 
black-faced jumping-jacks, lifted on a stick, twitch themselves in fan- 
tastic fits, — or, what is more Roman than all, long poles are carried 
about strung with rings of hundreds of Giambelli (a light cake, called 
jumble in English), which are screamed for sale at a mezzo baiocco each. 
There is no alternative but to get a drum, whistle, or trumpet, and join 
in the racket, — and to fill one's pocket with toys for the children, and 
absurd presents for one's older friends. The moment you are once in 
for it, and making as much noise as you can, you begin to relish the 
jest. The toys are very odd, particularly the Roman whistles ; some of 
these are made of pewter, with a little wheel that whirls as you blow ; 
others are of terra-cotta, very rudely modelled into every shape of bird, 
beast, or human deformity, each with a whistle in its head, breast, or 
tail, which it is no joke to hear, when blown close to your ears by a 
stout pair of lungs. The scene is extremely picturesque. Above, the 
dark vault of night, with its far stars, the blazing and flaring of lights 
below, and the great, dark walls of the Sapienza and church looking 
down grimly upon the mirth." — Story's Roba di Roma. 

The Church of S. Eustachio commemorates one, who, 
first a brave soldier of the army of Titus in Palestine, 
became master of the horse under Trajan, and general 
under Hadrian, and who suffered martyrdom for refusing to 


sacrifice to idols, by being roasted alive in a brazen bull 
before the Coliseum, with his wife Theophista, and his sons, 
Agapetus and Theophistus. The relics of these saints 
repose in a porphyry sarcophagus under the high altar. 
The stags' heads on the portico and on the apex of the 
gable refer to the legend of the conversion of St. Eustace. 

" One day, while hunting in the forest, he saw before him a white 
stag, of marvellous beauty, and he pursued it eagerly, and the stag fled 
before him, and ascended a high rock. Then Placidus (Eustace was 
called Placidus before his conversion), looking up, beheld, between the 
horns of the stag, a cross of radiant light, and on it the image of the 
crucified Redeemer ; and being astonished and dazzled by this vision, 
he fell on his knees, and a voice which seemed to come from the crucifix 
cried to him, and said, ' Placidus ! why dost thou pursue me ? I am 
Christ, whom thou hast hitherto served without knowing me. Dost thou 
now believe ? ' And Placidus fell with his face to the earth, and said, 
' Lord, I believe ! ' And the voice answered, saying, ' Thou shalt suffer 
many tribulations for my sake, and shalt be tried by many temptations ; 
but be strong and of good courage, and I will not forsake thee.' To 
which Placidus replied, 'Lord, I am content. Do thou give me patience 
to suffer ! ' And when he looked up again the glorious vision had de- 
parted." — Ja??iesons Sacred Art, p. 792. 

A similar story is told of St. Hubert, St. Julian, and St. 

A fresco of St. Peter, by Pieri?w del Vaga, in this church, 
was much admired by Vasari, who dilates upon the boldness 
of its design, the simple folds of its drapery, its careful 
drawing and judicious treatment. 

Two streets lead from the Piazza S. Eustachio to — 

The Pantheon, the most perfect pagan building in the city, 
built B.C. 27, by Marcus Agrippa, the bosom friend of 
Augustus Caesar, and the second husband of his daughter 
Julia. The inscription in huge letters, perfectly legible 
from beneath, " M. agrippa. l. f. cos. tertium fecit," 


records its construction. Another inscription^ on the archi- 
trave, now almost illegible, records its restoration under 
Septimius Severus and his son Caracalla, c. 202, who, " Pan- 
theum vetustate corruptum cum omni cultu restitverunt." 
Some authorities have maintained that the Pantheon was 
originally only a vast hall in the baths of Agrippa, acknow- 
ledged remains of which exist at no great distance ; but the 
name " Pantheum" was in use as early as a.d. 59. 

In a.d. 399 the Pantheon was closed as a temple in 
obedience to a decree of the Emperor Honorius, and in 
608 was consecrated as a Christian church by Pope Boniface 
IV., with the permission of the Emperor Phocas, under the 
title of Sta. Maria ad Marty res. To this dedication we 
owe the preservation of the main features of the building, 
•though it had been terribly maltreated. In 663 the Em- 
peror Constans, who had come to Rome with great pretence 
of devotion to its shrines and relics, and who only staid 
there twelve days, did not scruple, in spite of its religious 
dedication, to strip off the tiles of gilt bronze with which 
the roof was covered, and carry them off with him to 
Syracuse, where, upon his murder, a few years after, they 
fell into the hands of the Saracens. In 1087 it was used by 
the anti-pope Guibert as a fortress, whence he made incur- 
sions upon the lawful pope, Victor III., and his protector, 
the Countess Matilda. In 1101, another anti-pope, Syl- 
vester IV, was elected here. Pope Martin V, after the 
return from Avignon, attempted the restoration of the 
Pantheon by clearing away the mass of miserable buildings 
in which it was encrusted, and his efforts were continued by 
Eugenius IV., but Urban VIII. (1623 — 44), though he spent 
15,000 scudi upon the Pantheon, and added the two ugly 


campaniles, called in derision "the asses' ears," of their 
architect, Bernini, did not hesitate to plunder the gilt 
bronze ceiling of the portico, 450,250 lbs. in weight, to make 
the baldacchino of St. Peter's, and cannons for the Castle 
of S. Angelo. Benedict XIV. (1740 — 58) further despoiled 
the building by tearing away all the precious marbles which 
lined the attic, to ornament other buildings. 

The Pantheon was not originally, as now, below the level 
of the piazza, but was approached by a flight of five steps. 
The portico, which is no feet long and 44 feet deep, is 
supported by sixteen grand Corinthian columns of oriental 
granite, 36 feet in height. The ancient bronze doors remain. 
On either side are niches, once occupied by colossal statues 
of Augustus and Agrippa. 

"Agrippa wished to dedicate the Pantheon to Augustus, but he 
refused, and only allowed his statue to occupy a niche on the right of the 
peristyle, while that of Agrippa occupied the niche on the left." — 

The Interior is a rotunda, 143 feet in diameter, covered 
by a dome. It is only lighted by an aperture in the centre, 
28 feet in diameter. Seven great niches around the walls 
once contained statues of different gods and goddesses, that 
of Jupiter being the central figure. All the surrounding 
columns are of giallo-antico, except four, which are of 
pavonazzetto, painted yellow. It is a proof of the great 
value and rarity of giallo-antico, that it was always impos- 
sible to obtain more to complete the set. 

" L'intcrieur du Pantheon, comrac Textc'rieur, est parfaitement con- 
serve, ct les edicules, places dans le pourtour du temple forment les 
chapelles de l'cglise. Jamais la simplicity ne hit alliec a la grandeur 
<l;ms une plus heureuse harmonic. Le jour, tombant d'en haut et t; 1 i s - 
sant le long des colonnes et des parois de marbre, portc dans I'ame un 


sentiment de tranquillite sublime, et donne a tous les objets, dit Serlio, 
an air de beaute. Vue du dehors, la coupole de plomb qui a remplace 
l'ancienne coupole de bronze couverte de tuiles dorees, fait bien com- 
prendre 1'expression de Virgile, lequel l'avait sous les yeux et peut-etre 
en vue, quand il ecrivait : 

. . ' Media testudine templi.' 

En effet, cette coupole surbaissee ressemble tout a fait a la carapace d'une 
tortue." — A?npcre, Emp. i. 342. 

" Being deep in talk, it so happened that they found themselves near 
the majestic, pillared portico and huge black rotundity of the Pantheon. 
It stands almost at the central point of the labyrinthine intricacies of 
the modern city, and often presents itself before the bewildered stranger 
when he is in search of other objects. Hilda, looking up, proposed 
that they should enter. 

" They went in, accordingly, and stood in the free space of that great 
circle, around which are ranged the arched recesses and stately altars, 
formerly dedicated to heathen gods, but Christianized through twelve 
centuries gone by. The world has nothing else like the Pantheon. So 
grand it is, that the pasteboard statues over the lofty cornice do not 
disturb the effect, any more than the tin crowns and hearts, the dusty 
artificial flowers, and all manner of trumpery gewgaws, hanging at the 
saintly shrines. The rust and dinginess that have dimmed the precious 
marble on the walls ; the pavement, with its great squares and rounds 
of porphyry and granite, cracked crosswise and in a hundred direc- 
tions, showing how roughly the troublesome ages have trampled here; 
the grey dome above, with its opening to the sky, as if heaven were 
looking down into the interior of this place of worship, left unimpeded 
for prayers to ascend the more freely : all these things make an impres- 
sion of solemnity, which St. Peter's itself fails to produce. 

" 'I think,' said Kenyon, 'it is to the aperture in the dome — that 
great eye, gazing heavenward — that the Pantheon owes the peculiarity 
of its effect. It is so heathenish, as it were — so unlike all the snugness 
of our modern civilization ! Look, too, at the pavement directly 
beneath the open space ! So much rain has fallen there, in the last two 
thousand years, that it is green with small, fine moss, such as grows 
over tombstones in damp English churchyards.' 

" ' I like better,' replied Hilda, ' to look at the bright, blue sky, roofing 
the edifice where the builders left it open. It is very delightful, in a 
breezy day, to see the masses of white cloud float over the opening, and 
then the sunshine fall through it again, fitfully, as it does now. Would 
it be any wonder if we were to see angels hovering there, partly in and 


partly out, with genial, heavenly faces, not intercepting the light, but 
transmuting it into beautiful colours 1 Look at that broad, golden 
beam — a sloping cataract of sunlight— which comes down from the 
aperture, and rests upon the shrine, at the right hand of the entrance.' " 
— Hawthorne. 

.... " 'Entrons dans le temple,' dit Corinne: 'vous le voyez, il 
reste decouvert presque comme il l'etait autrefois. On dit que cette 
lumiere qui venait d'en haut etait l'embleme de la divinite superieure a. 
toutes les divinites. Les paiens ont toujours aime les images symboliques. 
II semble en effet que ce langage convient mieux a. la religion que la 
parole. La pluie tombe souvent sur ces parvis de marbre ; mais aussi 
les rayons du soleil viennent eclairer les prieres. Quelle serenite; quel 
air de fete on remarque dans cet edifice ! Les paiens ont divinise la vie, 
et les chretiens ont divinise la mort : tel est l'esprit des deux cultes.' " — 
]\Iad. de Stael. 

"In the ancient Pantheon, when the music of Christian chaunts rises 
among the shadowy forms of the old vanished gods painted on the 
walls, and the light streams down, not from painted windows in the 
walls, but from the glowing heavens above, every note of the service 
echoes like a peal of triumph, and fills my heart with thankfulness." — 
Mrs. Charles. 

" 'Where,' asked Redschid Pasha, on his visit to the Pantheon, 'are 
the statues of the heathen gods ? ' 'Of course they were removed when 
the temple was Christianized,' was the natural answer. 'No,' he re- 
plied, ' I would have left them standing to show how the true God had 
triumphed over them in their own house." — Cardinal Wiseman. 

"No, great Dome of Agrippa, thou art not Christian! canst not, 
Strip and replaster and daub and do what they will with thee, be so ! 
Here underneath the great porch of colossal Corinthian columns, 
Here as I walk, do I dream of the Christian belfries above them; 
Or, on a bench as I sit and abide for long hours, till thy whole vast 
Round grows dim as in dreams to my eyes, I repeople thy niches, 
Not with the martyrs, and saints, and confessors, and virgins, and 

But with the mightier forms of an older, austerer worship; 
And I recite to myself, how 

' eager for battle here 
Stood Vulcan, here matronal Juno, 

And, with the bow to his shoulder faithful, 
He who with pure dew laveth of Castaly 
His flowing locks, who hoklelh of Lycia 


The oak forest and the wood that bore him, 
Delos' and Patara's own Apollo.'" 

A. II. C lough. 

Some antiquarians have supposed that the aperture at the 
top of the Pantheon was originally closed by a huge " Pigna," 
or pine-cone of bronze, like that which crowned the summit 
of the mausoleum of Hadrian, and this belief has been 
encouraged by the name of a neighbouring church being 
S. Giovanni della Pigna. 

The Pantheon has become the burial-place of painters. 
Raphael, Annibale Caracci, Taddeo Zucchero, Baldassare 
Peruzzi, Pierino del Vaga, and Giovanni da Udine, are all 
buried here. 

The third chapel on the left contains the tomb of Raphael 
(born April 6, 1483 ; died April 6, 1520). From the pen of 
Cardinal Bembo is the epigram : 

" Ille hie est Raphael, tirauit quo sospite vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori." * 

" Raphael mourut a. Tage de 37 ans. Son corps resta expose pendant 
trois jours. Au moment ou Ton s'appretait a le descendre dans sa der- 
niere demeure, on vit arriver le pape (Leon X.) qui se prosterna, pria 
quelques instants, benit Raphael, et lui prit pour la derniere fois la main, 
qu'il arrosa de ses larmes (si prostro innanii l'estinto Rafaello et baciogli 
quella mano, tra le lagrime). On lui fit de magnifiques funerailles, aux- 
quelles assisterent les cardinaux, les artistes, &c." — A. Du Pays. 

' ' When Raphael went, 
His heavenly face the mirror of his mind, 
His mind a temple for all lovely things 
To flock to and inhabit — when He went, 
Wrapt in his sable cloak, the cloak he wore, 
To sleep beneath the venerable Dome, 

* "Living, great nature feared he might outvie 
Her works ; and, dying, fears herself to die." 

Pole's Translation [without acknowledgment in 
his Epitaph on Sir Godfrey Kneller. 
VOL. II. 14 


By those attended, who in life had loved, 

Had worshipped, following in his steps to Fame, 

('Twas on an April-day, when Nature smiles,) 

All Rome was there. But, ere the march began, 

Ere to receive their charge the bearers came, 

Who had not sought him ? And when all beheld 

Him, where he lay, how changed from yesterday, 

Him in that hour cut off, and at his head 

His last great work;* when, entering in, they looked 

Now on the dead, then on that masterpiece, 

Now on his face, lifeless and colourless, 

Then on those forms divine that lived and breathed, 

And would live on for ages — all were moved ; 

And sighs burst forth, and loudest lamentations." 


Taddeo Zucchero and Annibale Caracci are buried on 
either side of Raphael. Near the high altar is a monument 
to Cardinal Gonsalvi (1757 — 1824), the faithful secretary and 
minister of Pius VII., by Thorwaldsen. This, however, is 
only a cenotaph, marking the spot where his heart is 
preserved. His body rests with that of his beloved brother 
Andrew in the church of S. Marcello. 

During the middle ages the pope always officiated here on 
the day of Pentecost, when, in honour of the descent of the 
Holy Spirit, showers of white rose-leaves were continually 
sent down through the aperture during service. 

" Though plundered of all its brass, except the ring which was neces- 
sary to preserve the aperture above ; though exposed to repeated fire ; 
though sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no 
monument of equal antiquity is so well preserved as this rotunda. It 
passed with little alteration from the pagan into the present worship ; 
and so convenient were its niches for the Christian altar, that Michael 
Angelo, ever studious of ancient beauty, introduced their design as a 
model in the Catholic church." — Forsyth. 

* Raphael lay in state beneath his last great work, the Transfiguration. 


"Simple, erect, severe, austere, sublime — 
Shrine of all saints and temple of all gods, 
From Jove to Jesus — spared and bless'd by time, 
Looking tranquillity, while falls or nods 
Arch, empire, each thing round thee, and man plods 
His way through thorns to ashes — glorious dome ! 
Shalt thou not last ? Time's scythe and tyrant's rods 
Shiver upon thee — -sanctuary and home 
Of art and piety — Pantheon ! pride of Rome ! " 

Byron, Cliilde Harold. 

In the Piazza della Rotonda is a small Obelisk found in 
the Campus Martius. 

"At a few paces from the streets where meat is sold, you will find 
gathered round the fountain in the Piazza della Rotonda, a number of 
bird-fanciers, surrounded by cages in which are multitudes of living birds 
for sale. Here are Java sparrows, parrots and parroquets, grey thrushes 
and nightingales, red-breasts {petti rossi), yellow canary-birds, beautiful 
sweet-singing little cardcllini, and gentle ringdoves, all chattering, sing- 
ing, and cooing together, to the constant splashing of the fountain. 
Among them, perched on stands, and glaring wisely out of their great 
yellow eyes, may be seen all sorts of owls, from the great solemn barbi- 
giani, and white-tufted owl, to the curious little civetta, which gives its 
name to all sharp-witted heartless flirts, and the aziola, which Shelley 
has celebrated in one of his minor poems." — Story's Roba di Roma. 

(Following the Via della Rotonda from hence, in the 
third street on the left is the small semicircular ruin called, 
from a fancied resemblance to the favourite cake of the 
people, Arco di Ciambella. This is the only remaining frag- 
ment of the baths of Agrippa, unless the Pantheon itself 
was connected with them.) 

Behind the Pantheon, is the Piazza della Minerva, where 
a small Obelisk was erected 1667 by Bernini, on the back of 
an elephant. It is exactly similar to the obelisk in front of 
the Pantheon, and they were both found near this site, where 
they formed part of the decorations of the Campus Martius. 


The hieroglyphics show that it dates from Hophres, a king 
of the 25th dynasty. On the pedestal is the inscription : 

" Sapientis y£gypti insculptas obelisco figuras 
Ab elephanto belluarum fortissimo gestari 

Quisquis hie vides, documentum intellige 
Robustse mentis esse solidam sapientiam sustinere." 

One side of the piazza is occupied by the mean ugly 
front of the Church of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, built in 
1370 upon the ruins of a temple of Minerva founded by 
Pompey. It is the only gothic church in Rome of import- 
ance. In 1848 — 55 it was redecorated with tawdry imitation 
marbles, which have only a good effect when there is not 
sufficient light to see them. In spite of this, the interior is 
very interesting, and its chapels are a perfect museum of 
relics of art or history. The services, too, in this church 
were, under the papal government, exceedingly imposing, 
especially the procession on the night before Christmas, the 
mass of St. Thomas Aquinas, and that of " the white mule 
day." Some celebrated divine generally preaches here at 
11 a.m. every morning in Lent. 

Hither, on the feast of the Annunciation, comes the 
famous " Procession of the White Mule," when the host is 
borne by the grand almoner riding on the papal mule, 
followed by the pope in his glass coach, and a long train of 
cardinals and other dignitaries. Up to the time of Pius VI., 
it was the pope himself who rode upon the white mule, but 
Pius VII. was too infirm, and since his time they have 
given it up. But this procession has continued to be one 
of the finest spectacles of the kind, and has been an oppor- 
tunity for a loyal demonstration, balconies being hung with 
scarlet draperies, and flowers showered down upon the papal 


coach, while the pope, on arriving and departing, has usually- 
been received with tumultuous " evivas." 

On the right of the entrance is the tomb of Diotisalvi, a 
Florentine knight, ob. 1482. Beginning the circuit of the 
church by the right aisle, the first chapel has a picture of 
S. Ludovico Bertrando, by Baricrio, the paintings on the 
pilasters being by Muziano. In the second, the Colonna 
Chapel, is the tomb of the late Princess Colonna (Donna 
Isabella Alvaria of Toledo) and her child, who both died at 
Albano in the cholera of 1867. The third chapel is that of 
the Gabrielli family. The fourth is that of the Annuncia- 
tion. Over its altar is a most interesting picture, shown as 
a work of Fra Angelico, but more probably that of Benozzo 
Gozzoli. It represents Monsignore Torquemada attended 
by an angel, presenting three young girls to the Virgin, who 
gives them dowries : the Almighty is seen in the clouds. 
Torquemada was a Dominican Cardinal, who founded the 
association of the Santissima-Annunziata, which holds its 
meetings in this chapel, and which annually gives dowries to 
a number of poor girls, who receive them from the pope 
when he comes here in state on the 25th of March. On 
this occasion, the girls who are to receive the dowries are 
drawn up in two lines in front of the church. Some are 
distinguished by white wreaths. They are those who are 
going to " enter into religion," and who consequently receive 
double the dowry of the others, on the plea that " money 
placed in the hands of religion bears interest for the poor." 

Torquemada is himself buried in this chapel, opposite 
the tomb, by Ambrogio Buonvicino, of his friend Urban 
VII., Giov. Battista Castagna, 1590, — who was pope only 
for eleven days. 


The fifth chapel is the burial-place of the Aldobrandini 
family. It contains a faded Last Supper, by Baroccio. 

"The Cenacolo of Baroccio, painted by order of Clement VIII. 
(1594), is remarkable for an anecdote relating to it. Baroccio, who was 
not eminent for a correct taste, had in his first sketch reverted to the 
ancient fashion of placing Satan close behind Judas, whispering in his 
ear, and tempting him to betray his master. The pope expressed his 
dissatisfaction, — ' che non gli piaceva il demonio se dimesticasse tanto 
con Gesu Christo,' — and ordered him to remove the offensive figure." 
— Jameson's Sacred Art, p. 277. 

Here are the fine tombs erected by Clement VIII. 
(Ippolito Aldobrandini) as soon as he obtained the papacy, 
to his father and mother. Their architecture is by Giacomo 
delta Porta, but the figures are by Cordieri, the sculptor of 
Sta. Silvia's statue. At the sides of the mother's tomb are 
figures emblematical of Charity, by that of the father, 
figures of Humility and Vanity. Beyond his mother's tomb 
is a fine statue of Clement VIII. himself (who is buried at 
Sta. Maria Maggiore), by Ippolito Buzi. 

"Ilippolyte Aldobrandini, qui prit le nom de Clement VIII., etait 
le cinquieme fils du celebre jurisconsulte Silvestro Aldobrandini, qui, 
apres avoir professe a Pise et joui d'une haute autorite a. Florence, avait 
ete condamne a l'exil par le retour au pouvoir des Medicis ses ennemis. 
La vie de Silvestre devint alors penible et calamiteuse. Depouille de 
ses biens, il fut, du moins, toujours ennoblir son malheur par la dignite 
de son caractere. Sa famille presentait un rare assemblage de douces 
vertus et de jeunes talents qu'une forte education developpait chaque 
jour avec puissance. Appele a Rome par Paul III., qui le nomraa 
avocat consistorial, Silvester s'y transporta avec son epouse, la pieuse 
Leta Deti, qui, pendant trente-sept ans, fut pour Iui comme son bon 
ange, et avec tous ses enfants, Jean, qui devait clre un jour cardinal ; 
Bernard, qui devint un vaillant guerrier ; Thomas, qui preparait deja 
peut-etre sa traduction de Diogene-I.aerce ; Pierre, qui voulut etre 
jurisconsulte comme son pere ; et le jeune Ilippolyte, un enfant alors, 
dont les saillies inqui&alent le vieillard, car i! ne savait comment pour- 
voir a son education et utiliser cctte vivacite de genie qui deja brillait 


clans son regard. Ilippolyte fut eleve aux frais du cardinal Farnfcse; 
puis, tous les emplois, toutes les dignites vinrent successivement au- 
devant delui, sans qu'il les cherchat autrement qu'en s'en rendant digne." 
— Gournerie, Rome Chreticnnc, ii. 238. 

The sixth chapel contains two fine cinque-cento tombs ; 
on the left, Benedetto Superanzio, bishop of Nicosa, ob. 
1495; on the right, a Spanish bishop, Giovanni da Coca, 
with frescoes. Close to the former tomb, on the floor, is 
the grave of (archdeacon) Robert Wilberforce, who died at 
Albano in 1857. 

Here Ave enter the right transept. On the right is a small 
dark chapel containing a fine Crucifix, attributed to Giotto. 
The central, or Caraffa Chapel, is dedicated to St. Thomas 
Aquinas, and is covered with welbpreserved frescoes. On 
the right, St. Thomas Aquinas is represented surrounded by 
allegorical figures, by Filippino Lippi. Over the altar is a 
beautiful Annunciation, in which a portrait of the donor, 
Cardinal Olivieri Caraffa, is introduced. Above is the 
Assumption of the Virgin. On the ceiling are the four 
Sibyls, by Raffaelino del Garbo. 

Against the left wall is the tomb of Paul IV., Gio. Pietro 
Caraffa (1555 — 59), the great supporter of the Inquisition, the 
patron of the Jesuits, the persecutor of the Jews (whom he 
shut up with walls in the Ghetto), — a pope so terrible to 
look upon, that even Alva, who feared no man, trembled at 
his awful aspect. Such he is represented upon his tomb, 
with deeply-sunken eyes and strongly-marked features, with 
one hand raised in blessing — or cursing, and the keys of 
St. Peter in the other. The tomb was designed by Pirro 
Ligorio ; the statue is the work of Giacomo and Tommaso 
Casignuola, and being made in marble of different pieces 
and colours, is cited by Vasari as an instance of a sculptor's 

2 1 6 WALKS IA r R OME. 

ingenuity in imitating painting with his materials. The 
epitaph runs : 

" To Jesus Christ, the hope and the life of the faithful ; to Paul IV. 
Caraffa, sovereign pontiff, distinguished amongst all by his eloquence, 
his learning, and his wisdom ; illustrious by his innocence, by his 
liberality, and by his greatness of soul ; to the most ardent champion of 
the catholic faith, Pius V., sovereign pontiff, has raised this monument of 
his gratitude and of his piety. He lived eighty-three years, one month, 
and twenty days, and died the 14th August, 1559, the fifth year of his 
pontificate." * 

On the transept wall, just outside this chapel, is the 
beautiful gothic tomb of Guillaume Durandus, bishop of 
Mende,f with a recumbent figure guarded by two angels, 
the background being occupied by a mosaic of the Virgin 
and Child, by Giovanni Cosmati. 

The first chapel on a line with the choir — the burial-place 
of the Altieri family — has an altar-piece, by Carlo Maratta, 
representing five saints canonized by Clement X., presented 
to the Virgin by St. Peter. On the floor is the incised 
monument of a bishop of Sutri. 

The second chapel — which contains a fine cinque-cento 
tomb — is that of the Rosary. Its ceiling, representing the 
Mysteries of the Rosary, is by Marcello Vennsti; the history 
of St. Catherine of Siena is by Giovanni de' Vecchi ; the 
large and beautiful Madonna with the Child over the altar 
is attributed to Fra Angelica. Here is the tomb of Cardinal 
Capranica of 1470. 

Beneath the high altar, with lamps always burning before 
it, is a marble sarcophagus with a beautiful figure, enclosing 

• Sec Gregorovius, GrabmKler der Piipste. 

t Author of the "Rationale Divinorum Officiorum" — "A treasure of information 
on all points connected with the decorations and services of the mediaeval church. 
Durandus was horn in Provence about 1220, and died in 1290 at Rome."— Lord 


the body of St. Catherine of Siena. In it her relics were 
deposited in 1461, by Antoninus, archbishop of Florence. 
On the last pillar to the right is an inscription stating that, 
" all the indulgences and privileges in every church, of all 
the religious orders, mendicant or not mendicant, in every 
part of the world, are granted especially to this church, where 
is the body of St. Catherine of Siena." 

" St. Catherine was one of twenty-five children born in wedlock to 
Jacopo and Lupa Benincasa, citizens of Siena. Her father exercised 
the trade of dyer and fuller. In the year of her birth, 1347, Siena 
reached the climax of its power and splendour. It was then that the 
plague of Bocaccio began to rage, which swept off 80,000 citizens, and 
interrupted the building of the great Duomo. In the midst of so large 
a family and during these troubled times, Catherine grew almost un- 
noticed, but it was not long before she manifested her peculiar dispos- 
ition. At six years old she already saw visions and longed for a 
monastic life : about the same time she used to collect her childish 
companions together and preach to them. As she grew her wishes 
became stronger ; she refused the proposals which her parents made 
that she should marry, and so vexed them by her obstinacy that they 
imposed on her the most servile duties in their household. These she 
patiently fulfilled, at the same time pursuing her own vocation with 
unwearied ardour. She scarcely slept at all, and ate no food but 
vegetables and a little bread, scourged herself, wore sackcloth, and 
became emaciated, weak, and half delirious. At length the firmness 
of her character and the force of her hallucination won the clay. Her 
parents consented to her assuming the Dominican robe, and at the age 
of thirteen she entered the monastic life. From this moment till her 
death we see in her the ecstatic, the philanthropist, and the politician 
combined to a remarkable degree. For three whole years she never 
left her cell except to go to church, maintaining an almost unbroken 
silence. Yet, when she returned to the world, convinced at length of 
having won by prayer and pain the favour of her Lord, it was to preach 
to infuriated mobs, to toil among men dying of the plague, to execute 
diplomatic negotiations, to harangue the republic of Florence, to corre- 
spond with queens, and to interpose between kings and popes. In the 
midst of this varied and distracting career she continued to see visions, 
and to fast and scourge herself. The domestic virtues and the personal 
wants and wishes of a woman were annihilated in her ; she lived for the 


Church, for the poor, and for Christ, whom she imagined to be con- 
stantly supporting her. At length she died (at Rome, on the 29th of 
April, 1380, in her 33rd year) worn out by inward conflicts, by the 
tension of a half-delirious ecstasy, by want of food and sleep, and by the 
excitement of political life." — Comhill Mag. Sept. 1866. 

On the right of the high altar is a statue of St. John, by 
Obicci, — on the left is the famous statue of Christ, by Michael 
Angelo. This is one of the sculptures which Francis I. tried 
hard to obtain for Paris. Its effect is marred by the bronze 

Behind, in the choir, are the tombs of two Medici popes. 
On the left is Leo X., Giovanni de Medici (15 13 — 21). 
This great pope, son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, was 
destined to the papacy from his cradle. He was ordained 
at seven years old, was made a cardinal at seventeen, and 
pope at thirty-eight, and at the installation procession to 
the Lateran, rode upon the same white horse, upon which 
he had fought and had been taken prisoner at the battle of 
Ravenna. His reign was one of fetes and pleasures. He 
was the great patron of artists and poets, and Raphael and 
Ariosto rose into eminence under his protection. His 
tomb is from a design of Antonio di Sangallo, but the figure 
of the pope is by Raffaello da Montelupo. 

Near the foot of Leo X.'s tomb is the flat monumental 
stone of Cardinal Bembo, his friend, and the friend of 
Raphael, who died 1547. His epitaph has been changed. 
The original inscription, half-pagan, half-Christian, ran : 

" I lie Bembus jacet Aonidum laus maxima Phcebi 

Cum sole, et luna vix periturus honos. 
Ilic et fama jacet, spes, et suprema galeri 

Quam non ulla queat restituisse dies. 
Ilic jacet exemplar vitse omni fraude carentis, 

Summa jacet, summa hie cum pietate fides." 


On the right of the choir is the tomb, by Sangallo, of 

Clement VII., Giulio de Medici (1523 — 34), son of the 

Giulio who fell in the conspiracy of the Pazzi, — who in 

his unhappy reign saw the sack of Rome (1527) under the 

Constable de Bourbon, and the beginning of the separation 

from England under Henry VIII. The figure of the pope 

is by Baccio Bandindli. Among other graves here is that of 

the English Cardinal Howard, ob. 1694. Just beyond the 

choir is a passage leading to a door into the Via S. Ignazio. 

Immediately on the left is the slab tomb of Fra Angelico da 

Fiesole. It is inscribed : 

" Hie jacet Vene Pictor Fl. Jo. de Florentia Ordinis 
pnedicatorum, 1404. 

"Non mihi sit laudi quod eram velut alter Apelles, 
Sed quod lucra tuis omnia, Christe, dabam. 
Altera nam terris opera exstant, altera coelo. 
Urbs me Johannem flos tulit Etruriae."* 

"Fra Angelico was simple and most holy in his manners, — and let 
this serve for a token of his simplicity, that Pope Nicholas one morning 
offering him refreshment, he scrupled to eat flesh without the licence of 
his superior, forgetful for the moment of the dispensing authority of the 
pontiff. He shunned altogether the commerce of the world, and living 
in holiness and in purity, was as loving towards the poor on earth as I 
think his soul must be now in heaven. He worked incessantly at his 
art, nor would he ever paint other than sacred subjects. He might 
have been rich, but cared not to be so, saying that true riches consisted 
rather in being content with little. He might have ruled over many, 
but willed it not, saying there was less trouble and hazard of sin in 
obeying others. Dignity and authority were within his grasp, but he 
disregarded them, affirming that he sought no other advancement than 
to escape hell and draw nigh to Paradise. He was most meek and tem- 
perate, and by a chaste life loosened himself from the snares of the 
world, ofttimes saying that the student of painting hath need of quiet 
and to live without anxiety, and that the dealers in the things of Christ 

* It is no honour to me to be like another Apelles, but rather, O Christ, that I 
gave all my gains to thy poor. One was a work for earth, the other for heaven — a 
city, the flower of Etruria, bare me, John. 


ought to live habitually with Christ. Never was he seen in anger with 
the brethren, which appears to me a thing most marvellous, and all but 
incredible; his admonitions to his friends were simple and always 
softened by a smile. Whoever sought to employ him, he answered with 
the utmost courtesy, that he would do his part willingly so the prior were 
content. — In sum, this never sufficiently to be lauded father was most 
humble and modest in all his words and deeds, and in his paintings 
graceful and devout ; and the saints which he painted have more of the 
air and aspect of saints than those of any other artist. He was wont 
never to retouch or amend any of his paintings, but left them always as 
they had come from his hand at first, believing, as he said, that such 
was the will of God. Some say that he never took up his pencil with- 
out previous prayer. He never painted a crucifix without tears bathing 
his cheeks ; and throughout his works, in the countenance and attitude 
of all his figures, the correspondent impress of his sincere and exalted 
appreciation of the Christian religion is recognisable. Such was this 
verily Angelic father, who spent the whole time of his life in the service 
of God and in doing good to the world and to his neighbour. And 
truly a gift like his could not descend on any but a man of most saintly 
life, for a painter must be holy himself before he can depict holiness." — 
Lord Lindsay, from Vasari. 

In the same passage are tombs of Cardinal Alessandrino, 
by Giacomo della Porta ; of Cardinal Pimentel, by Bernini ; 
and of Cardinal Bonelli, by Carlo Rainaldi. 

Beyond this, in the left transept, is the 'Chapel of S. 
Domenico, with eight black columns, appropriate to the 
colour of the Order, and an interesting picture of the saint. 
Here is the tomb of Benedict XIII., Vincenzo-Maria Orsini 
(1724 — 30), by Pietro Bracci. This pope, who had been a 
Dominican monk, laboured hard in his short reign for the 
reformation of the Church, and the morals of the clergy. 

Over a door leading to the Sacristy are frescoes represent- 
ing the election of Eugenius IV. in 1431, and of Nicholas 
V. in 1447, which both took place in this church. The altar 
of the sacristy has a Crucifixion, by Andrea Sacchi. 

Returning down the left aisle, the second chapel, counting 


from this end, is that of the Lante family, which contains 
the fine tomb of the Duchess Lante, ob. 1840, by Tenerani, 
with the Angel of the Resurrection, a sublime upward- 
gazing figure seated upon the sarcophagus. Here is a 
picture of St. James, by Baroccio. 

The third chapel is that of S. Vincenzo Ferreri, apostle of 
the Order of Preachers, with a miracle-working picture, by 
Bernardo Castclli. The fourth chapel— of the Grazioli 
family — has on the right a statue of St. Sebastian, by M'uw 
da Fiesofe, and over the altar a lovely head of our Saviour, by 
Perugino. This chapel was purchased by the Grazioli from 
the old family of Maffei, of which there are some fine tombs. 
The fifth chapel — of the Patrizi family — contains the famous 
miraculous picture called " La Madonna Consolatrice degli 
afflitti," in honour of which Pope Gregory XVI. conceded so 
many indulgences, as we read by the inscription. 

"La santita di N. S. Gregorio Papa XVI. con breve in data 17 
Sept. 1836. Ho accordato 1'indulgenzia plenaria a chiunque confessato 
e communicato visitera divotamente questa santa imagine della B. Ver- 
gine sotto il titolo di consolatrice degli afflitti nella seconda dominica 
di Luglio e suo ott.avo di ciascun anno : concede altresi la parziale 
indulgenza di 200 giorni in qualunque giorno dell' anno a chiunque 
almeno contrito visitera la detta S. Immagine : le dette indulgenze 
poi sono pure applicabili alle benedette anime del purgatorio." 

The last chapel, belonging to a Spanish nobleman, con- 
tains the picture of the Crucifixion, which is said to have 
conversed with Sta. Rosa di Lima. 

Near the entrance is the tomb of Cardinal Giacomo 
Tebaldi, ob. 1466, and beneath it that of Francesco Torna- 
buoni, by Mino da Fiesolc. It was for the tomb of the wife 
of this Tornabuoni, who died in childbirth, that the wonder- 
ful relief of Verocchio, now in the Uffizi at Florence, was 
executed. In the pavement is the gravestone of Paulas 


Manutius, the printer, son of the famous Aldus Manutius of 
Venice, with the inscription, " Paulo Manutio Aldi Filio. 
Obiit ciDiDLXXiv." 

The great Dominican Convent of the Minerva, lately sup- 
pressed, was the residence of the General of the Order. It 
contains the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (so called from its 
founder, Cardinal Casanata), the largest library in Rome after 
that of the Vatican, comprising 1 20,000 printed volumes and 
4500 MSS. It is open from 8 to 11 a.m., and i| to i\ p.m. 
This convent has always been connected with the history 
of the Inquisition. Here, on June 22, 1633, Galileo was 
tried before its tribunal for the " heresy " of saying that the 
earth went round the sun, instead of the sun round the 
earth, and was forced to recant upon his knees, this 
" accursed, heretical, and detestable doctrine." As he rose 
from his humiliation, he is said to have consoled himself by 
adding, in an undertone, " E pur si muove." When the 
" Palace of the Holy Office " was stormed by the mob 
in the revolution of 1848, it was feared that the Dominican 
convent would have been burnt down. 

The very beautiful cloister of the convent, which has a 
vaulted roof richly painted in arabesques, contains grand 
fifteenth century tombs, — of Cardinal Tiraso, ob. 1502, and 
of Cardinal Astorgius, ob. 1503. S. Antonino, archbishop 
of Florence, who lived in the reigns of Eugenius IV. and 
Nicholas V., was prior of this convent. 

From the Minerva, the Via del Pie di Marmo, so called 
from a gigantic marble foot which stands on one side of it, 
leads to the Corso.* 

* That part of the ancient Campus Marlins which contains the Theatre of Marcellus 
and Portico of Octavia, is described in Chapter V. ; that which belongs to the Via 
Flaminia in Chapter II. 



Via Tordinona — S. Salvatore in Lauro — House of Raphael — S. Gio- 
vanni de' Fiorentini — Bridge and Castle of S. Angelo — Sta. Maria 
Traspontina — Palazzo Giraud — Piazza Scossa-Cavalli — Hospital of 
Santo Spirito — Piazza and Obelisk of the Vatican — S. Peter's ; 
its portico, tombs, crypts, dome, and sacristy— Churches of S. 
Stefano and Sta. Marta — II Cimeterio dei Tedeschi — Palazzo del 
Santo-Umzio — S. Salvatore in Torrione — S. Michaele in Sassia. 

/^ONTINUING in a direct course from the Piazza Bor- 
ghese, we pass through a series of narrow dirty streets quite 
devoid of interest, but bordering on one side upon the 
Tiber, of which— with its bridge, S. Angelo and St. Peter's 
— beautiful views may be obtained from little courts and 
narrow strips of shore, at the back of the houses. 

A short distance after passing (on left) the Locanda 
dell' Orso, where Montaigne used to stay when he was in 
Rome, and beneath which are some curious vaulted cham- 
bers of c. a.d. 1500, the street, which repeatedly changes 
its name, is called Via Tordinona, from the Tor di Nona, 
which once stood here, but was destroyed in 1690. It was 
used as a prison, as is shown by the verse of Regnier : 

"Qu'un barisel vous mit dedans la tour de Nonne." 

(One of the narrow streets on the left of the Via Tordi- 
nona debouches into the Via dei Coronari, close to the 


Church of S. Salvatore in Laitro, built on the site of a 
laurel-grove, which flourished near the portico of Europa. 
It contains a picture of the Nativity, by Pietro da Cortona, 
and a modern work of Gagliardi, representing S. Emidio, 
S. Nicolo da Tolentino, and S. Giacomo della Marina, the 
three protectors of Ancona. In a side chapel, opening out 
of the cloisters, is the rich tomb of Pope Eugenius IV. 
(Gabriele Condolmieri, ob. 1439), with his recumbent figure 
by Isaia da Pisa. Francesco Salviati painted a portrait of 
this pope for the adjoining convent, to which he had 
belonged, as well as a fine fresco of the Marriage of Cana.* 

(There are several other fine monuments in the same 
chapel with the tomb, which in 1S67 was given up as a 
barrack to the Flemish zouaves, at the great risk of injury 
to its delicate carvings.) 

Passing the Apollo Theatre, the Via Tordinona emerges 
upon the quay of the Tiber, opposite S. Angelo. Hence 
several streets diverge into the heart of the city. 

(At the corner of the Via di Banchi is a house with a 
frieze, richly sculptured with lions' heads, &c. On the left 
is the Church of San Celso in Banchi, in front of which 
Lorenzo Colonna, the protonotary, was murdered by the 
Orsini and Santa Croce, immediately after the death of 
Sixtus IV. (1484); and where his mother, finding his head 
cut off, and seizing it by the hair, shrieked forth her curses 
upon his enemies. On the right, further clown the street, 
is the Church of Sta. Catcrina da Siena, which contains an 
interesting altar-piece by Girolamo Genga, representing the 
return of Gregory XI. from Avignon, which was due to her 

* Vasari, v. 


The house joining the Ponte S. Angelo is said to have 
been that of the " Violinista," the friend of Raphael, who is 
familiar to us from his portrait in the Sciarra Palace. Some 
say that Raphael died while he was on a visit to him. But 
the best authorities maintain that he died in a house built 
for him by Bramante, in the Piazza Rusticucci, which was 
pulled down to enlarge the Piazza of St. Peter's. No. 124, 
Via Coronari, not far from the Ponte S. Angelo, is shown 
as the house in which the great painter lived previously to 
this, and is that which he bequeathed to the chapel in the 
Pantheon in which he is buried. It was partly rebuilt in 
1705, when Carlo Maderno painted on its facade a por- 
trait of Raphael in chiaroscuro, now almost obliterated. 
The house at present belongs to the canons of Sta. Maria 

(The Via S. Giovanni di Fiorcntini leads to the Church 
of that name, abutting picturesquely into the angle of the 
Tiber. This is the national church of the Tuscans, and 
was built at the expense of the city of Florence. In the 
tribune are tombs of the Falconieri family. Here are 
several fine pictures ; a St. Jerome writing, by Cigo/i, who 
is buried in this church • St. Jerome praying before a cru- 
cifix, Tito Santi* (153S — 1603); St. Francis, Tito Santi ; SS. 
Cosmo and Damian condemned to martyrdom by fire, — a 
grand work of Salvator Rosa. 

"Some of the altar-pieces of Salvator-Rosa (1615 — 1673), are we H 
conceived and full of effect, especially when they represent a horrible 
subject, like the martyrdom in S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini. " — Lanzi, 
ii. 165. 

The Chapel of the Crucifix is painted by Lanfranco : 

* A scholar of Bronzino. 
VOL. II. 15 

226 II : l LA'S hV ROME. 

the third chapel on the right has frescoes by Tempesta on 
the roof, relating to the history of S. Lorenzo. 

The building of this church was begun in the reign of 
Leo X. by Sansovino, who, for want of space, laid its 
foundations, at enormous expense, in the bed of the Tiber. 
While overlooking this, he fell from a scaffold, and being 
dangerously hurt, was obliged to give up his place to 
Antonio da Sangallo.* Soon after Pope Leo died, and the 
work, with many others, was suspended during the reign of 
Adrian VI. Under Clement VII. Sansovino returned, but 
was driven away, robbed of all his possessions in the sack 
of Rome, under the Constable de Bourbon. The church 
was finished by Giacomo della Porta in 1588, but Alessandro 
Galileo added the facade in 1725. 

"En 14S8, une affreuse epidemie decimait les malheureux habitants 
des environs de Rome ; les mourants etaient abandonnes, les cadavres 
restaient sans sepulture. Aussitot quelques Florentins forment une con- 
frerie sous le titre de la Pitie, pour rendre aux pestiferes les derniers 
devoirs de la charite chretienne : c'est a cette confrerie qu'on doit la 
belle eglise de Saint-Jean des Florentins, a Strada Giulia." — Gournerie, 
Rome Chretienne. 

The Pontc S. Angela is the Pons Elius of Hadrian, built 
as an approach to his mausoleum, and only intended for 
this, as another public bridge existed close by, at the 
time of its construction. It is almost entirely ancient, 
except the parapets. The statues of St. Peter and St. Paul, 
at the extremity, were erected by Clement VII., in the 
place of two chapels, in 1530, and the angels, by Clement 
IX., in 1688. The pedestal of the third angel on the 
right is a relic of the siege of Rome in 1S49, and bears the 
impress of a cannon-ball. 

* Sec Vasari, vol. vii. 


These angels, which have been called the " breezy 
maniacs " of Bernini, are only from his designs. The two 
angels which he executed himself, and intended for this 
bridge, are now at S. Andrea delle Fratte. The idea of 
Clement IX. was a fine one, that " an avenue of the 
heavenly host should be assembled to welcome the pilgrim 
to the shrine of the great apostle." 

Dante saw the bridge of S. Angelo divided lengthways 
by barriers to facilitate the movement of the crowds going 
to and from St. Peter's on the occasion of the first jubilee, 

"Come i Romani per l'esercito molto, 
L'anno del giubbileo, su per lo ponte 
Hanno a passar la gente modo tolto ; 

Che dall' un lato tutti hanno la fronte 
Verso '1 castello, e vanno a Santo Pietro, 
Dall' altra sponda vanno verso '1 monte." 

Inferno, xviii. 29. 

From the Ponte S. Angelo, when the Tiber is low, are 
visible the remains of the bridge by which the ancient Via 
Triumphalis crossed the river. Close by, where Santo 
Spirito now stands, was the Porta Triumphalis, by which 
victors entered the city in triumph. 

Facing the bridge, is the famous Castle of S. Angela, 
built by the Emperor Hadrian as his family tomb, because 
the last niche in the imperial mausoleum of Augustus was 
filled when the ashes of Nerva were laid there. The first 
funeral here was that of Elius Verus, the first adopted son 
of Hadrian, who died before him. The emperor himself 
died at Baiae, but his remains were transported hither from a 
temporary tomb at Pozzuoli by his successor Antoninus 
Pius, by whom the mausoleum was completed in a.d. 140. 


Here, also, were buried, Antoninus Pius, a.d. 161 ; Marcus 
Aurelius, 180 ; Commodus, 192 ; and Septimius Severus, in 
an urn of gold, enclosed in one of alabaster, a.d. 211; Cara- 
calla, in 217, was the last emperor interred here. The well- 
known lines of Byron : 

" Turn to the mole which Hadrian rear'd on high, 
Imperial mimic of old Egypt's piles, 
Colossal copyist of deformity, 
Whose travell'd phantasy from the far Nile's 
Enormous model, doom'd the artist's toils 
To build for giants, and for his vain earth, 
His shrunken ashes, raise this dome ! How smiles 
The gazer's eye with philosophic mirth, 
To view the huge design which sprung from such a birth." 

seem rather applicable to the Pyramid of Caius Cestius 
than to this mausoleum. 

The castle, as it now appears, is but the skeleton of 
the magnificent tomb of the emperors. Procopius, writing 
in the sixth century, describes its appearance in his 
time. " It is built," he says, " of Parian marble ; the 
square blocks fit closely to each other without any 
cement. It has four equal sides, each a stone's throw in 
length. In height it rises above the walls of the city. 
On the summit are statues of men and horses, of admirable 
workmanship, in Parian marble." Canina, in his " Archi- 
tectura Romana," gives a restoration of the mausoleum, 
which shows how it consisted of three storeys : 1, a quad- 
rangular basement, the upper part intersected with Doric 
pillars, between which were spaces for epitaphs of the dead 
within, and surmounted at the corners by marble equestrian 
statues ; 2, a circular storey, with fluted Ionic colonnades : 3, 
a circular storey, surrounded by Corinthian columns, between 


which were statues. The whole was surmounted by a 
pyramidal roof, ending in a bronze fir-cone. 

"The mausoleum which Hadrian erected for himself on the further 
bank of the Tiber far outshone the tomb of Augustus, which it nearly 
confronted. Of the size and dignity which characterized this work of 
Egyptian massiveness, we may gain a conception from the existing re- 
mains ; but it requires an effort of imagination to transform the scarred 
and shapeless bulk before us, into the graceful pile which rose column 
upon column, surmounted by a gilded dome of span almost unrivalled." 
Merivale, ch. Ixvi. 

The history of the Mausoleum, in the middle ages, is 
almost the history of Rome. It was probably first turned 
into a fortress by Honorius, a.d. 423. From Theodoric it 
derives the name of " Career Theodorici." In 537, it was 
besieged by Vitiges, when the defending garrison, reduced to 
the last extremity, hurled down all the magnificent statues 
which decorated the cornice, upon the besiegers. In a.d. 
498 Pope Symmachus removed the bronze fir-cone at the 
apex of the roof to the court of St. Peter's, whence it was 
afterwards transferred to the Vatican garden, where it is 
still to be seen between two bronze peacocks, which pro- 
bably stood on either side of the entrance. 

Belisarius defended the castle against Totila, whose Gothic 
troops captured and held it for three years, after which it 
was taken by Narses. 

It was in 530 that the event occurred which gave the 
building its present name. Pope Gregory the Great was 
leading a penitential procession to St. Peter's, in order to 
offer up prayers for the staying of the great pestilence which 
followed the inundation of 589 ; when, as he was crossing 
the bridge, even while the people were falling dead around 
him, he "looked up at the mausoleum, and saw an angel on 


its summit, sheathing a bloody sword,* while a choir of 
angels around chaunted with celestial voices, the anthem, 
since adopted by the Church in her vesper service — " Regina 
cccli, l/ztare — quia qncm meruisti fiortarc — resurrexit, sicut 
dixit, AUeluja " — To which the earthly voice of the pope 
solemnly responded, " Ora pro nobis JDcum, AUeluja."^ 

In the tenth century the fortress was occupied by the 
infamous Marozia, who, in turn, brought her three husbands 
(Alberic, Count of Tusculum ; Guido, Marquis of Tuscany ; 
and Hugo, King of Italy) thither, to tyrannise with her over 
Rome. It was within the walls of this building that Alberic, 
her son by her first husband, waiting upon his royal stepfather 
at table, threw a bowl of water over him, when Hugo retorted 
by a blow, which was the signal for an insurrection, the 
people taking part with Alberic, putting the king to flight, 
and imprisoning Marozia. Shut up within these walls, Pope 
John XI. (931 — 936), son of Marozia by her first husband, 
ruled under the guidance of his stronger-minded brother 
Alberic ; here, also, Octavian, son of Alberic, and grandson 
of Marozia, succeeded in forcing his election as John XII. 

* It is interesting to observe that the same vision was seen under the same circum- 
stances in other periods of history. 

" So the Lord sent pestilence upon Israel, and there fell of Israel seventy thousand 
men. And God sent an angel to Jerusalem to destroy it ... . and David lifted 
up his eyes, and saw the angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven, 
having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem." — 1 Chron. xxi. 
14 — 16. 

" Before the plague of London had begun (otherwise than in St. Giles'sl, seeing a 
crowd of people in the street, I joined them to satisfy my curiosity, and found them 
all staring up into the air, to see what a woman told them appeared plain to her. 
This was an angel clothed in white, with a fiery sword in his hand, waving it, or 
In hi li Inn ( it ovi 1 In head : she described every part of the figure to the life, and 
showed them the motion and tin- form." — /'<//.' v, //is/, of t/ic Plague. 

t The pictures at Aim Cneli and Sta. Maria Maggiore both claim to be that carried 
by St. Gregory in this procession. The song of the angels is annually commemo- 
i.ili-l on St. .Mark's Day, when the clergy pass by in procession to St. Peter's, and the 
Franci cans of Ara Coeli and the canons of Sta. Maria Maggiore, halting here, chaunt 
the antiphon, Regina cceli, latare. 


(being the first pope who took a new name), and scandalised 
Christendom by a life of murder, robbery, adultery, and 

In 974 the castle was seized by Cencio (Crescenzio No- 
mentano), the consul, who raised up an anti-pope (Boniface 
VII.) here, with the determination of destroying the temporal 
power of the popes, and imprisoned and murdered two 
popes, Benedict VI. (972), and John XIV. (984), within 
these walls. In 996 another lawful pope, Gregory V., 
calling in the emperor Otho to his assistance, took the 
castle, and beheaded Cencio, though he had promised him 
life if he would surrender. From this governor the fortress 
long held the name of Castello de Crescenzio, or Turris 
Crescentii, by which it is described in mediaeval writings. 
A second Cencio supported another anti-pope, Cadolaus, 
here in 1063, against Pope Alexander II. A third Cencio 
imprisoned Gregory VII. here in 1084. From this time 
the possession of the castle was a constant point of contest 
between popes and anti-popes. In 13 13 Arlotto degli 
Stefaneschi, having demolished most of the other towers 
in the city, arranged the same fate for S. Angelo, but it was 
saved by cession to the Orsini. It was from hence, on 
December 15, 1347, that Rienzi fled to Bohemia, at the 
end of his first period of power, his wife having previously 
made her escape disguised as a friar. 

" The cause of final ruin to this monument " is described 
by Nibby to have been the resentment of the citizens against 
a French governor who espoused the cause of the anti-pope 
(Clement VII.) against Urban VI. in 1378. It was then 
that the marble casings were all torn from the walls and 
used as street pavements. 


A drawing of Sangallo of 1465 shows the " upper part of 
the fortress crowned with high square towers and turreted 
buildings ; a cincture of bastions and massive square towers 
girding the whole ; two square-built bulwarks flanking the 
extremity of the bridge, which was then so connected with 
these outworks that passengers would have immediately found 
themselves inside the fortress after crossing the river. Mar- 
lianus, 1588, describes its double cincture of fortifications — a 
large round tower at the inner extremity of the bridge ; two 
towers with high pinnacles, and the cross on their summits, 
the river flowing all around." * 

The castle began to assume its present aspect under 
Boniface IX. in 1395. John XXIII. , 141 1, commenced 
the covered way to the Vatican, which was finished by 
Alexander VI. ; and roofed by Urban VIII., in 1630. By 
the last-named pope the great outworks of the fortress were 
built under Bernini, and furnished with cannon made from 
the bronze roof of the Pantheon. Under Paul III. the 
interior was decorated with frescoes, and a colossal marble 
angel erected on the summit, in the place of a chapel (S. 
Angelo inter Nubes), built by Boniface IV. The marble 
angel was exchanged by Benedict XIV. for the existing 
angel of bronze, by a Dutch artist, Verschaffelt. 

" Paul III. voulant justifier lenom donne a. cette forteresse, fit placer 
au sommet de l'edifice une statue de marbre, representant 1111 ange 
tenant a la main une epee nue. Cet ouvrage de Raphael de Montelupo 
a etc rem place, du temps de Benoit XIV., par une statue de bronze qui 
fournit cette belle rcponse a 1111 officier francais assiege dans le fort. 
' Je me rendrai quand l'ange remettra son epee clans le fourrcau.' 

" . . . . Cet ange a Fair naif d'une jcunc fille de dix-huitans, 
et ne cherchc qu'a bien remeltre son epee dans le fourreau." — Stendhal, 
i- 33- 

* Hemans' Story of Monuments in Rome. 


" I suppose no one ever looked at this statue critically — at least, for 
myself, I never could ; nor can I remember now whether, as a work of 
art, it is above or below criticism ; perhaps both. With its vast wings, 
poised in air, as seen against the deep blue skies of Rome, or lighted up 
by the golden sunset, to me it was ever like what it was intended to re- 
present — like a vision." — Jameson's Sacred Art, p. 98. 

Of the castle, as we now see it externally, only the quad- 
rangular basement is of the time of Hadrian ; the round 
tower is of that of Urban VIII., its top added by Paul III. 
The four round towers of the outworks, called after the four 
Evangelists, are of Nicholas V., 1447. 

The interior of the fortress can be visited by an order. 
Excavations made in 1825 have laid open the sepulchral 
chamber in the midst of the basement. Here stood, 
in the centre, the porphyry sarcophagus of Hadrian, 
which was stolen by Pope Innocent II. to be used as 
his own tomb in the Lateran, where it was destroyed by 
the fire of 1360, the cover alone escaping, which was 
used for the tomb of Otho II., in the atrium of St. 
Peter's, and which, after filling this office for seven centu- 
ries, is now the baptismal font of that basilica. A spiral 
passage, thirty feet high, and eleven wide, up which a 
chariot could be driven, gradually ascends through the solid 
mass of masonry. There is wonderfully little to be seen. 
A saloon of the time of Paul III. is adorned with frescoes 
of the life of Alexander the Great, by Pierino del Vaga. 
This room would be used by the pope in case of his having 
to take refuge in S. Angelo. An adjoining room, adorned 
with a stucco frieze of Tritons and Nereids, is that in which 
Cardinal Caraffa was strangled (1561) under Pius IV., for 
alleged abuses of authority under his uncle, Paul IV. — his 
brother, the Marquis Caraffa, being beheaded in the castle 


the same night. The reputed prison of Beatrice Cenci is 
shown, but it is very uncertain that she was ever confined 
here, — also the prison of Cagliostro, and that of Benvenuto 
Cellini, who escaped, and broke his leg in trying to let himself 
down by a rope from the ramparts. The statue of the angel 
by Montelupo is to be seen stowed away in a dark corner. 
Several horrible trabocchctte (oubliettes) are shown. 

On the roof, from which there is a beautiful view, are 
many modern prisons, where prisoners suffer terribly from 
the summer sun beating upon their flat roofs. 

Among the sculptures found here were the Barberini 
. Faun, now at Munich, the Dancing Faun, at Florence, and 
the Bust of Hadrian at the Vatican. The sepulchral in- 
scriptions of the Antonines existed till 1572, when they 
were cut up by Gregory XIII. (Buoncompagni), and the 
marble used to decorate a chapel in St. Peter's ! The mag- 
nificent Easter display of fireworks (from an idea of Michael 
Angelo, carried out by Bernini), called the girandola, used to 
be exhibited here, but now takes place at S. Pietro in Mon- 
torio, or from the Pincio. From 1849 to 1S70, the castle 
was occupied by French troops, and their banner floated 
here, except on great festivals, when it was exchanged for 
that of the pope. 

Running behind, and crossing the back streets of the 
Borgo, is the covered passage intended for the escape of 
the popes to the castle. It was used by Alexander VI. when 
invaded by Charles VIII. in 1494, and twice by Clement VII. 
(Giulio di Medici), who fled, in 1527, from Moncada, viceroy 
of Naples, and in May, 1527, during the terrible sack of 
Rome by the troops of the Constable de Bourbon. 

"Pendant que Ton se battait, Clement VII. etait en priercs devant 


l'autel de sa chapelle au Vatican, detail singulier chez un homme qui 
avait commence sa carriere par etre militaire, Lorsque les cris des 
mourants lui annoncerent la prise de la ville, il s'enfuit du Vatican au 
chateau St. Ange par le long corridor qui s'eleve au-dessus des plus 
hautes maisons. L'historien Paul-Jove, qui suivait Clement VII., 
relevait sa longue robe pour qu'il put marcher plus vite, et lorsque le 
pape fut arrive au pont qui le laissait a. de'eouvert pour un instant, 
Paul-Jove le couvrit de son manteau et de son chapeau violet, de peur 
qu'il ne fut reconnu a son rochet blanc et ajuste par quelque soldat bon 

" Pendant cette longue fuite le long du corridor, Clement VII. 
apercevait au-dessous de lui, par les petites fenetres, ses sujets poursuivis 
par les soldats vainqueurs qui deja se repandaient dans les rues. lis ne 
faisaient aucun quartier a personne, et tuaient a coups de pique tout ce 
qu'ils pouvaient atteindre." — Stendhal, i. 388. 

" The Escape " consists of two passages ; the upper 
open like a loggia, the lower covered, and only lighted by- 
loop-holes. The keys of both are kept by the pope him- 

S. Angelo is at the entrance of the Borgo, promised at the 
Italian invasion of September, 1870, as the sanctuary of the 
papacy, the tiny sovereignty where the temporal sway of the 
popes should remain undisturbed, — the sole relic left to them 
of all their ancient dominions. The Borgo, or Leonine City, 
is surrounded by walls of its own, which were begun in a.d. 
846, by Pope Leo IV., for the better defence of St. Peter's 
from the Saracens, who had been carrying their devastations 
up to the very walls of Rome. These walls, 10,800 feet in 
circumference, were completed in four years by labourers 
summoned from every town and monastery of the Roman 
states. Pope Leo himself daily encouraged their exertions 
by his presence. In 852 the walls were solemnly conse- 
crated by a vast procession of the whole Roman clergy 
barefooted, their heads strewn with ashes, who sprinkled 


them with holy water, while the pope offered a prayer 
composed by himself,* at each of the three gates. 

The adjoining Piazza Pia is decorated with a fountain 
erected by Pius IX. The principal of the streets which meet 
here is the Via del Borgo Nuovo, the main artery to St. 
Peter's. On its left is the Church of Sta. Maria Traspon- 
tina, built 1566, containing two columns which bear inscrip- 
tions, stating that they were those to which St. Peter and 
St. Paul were respectively attached, when they suffered 
flagellation by order of Nero ! 

This church occupies the site of a Pyramid supposed to 
have been erected to Scipio Africanus, who died at Liternum, 
B.C. 183, and which was regarded in the middle ages as the 
tomb of Romulus. Its sides were once coated with marble, 
which was stripped off by Donus I. This pyramid is 
represented on the bronze doors of St. Peter's. 

A little further is the Palazzo Giraud, belonging to Prince 
Torlonia. It was built, 1506, by Bramante, for Cardinal 
Adriano da Corneto,t who gave it to Henry VIII., by whom 
it was given to Cardinal Campeggio. Thus it was for a 
short time the residence of the English ambassador before 
the Reformation. Innocent XII. converted it into a college 
for priests, by whom it was sold to the Marquis Giraud. 

Facing this palace is the Piazza Scossa Cavalli, with a 
pretty fountain. Its name bears witness to a curious 
legend, which tells how when St. Helena returned from 

* " Deus, qui apostolo tuo Petro collatis clavibus regni celestis ligandi ct solvendi 
pontificium tradidisti ; concede ut intercession's ejus auxilio, a peccatorum nostrorum 
legibus liberemur : ct lianc civitatem, quant te adjuvante fundavimus, fac ab ira tua 
in perpetumn permanere securam, ct de hostibus, quorum causa constructa est, novos 
et multiplicatos habere triumphos, per Doininuin nostrum," &c. 

t The same whom Alexander VI. hud intended to poison, when lie poisoned himself 


Palestine, bringing with her the stone on which Abra- 
ham was about to sacrifice Isaac, and that on which the 
Virgin Mary sate down at the time of the presentation of 
the Saviour in the Temple, the horses drawing these precious 
relics stood still at this spot, and refused every effort to 
make them move. Then Christian people, " recognising the 
finger of God," erected a church on this spot (S. Giacomo 
Scossa Cavalli), where the stones are still to be seen. 

The Strada del Borgo Sto. Spirito contains the immense 
Hospital of Santo Spirito, running along the bank of the 
Tiber. This establishment was founded in 11 98 by Inno- 
cent III. Sixtus IV., in 1471, ordered it to be rebuilt by 
Bacio Pintelli, who added a hall 376 feet long by 44 high 
and 37 wide. Under Benedict XIV, Ferdinando Fuga built 
another great hall. The altar in the midst of the great hall 
is the only work of Andrea Palladio in Rome. The church 
was designed by Bacio Pintelli, but built by Antonio di San 
Gallo under Paul III. Under Gregory XIII., Ottaviano 
Mascherino built the palace of the governor, which unites 
the hospital with the church. 

The institution comprises a hospital for every kind of 
disease, containing in ordinary times 1620 beds, a number 
which can be almost doubled in time of necessity ; a lunatic 
asylum containing an average of 450 inmates; and a 
foundling hospital, where children are received from all 
parts of the papal states, and even from the Neapolitan 
towns. Upwards of 3000 foundlings pass through the 
hospital annually, but the mortality is very great, — in the 
return of 1 846, as much as fifty-seven per cent. The person 
who wishes to deposit an infant rings a bell, when a little 
bed is turned towards the grille near the door, in which the 


baby is deposited. Close to this is another grille, without 
any apparent use. " What is that for ? " you ask. " Be- 
cause, when nurses come in from the country, they might 
be tempted to take the children for money, and yet not 
feel any natural tenderness towards them, but by looking 
through the second grille, they can see the child, and 
discover if it is simpatico, and if not, they can go away and 
leave it." 

At the end of the street one enters the Piazza Rusticucci 
(where Raphael died), from which open the magnificent 
colonnades of Bernini, which lead the eye up to the fagade 
of St. Peter's, while the middle distance is broken by the 
silvery spray of its glittering fountains. 

The Colonnades have 284 columns, are sixty-one feet wide, 
and sixty-four high; they enclose an area of 777 English 
feet; they were built by Bernini for Alexander VII., 1657 — 
67. In the centre is the famous red granite Obelisk of the 
Vatican, brought to Rome from Heliopolis by Caligula, in 
a ship which Pliny describes as being "nearly as long as 
the left side of the port of Ostia." It was used to adorn 
the circus of Nero, and was brought from a position near 
the present sacristy of St Peter's by Sixtus V. in 1586. 
Here it was elevated by Domenico Fontana, who estimated 
its weight at 963,537 Roman pounds; and employed 800 
men, 150 horses, and 46 cranes in its removal. 

The obelisk was first exorcised as a pagan idol, and then 
dedicated to the Cross. Its removal was preceded by high 
mass in St. Peter's, after which Pope Sixtus bestowed a 
solemn benediction upon Fontana and his workmen, and 
ordained that none should speak, upon pain of death, 
during the raising of the obelisk. The immense mass was 


slowly rising upon its base, when suddenly it ceased to 
move, and it was evident that the ropes were giving way. 
An awful moment of suspense ensued, when the breath- 
less silence was broken by a cry of " Acqua alle funi ! " — 
throw water on the ropes, and the workmen, acting on the 
advice so unexpectedly received, again saw the monster 
move, and gradually settle on its base. The man who 
saved the obelisk was Bresca, a sailor of Bordighiera, a 
village of the Riviera di Ponente, and Sixtus V., in his 
gratitude, promised him that his native village should ever 
henceforth have the privilege of furnishing the Easter palms 
to St. Peter's. A vessel laden with palm-branches, which 
abound in Bordighiera, is still annually sent to the Tiber in 
the week before Palm Sunday, and the palms, after being 
prepared and plaited by the nuns of S. Antonio Abbate, 
are used in the ceremonial in St. Peter's. 

The height of the whole obelisk is 132 feet, that of the 
shaft, eighty-three feet. Upon the shaft is the inscription 
to Augustus and Tiberius : " divo. cves. divi. julii. f. 


The inscriptions on the base show its modern dedication to 
the Cross * — " Ecce Crux Domini — Fugite partes adversse — 
Vicit Leo de tribu Juda." 

" Sixte-quint s'applaudissait du succes, comme de l'oeuvre la plus 
gigantesque des temps modernes ; des medailles furent frappees ; Fon- 
tana fut cree noble romain, chevalier de l'Eperon d'or, et recut line 
gratification de 5>°°° ecus, independamment des materiaux qui avaient 
servi a l'entreprise, et dont la valeur s'elevait a. 20,000 ecus (108,000 
fr.) ; enfin des poemes, dans toutes leslangues, sur ce nouveau triomphe 

* At the time of its erection Sixtus V. conceded an indulgence of ten years to all 
who, passing beneath the obelisk, should adore the cross on its summit, repeating a 


de la croix, furent adresses aux diflferents souverains de 1'Europe." — 
Gournerk, Rome Chrctienne, ii. 232. 

" In summer the great square basks in unalluring magnificence in the 
midday sun. Its tall obelisk sends but a slim shadow to travel round 
the oval plane, like the gnomon of a huge dial ; its fountains murmur 
with a delicious dreaminess, sending up massive jets like blocks of crystal 
into the hot sunshine, and receiving back a broken spray, on which sits 
serene an unbroken iris, but present no 'cool grot,' where one may enjoy 
their freshness ; and in spite of the shorter path, the pilgrim looks with 
dismay at the dazzling pavement and long flight of unsheltered steps 
between him and the church, and prudently plunges into the forest of 
columns at either side of the piazza, and threads his way through their 
uniting shadows, intended, as an inscription * tells him, for this express 
purpose." — Cardinal Wiseman. 

" Un jour Pie V. traversait, avec l'ambassadeur de Pologne, cette 
place du Vatican. Pris d'enthousiasme au souvenir du courage des 
martyrs qui l'ont arrose'e de leurs larmes, et fertilisee par leur sang, il se 
baisse, et saisissant dans sa main une poignee de poussiere: 'Tenez,' 
dit-il au representant de cette noble nation, ' prenez cette poussiere 
formee de la cendre des saints, et impregnee du sang des martyrs.' 

"L'ambassadeur 11 e portait pas dans son cceur la foi d'un pape, ni 
dans son ame les illuminations d'un saint ; il recut pourtant avec respect 
cette relique etrange a ses yeux: mais revenu en son palais, retirant, 
d'une main indifferente peut-etre, le linge qui la contenait, il le trouva 

" La poussiere avait disparu. La foi du pontife avait evoque le sang 
des martyrs, et ce sang genereux reparaissait a. cet appel pour attester, 
en face de l'heresie, que l'Eglise romaine, au xvi e siecle, etait toujours 
celle pour laquelle ces heros avaient donne leur vie sous Neron." — Une 
Chritienne ii Rome. 

No one can look upon the Piazza of St. Peter's without 
associating it with the great religious ceremonies with 
which it is connected, especially that of the Easter Bene- 

" Out over the great balcony stretches a white awning, where priests 
and attendants are collected, and where the pope will soon be seen. 
BeloW, the piazza is alive with moving masses. In the centre are drawn 

* The inscription i^ from Isaiah iv. 6, "A tabernacle for a shadow in the daytime 
from the lic.i ;>!.cce of refuge, and for a covert from storm and from rain." 


up long lines of soldiery, with yellow and red pompons, and glittering 
helmets and bayonets. These are surrounded by crowds on foot, and 
at the outer rim are packed carriages filled and overrun with people, 
mounted on the seats and boxes. What a sight it is ! — above us the 
great dome of St. Peter's, and below, the grand embracing colonnade, 
and the vast space, in the centre of which rises the solemn obelisk 
thronged with masses of living beings. Peasants from the Campagna 
and the mountains are moving about everywhere. Pilgrims in oil-cloth 
cape and with iron staff demand charity. On the steps are rows of 
purple, blue, and brown umbrellas, for there the sun blazes fiercely. 
Everywhere crop forth the white hoods of Sisters of Charity, collected 
in groups, and showing, among the parti-coloured dresses, like beds of 
chrysanthemums in a garden. One side of the massive colonnade casts 
a grateful shadow over the crowd beneath, that fill up the intervals of its 
columns ; but elsewhere the sun burns down and flashes everywhere. 
Mounted on the colonnade are crowds of people leaning over, beside the 
colossal statues. Through all the heat is heard the constant plash of 
the sun-lit fountains, that wave to and fro their veils of white spray. At 
last the clock strikes. In the far balcony are seen the two great showy 
peacock fans, and between them a figure clad in white, that rises from 
a golden chair, and spreads his great sleeves like wings as he raises his 
arms in benediction. That is the pope, Pius the Ninth. All is dead 
silence, and a musical voice, sweet and penetrating, is heard chanting 
from the balcony ; — the people bend and kneel ; with a cold gray flash, 
all the bayonets gleam as the soldiers drop to their knees, and rise to 
salute as the voice dies away, and the two white wings are again waved ; 
— then thunder the cannon, — the bells clash and peal, — a few white 
papers, like huge snow-flakes, drop wavering from the balcony ; — these 
are Indulgences, and there is an eager struggle for them below ; — then 
the pope again rises, again gives his benediction,* waving to and fro 
his right hand, three fingers open, and making the sign of the cross, — 

* It may not be unintere^t'-jr to give the actual words of the benediction : — 

" May the holy apostles Peter and Paul, in whose power and dominion we trust, 
pray for us to the Lord ! Amen. 

" Through the prayers and merits of the blessed, eternal Virgin Mary, of the blessed 
archangel Michael, the blessed John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul, 
and all saints — may the Almighty God have mercy upon you, may your sins be for- 
given you, and may Jesus Christ lead you to eternal life. Amen. 

" Indulgence, absolution, and forgiveness of all sins — time for true repentance, a 
continual penitent heart and amendment of life, — may the Almighty and merciful God 
grant you these ! Amen. 

" And may the blessing of Almighty God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, descend 
upon you, and remain with you for ever. Amen." 

VOL. II. l6 


and the peacock fans retire, and he between them is borne away, — and 
Lent is over." — Story's Roba di Roma. 

The first church which existed on or near the site of the 
present building, was the oratory founded in a.d. 90, by 
Anacletus, bishop of Rome, who is said to have been 
ordained by St. Peter himself, and who thus marked the 
spot where many Christian martyrs had suffered in the 
circus of Nero, and where St. Peter was buried after his 

In 306 Constantine the Great yielded to the request of 
Pope Sylvester, and began the erection of a basilica on this 
spot, labouring with his own hands at the work, and him- 
self carrying away twelve loads of earth, in honour of the 
twelve apostles.* Anastasius describes how the body of 
the great apostle was exhumed at this time, and re-interred 
in a shrine of silver, enclosed in a sarcophagus of gilt 
bronze. The early basilica measured 395 feet in length 
by 212 in width. Its nave and aisles were divided by 
eighty-six marble pillars of different sizes, in great part 
brought from the Septizonium of Severus, and it had an 
atrium, and a. flaraJisus, or quadrangular portico, along its 
front.t Though only half the size of the present cathedral, 
still it covered a greater space than any mediaeval cathedral 
except those of Milan and Seville, with which it ranked in 

The old basilica suffered severely in the Saracenic invar 

* " Exucns se chlamyde, et accipiens bidentem, ipse primus terram aperuit ad 

fund: hi 1 l»i these Sancti Petri contmendam ; deinde in mimero duodecim aposto- 

[orum duodecim cophinos plenos in humcris superimpositos bajulano, de eo loco ubi 
fundaments Basilicas Apostolierant jacenda." — Cod. Vat. 7..SatictaC<rcil. 2. 

t 'I ! ' Id basilica is seen in Raphael's fresco of the Incendio del Uorgo, 

and its interior in that of the Coronation of Charlemagne. 

\ Sec I-'orgusson's Handbook of Architecture, vol. ii. 


sion of S45, when some authorities maintain that even the 
tomb of the great apostle was rifled of its contents, but it 
was restored by Leo IV., who raised the fortifications of the 
Borgo for its defence. 

Among the most remarkable of its early pilgrims were, 
Theodosius, who came to pray for a victory over Eugenius ; 
Valentinian, emperor of the East, with his wife Eudoxia, 
and his mother Galla-Placidia ; Belisarius, the great general 
under Justinian ; Totila ; Cedwalla, king of the West 
Saxons, who came for baptism ; Concred, king of the 
Mercians, who came to remain as a monk, having cut off 
and consecrated his long hair at the tomb of St. Peter ; 
Luitprand, king of the Lombards ; Ina of Wessex, who 
founded a church here in honour of the Virgin, that Anglo- 
Saxons might have a place of prayer, and those who died, a 
grave ; Carloman of France, who came for absolution and 
remained as a monk, first at S. Oreste (Soracte), then at 
Monte Casino ; Richard of England ; Bertrade, wife of 
Pepin, and mother of Charlemagne ; Offa, the Saxon, 
who made his kingdom tributary to St. Peter • Charle- 
magne (four times), who was crowned here by Leo III. ; 
Lothaire, crowned by Paschal I. ; and, in the last year 
of the reign of Leo IV., Ethel wolf, king of the Anglo- 
Saxons, who was crowned here, remained a year, and who 
brought with him his boy of six years old, afterwards the 
great Alfred. 

Of the old basilica, the crypt is now the only remnant, 
and there are collected the few relics preserved of the end- 
less works of art with which it was filled, and which for the 
most part were lost or wilfully destroyed, when it was pulled 
down. Its destruction was first planned by Nicholas V. 


(1450), but was not carried out till the time of Julius II., 
who in 1506 began the new St. Peter's from designs of 
Bramante. The four great piers and their arches above 
were completed, before the deaths of both Bramante and 
Pope Julius interrupted the work. The next pope, Leo X., 
obtained a design for a church in the form of a Latin cross 
from Raphael, which was changed, after his death (on 
account of expense) to a Greek cross, by Baldassare Peruzzi, 
who only lived to complete the tribune. Paul III. (1534) 
employed Antonio di Sangallo as an architect, who returned 
to the design of a Latin cross, but died before he could 
carry out any of his intentions. Giulio Romano succeeded 
him and died also. Then the pope, " being inspired by 
God," says Vasari, sent for Michael Angelo, then in his 
seventy-second year, who continued the work under Julius 
III., returning to the plan of a Greek cross, enlarging the 
tribune and transepts, and beginning the dome on a new 
plan, which he said would " raise the Pantheon in the air." 
The dome designed by Michael Angelo, however, was very 
different to that which we now admire, being much lower, 
flatter, and heavier. The present dome is due to Giacomo 
della Porta, who brought the great work to a conclusion in 
1590, under Sixtus V., who devoted 100,000 gold crowns 
annually to the building. In 1605 Paul V. destroyed all 
that remained of the old basilica, and employed Carlo 
Mademo as his architect, who once more returned to 
the plan of the Latin cross, and completed the present 
ugly facade in 16 14. The church was dedicated by Urban 
VIII., November iSih, 1626; the colonnade added by 
Alexander VII., 1667, the sacristy by Pius AT., in 1780. 
The building of the present St. Peter's extended altogether 


over 176 years, and its expenses were so great that Julius 
II. and Leo X. were obliged to meet them by the sale 
of indulgences, which led to the Reformation. The ex- 
pense of the main building alone has been estimated at 
10,000,000/. The annual expense of repairs is 6300/. 

" St. Pierre est une sorte de ville a part dans Rome, ayant son climat, 
sa temperature prop re, sa lumiere trop vive pour etre religieuse, tantot 
deserte, tantot traversee par des societes de voyageurs, ou remplie d'une 
foule attiree par les ceremonies religieuses (a l'epoque des jubiles le 
nombre des pelerins s'est parfois eleve a Rome, jusqu'a 400,000). 
Elle a ses reservoirs d'eau; sa fontaine coulant perpetuellement au pied 
de la grande coupole, dans un bassin de plomb, pour la commodite des 
travaux; ses rampes, par lesquelles les betes de somme peuvent monter; 
sa population fixe, habitant ses terrasses. Les San Pietrine, ouvriers 
charges de tous les travaux qu'exige la conservation d'un aussi precieux 
edifice, s'y succedent de pere en fils, et forment une corporation qui a ses 
lois et sa police." — A. Du Pays. 

The facade of St. Peter's is 357 feet long and 144 feet 
high. It is surmounted by a balustrade six feet in height, 
bearing statues of the Saviour and the Twelve Apostles. 
Over the central entrance is the loggia where the pope is 
crowned, and whence he gives the Easter benediction. 
The huge inscription runs — " In . Honorem . Principis . 
Apost . Paulus V . Burghesius . Romanus . Pont . Max . A. 
MDCXII . Pont. VII." 

"I don't like to say the facade of the church is ugly and obtrusive. 
As long as the dome overawes, that facade is supportable. You advance 
towards it — through, O such a noble court ! with fountains flashing up 
to meet the sunbeams ; and right and left of you two sweeping half- 
crescents of great columns ; but you pass by the courtiers and up to 
the steps of the throne, and the dome seems to disappear behind it. It 
is as if the throne was upset, and the king had toppled over." — Thack- 
eray, The Newcomes. 

A wide flight of steps, at the foot of which are statues of 


St Peter by De Fabris, and St. Paul by Tadolini, lead by 
fine entrances to the Vestibule, which is 468 feet long, 66 
feet high, and 50 feet wide. Closing it on the right is a 
statue of Constantine by Bernini — on the left that of Char- 
lemagne by Cornacchini. Over the principal entrance (facing 
the door of the church) is the celebrated Mosaic of the 
Navicclla, executed 1298, by Giotto, and his pupil, Pietro 

" For the ancient basilica of St. Petei, Giotto executed his celebrated 
mosaic of the Navicella, which has an allegorical foundation. It repre- 
sents a ship, with the disciples, on an agitated sea ; the winds, personified 
as demons, storm against it; above appear the Fathers of the Old 
Testament speaking comfort to the sufferers. According to the early 
Christian symbolization, the ship denoted the Church. Nearer, and on 
the right, in a firm attitude, stands Christ, the Rock of the Church, 
raising Peter from the waves. Opposite sits a fisherman in tranquil 
expectation, denoting the hope of the believer. The mosaic has frequently 
changed its place, and has undergone so many restorations, that the 
composition alone can be attributed to Giotto. The fisherman and the 
figures hovering in the air are, in their present form, the work of Mar- 
cello Provenzale." — Kuglcr, i. 127. 

"This mosaic is ill placed and ill seen for an especial reason. Early 
converts from paganism retained the heathen custom of turning round to 
venerate the sun before entering a church, so that in the old basilica, as 
here, the mosaic was thus placed to give a fitting object of worship. 
The learned Cardinal Baronius never, for a single day, during the space 
of thirty years, failed to bow before this symbol of the primitive Church, 
tossed on the stormy sea of persecution and of sin, saying, ' Lord, save 
me from the waves of sin as thou didst Peter from the waves of the sea.' " 
— Mrs. Elliots Historical Pictures. 

The magnificent central door of bronze is a remnant from 
the old basilica, and was made in the time of Eugenius IV., 
143 1 — 39, by Antonio Filarete, and Simone, brother oi 
Donatello. The bas-reliefs of the compartments represent 
the martyrdoms of SS. Peter and Paul, and the principal 
events in the reign of Eugenius, — the Council of Florence, 


the Coronation of Sigismund, emperor of Germany, &c. 
The bas-reliefs of the framework are entirely mythological ; 
Ganymede, Leda and her Swan, &c, are to be distinguished. 

" Corinne fit remarquer a Lord Nelvil que sur les portes etaient 
representees en bas-relief les metamorphoses d'Ovide. On ne se 
scandalise point a Rome, lui dit-elle, des images du paganisme, quand 
les beaux-arts les ont consacrees. Les merveilles du genie portent 
toujours a Tame une impression religieuse, et nous faisons hommage au 
culte chretien de tous les chefs-d'oeuvre que les autres cultes ont 
inspires." — Mad. de Stall. 

Let into the wall between the doors are three remark- 
able inscriptions : 1. Commemorating the donation made to 
the church by Gregory II., of certain olive-grounds to pro- 
vide oil for the lamps ; 2. The bull of Boniface VIII., 1300, 
granting the indulgence proclaimed at every jubilee ; 3. 
In the centre, the Latin epitaph of Adrian I. (Colonna, 
772 — 95), by Charlemagne,® one of the most ancient memo- 
rials of the papacy : 

" The father of the Church, the ornament of Rome, the famous writer 

Adrian, the blessed pope, rests in peace : 
God was his life, love was his law, Christ was his glory ; 
He was the apostolic shepherd, always ready to do that which was 

right. _ 
Of noble birth, and descended from an ancient race, 
He received a still greater nobility from his virtues. 
The pious soul of this good shepherd was always bent 
Upon ornamenting the temples consecrated to God. 
He gave gifts to the churches, and sacred dogmas to the people; 
And showed us all the way to heaven. 
Liberal to the poor, his charity was second to none, 
And he always watched over his people in prayer. 
By his teachings, his treasures, and his buildings, he raised, 
O illustrious Rome, thy monuments, to be the honour of the town 

and of the world. 

* As in the pirtico of the temple of Mars were preserved the verses of the poet 
Attius upon Junius Brutus. 


Death could not injure him, for its sting was taken away by the death 
of Christ ; 

It opened for him the gate of the better life. 
I, Charles, have written these verses, while weeping for my father; 

O my father, my beloved one, how lasting is my grief for thee. 
Dost thou think upon me, as I follow thee constantly in spirit ; 
Now reign blessed with Christ in the heavenly kingdom. 
The clergy and people have loved you with a heart -love, 
Thou wert truly the love of the world, O excellent priest. 
O most illustrious, I unite our two names and titles, 
Adrian and Charles, the king and the father. 
O thou who readest these verses, say with pious heart the prayer; 
O merciful God, have pity upon them both. 
Sweetly slumbering, O friend, may thy earthly body rest in the 

And thy spirit wander in bliss with the saints of the Lord 
Till the last trumpet sounds in thine ears, 
Then arise with Peter to the contemplation of God. 
Yes, I know that thou wilt hear the voice of the merciful judge 
Bid thee to enter the paradise of thy Saviour. 
Then, O great father, think upon thy son, 
And ask, that with the father the son may enter into joy. 
Go, blessed father, enter into the kingdom of Christ, 
And thence, as an intercessor, help thy people with thy prayers. 
Even so long as the sun rolls upon its fiery axis, 
Shall thy glory, O heavenly father, remain in the world. 

Adrian the pope, of blessed memory, reigned for three-and-twenty 
years, ten months, and seventeen- days, and died on the 25 th of 

The walled-up door on the right is the Porta Santa, only- 
opened for the jubilee, which has taken place every twenty- 
fifth year (except 1850) since the time of Sixtus IV. The 
pope himself gives the signal for the destruction of the wall 
on the Christmas-eve before the sacred year. 

"After preliminary prayers from Scripture singularly apt, the pope » 
goes down from his throne, and, armed with a silver hammer, strikes 
tin- wall in the doorway, which, having been cut round from its jambs 
and lintel, falls at once inwards, and is cleared away in a moment by the 


San Pietrini. The pope, then, bare-headed and torch in hand, first 
enters the door, and is followed by his cardinals and his other attend- 
ants to the high altar, where the first vespers of Christmas Day are 
chaunted as usual. The other doors of the church are then flung open, 
and the great queen of churches is filled." — Cardinal Wiseman. 

" Arretez-vous un moment ici, dit Corinne a Lord Nelvil, comme il 
etait deja sous le portique de l'eglise ; arretez-vous, avant de souleverle 
rideau qui couvre la porte du temple ; votre cceur ne bat-il pas a. l'ap- 
proche de ce sanctuaire? et ne ressentez-vous pas, au moment d'entrer, 
tout ce que ferait eprouver l'attente d'un evenement solennel ? " — Mad. 
dc Stall. 

We now push aside the heavy double curtain and enter 
the Basilica. 

" Hilda had not always been adequately impressed by the grandeur of 
this mighty cathedral. When she first lifted the heavy leathern curtains, 
at one of the doors, a shadowy edifice in her imagination had been 
dazzled out of sight by the reality." — Hawthorne. 

"The interior burst upon our astonished gaze, resplendent in light, 
magnificence, and beauty, beyond all that imagination can conceive. Its 
apparent smallness of size, however, mingled some degree of surprise, 
and even disappointment, with my admiration ; but as I walked slowly 
up its long nave, empanelled with the rarest and richest marbles, and 
adorned with every art of sculpture and taste, and caught through the 
lofty arches opening views of chapels, and tombs, and altars of surpassing 
splendour, I felt that it was, indeed, unparalleled in beauty, in magnitude, 
and magnificence, and one of the noblest and most wonderful of the 
works of man." — Eaton's Rome. 

" St. Peter's, that glorious temple — the largest and most beautiful, it 
is said, in the world, produced upon me the impression rather of a 
Christian pantheon, than of a Christian church. The aesthetic intellect 
is edified more than the God-loving or God-seeking soul. The exterior 
and interior of the building appear to me more like an apotheosis of the 
popedom than a glorification of Christianity and its doctrine. Monu- 
ments to the popes occupy too much space. One sees all round the 
walls angels flying upwards with papal portraits, sometimes merely with 
papal tiaras." — Frederika Bremer. 

" L' Architecture de St. Pierre est une musique fixee." — Madame de 

l< The building of St. Peter's surpasses all powers of description. It 
appears to me like some great work of nature, a forest, a mass of rocks, 


or something similar ; for I never can realise the idea that it is the 
work of man. You strive to distinguish the ceiling as little as the 
canopy of heaven. You lose your way in St. Peter's, you take a walk 
in it, and ramble till you are quite tired ; when divine service is per- 
formed and chaunted there, you are not aware of it till you come quite 
close. The angels in the Baptistery are enormous giants ; the doves, 
colossal birds of prey ; you lose all sense of measurement with the eye, 
or proportion ; and yet who does not feel his heart expand, when 
standing under the dome, and gazing up at it." — Mendelssohris 

"But thou, of temples old, or altars new, 

Standest alone — with nothing like to thee — 

Worthiest of God, the holy and the true. 

Since Zion's desolation, when that He 

Forsook His former city, what could be 

Of earthly structures, in His honour piled, 

Of a sublimer aspect ? Majesty, 

Power, Glory, Strength, and Beauty, — all are aisled 

In this eternal ark of worship undented. 

"Enter : its grandeur overwhelms thee not ; 
And why? it is not lessen'd ; but thy mind, 
Expanded by the genius of the spot, 
Has grown colossal, and can only find 
A fit abode wherein appear enshrined 
Thy hopes of immortality ; and thou 
Shalt one day, if found worthy, so defined, 
See thy God face to face, as thou dost now 
His Holy of Holies, nor be blasted by His brow." 

Byron, Childe Harold. 

" On pousse avec peine une grosse portiere de cuir, et nous voici dans 
Saint-Pierre. On ne peut qu'adorer la religion qui produit de telles 
choses. Rien du monde ne peut etre compare a. 1'interieur de Saint 
Pierre. Apres un an de sejour a Rome, j'y allais encore passer des 
heures entifcres avec plaisir." — Fontanel, Tetnpio Vaticano Illustrato. 

" Tandis que, dans les eglises gothiques, 1'impression est de s'agenou- 
iller, de joindre les mains avec un sentiment d 'humble priere et de 
pro fond regret ; dans Saint-Pierre au contraire, le mouvement involon- 
taire serail d'ouvrir lis bras en signe de- joie, de relever la tete avec bon- 
heur et ^panouissement 11 semble, que la, le pechc n'accable plus ; 
le sentiment vif du pardon par le triomphe de la resurrection remplit 
seal le cceur." — Eugenie de /<i Ferronays. 


"The temperature of St. Peter's seems, like the happy islands, to 
experience no change. In the coldest weather it is like summer to your 
feelings, and in the most oppressive heats it strikes you with a delightful 
sensation of cold — a luxury not to be estimated but in a climate such as 
this." — Eaton s Rome. 

On each side of the nave are four pillars with Corinthian 
pilasters, and a rich entablature supporting the arches. The 
roof is vaulted, coffered, and gilded. The pavement is of 
coloured marble, inlaid from designs of Giacomo della 
Porta and Bernini. In the centre of the floor, immediately 
within the chief entrance, is a round slab of porphyry, upon 
which the emperors were crowned. 

The enormous size of the statues and ornaments in St. 
Peter's do away with the impression of its vast size, and it 
is only by observing the living, moving figures, that one 
can form any idea of its colossal proportions. A line in 
the pavement is marked with the comparative size of the 
other great Christian churches. According to this the 
length of St. Peter's is 613J? feet; of St. Paul's, London, 
520^ feet; Milan Cathedral, 443 feet; St. Sophia, Constan- 
tinople, 360^ feet. The height of the dome in the interior 
is 405 feet ; on the exterior, 448 feet. The height of the 
baldacchino is 94^ feet. 

The first impulse will be to go up to the shrine, around 
which a circle of eighty-six gold lamps is always burning, 
and to look down into the Confessional, where there is a 
beautiful kneeling statue of Pope Pius VI. (Braschi, 1785 — 
1800) by Canova. Hence one can gaze up into the dome, 
with its huge letters in purple-blue mosaic upon a gold 
ground (each six feet long).* " Tu es Petrus, et super 

* These letters are in real mosaic. Those in the nave and transepts are in paper 
— to complete them in mosaic would have been too expensive. 


hanc petram ffidificabo ecclesiam meam, et tibi dabo claves 
regni coelorum." Above this are four colossal mosaics of 
the Evangelists from designs of the Cav. d'Arpino ; the pen 
of St. Luke is seven feet in length. 

" The cupola is glorious, viewed in its design, its altitude, or even its 
decorations ; viewed either as a whole or as a part, it enchants the eye, 
it satisfies the taste, it expands the soul. The very air seems to eat up 
all that is harsh or colossal, and leaves us nothing but the sublime to 
feast on : — a sublime peculiar as the genius of the immortal architect, 
and comprehensible only on the spot." — Forsyth. 

" Ce dome, en le considerant meme d'en bas, fait eprouver une sorte 
de terreur ; on croit voir des abimes suspendus sur sa tete." — Madame de 

The Baldacchino, designed by Bernini in 1633, is of 

bronze, with gilt ornaments, and was made chiefly with 

bronze taken from the roof of the Pantheon. It covers the 

high altar, which is only used on the most solemn occasions. 

Only the pope can celebrate mass there, or a cardinal who 

is authorised by a papal brief. 

" Without a sovereign priest officiating before and for his people, St. 
Peter's is but a grand aggregation of splendid churches, chapels, tombs, 
and works of art. With him, it becomes a whole, a single, peerless 
temple, such as the world never saw before. That central pile, with its 
canopy of bronze as lofty as the Faniese Palace, with its deep-diving stairs 
leading to a court walled and paved with precious stones, that yet seems 
only a vestibule to some cavern or catacomb, with its simple altar that 
disdains ornament in the presence of what is beyond the reach of human 
price, — that which in truth forms the heart of the great body, placed just 
where the heart should be, is then animated, and surrounded by living 
and moving sumptuousness. The immense cupola above it, ceases to 
be a dome over a sepulchre, and becomes a canopy over an altar ; the 
quiet tomb beneath is changed into the shrine of relics below the place 
of sacrifice — the saints under the altar ; — the quiet spot at which a few 
devout worshippers at most limes maybe found, bowing under the hun- 
dred lamps, is crowded by rising groups, beginning from the lowest step, 
increasing in dignity and in richness of sacred robes, till, at the summit 
and in the centre, stands supreme the pontiff himself, on the very spot 


which becomes him, the one living link in a chain, the first ring of 
which is rivetted to the shrine of the Apostles below . . . .St. 
Peter's is only itself when the pope is at the high altar, and hence only 
by, or for, him it is used." — Cardinal I 'Vise/nan. 

The four huge piers which support the dome are used as 
shrines for the four great relics of the church, viz., 1. The 
lance of S. Longinus, the soldier who pierced the side of 
our Saviour, presented to Innocent VIII., by Pierre d'Au- 
busson, grandmaster of the Knights of Rhodes, who had 
received it from the Sultan Bajazet ; * 2. The head of St. 
Andrew, said to have been brought from Achaia in 1460, 
when its arrival was celebrated by Pius II. ; 3. A portion of 
the true cross, brought by Sta. Helena ; 4. The napkin of 
Sta. Veronica, said, doubtless from the affinity of names, to 
bear the impression — vera-icon- — of our Saviour's face. 

" The ' Volto-Santo,' said to be the impress of the countenance of our 
Saviour on the handkerchief of Sta. Veronica, or Berenice, which wiped 
his brow on the way to Calvary, was placed in the Vatican by John VII., 
in 707, and afterwards transferred to the Church of Santo Spirito, where 
six Roman noblemen had the care of it, each taking charge of one of the 
keys with which it was locked up. Among the privileges enjoyed for 
this office, was that of receiving, every year, from the hospital of Santo 
Spirito at the feast of Pentecost, two cows, whose flesh, an ancient 
chronicle says, ' si mangiavano li, con gran festa.' In 1440, this picture 
was carried back to St. Peter's, whence it has not since been moved. 
When I examined the head on the Veronica handkerchief, it struck me 
as undoubtedly a work of early Byzantine art, perhaps of the seventh 
or eighth century, painted on linen. It is with implicit acceptance of 
its claims that Petrarch alludes to it — 'verendam populis Salvatoris 
Imaginem.' Ep. ix., lib. 2. During the republican domination in 
1849, it was rumoured that about Easter, the canons of St. Peter saw 
the Volto-Santo turn pale, and ominously change colour while they gazed 
upon it." — Hemans Catholic Italy, vol. i. 

* Innocent sent two bishops to receive it at Ancona, two cardinals to receive it at 
Narni, and went himself, with all his court, to meet it at the Porto del Popolo. 

2 s 4 WALK'S IN Ji OME. 

The ceremony of exhibiting the relics from the balcony- 
above the statue of Sta. Veronica takes place on Holy 
Thursday, Good Friday, and Easter Day, but the height is 
so great that nothing can really be distinguished. 

" To-day we gazed on the Veronica — the holy impression left by our 
Saviour's face on the cloth Sta. Veronica presented to him to wipe his 
brow, bowed under the weight of the Cross. We had looked forward to 
this sight for days, for seven thousand years of indulgence from penance 
are attached to it. 

" But when the moment came we could see nothing but a black board 
hung with a cloth, before which another white cloth was held. In a 
few minutes this was withdrawn, and the great moment was over, the 
glimpse of the sacred thing on which hung the fate of seven thousand 
years."— Schonbcrg- Cotta Chronicles. 

The niches in the piers are occupied by four statues, 
of Longinus, St. Andrew, Sta. Helena, and Sta. Veronica, 
holding the napkin or " sudarium," " flourishing a marble 
pocket-handkerchief." * 

" Malheureusement toutes ces statues pechent par le gout. Le rococo, 
mis a la mode par le Bernin, est surtout execrable dans le genre colos- 
sale. Mais la presence du genie de Bramante et de Michel-Ange se fait 
tellement sentir, que les choses ridicules ne le sont plus ici ; elles ne sont 
qu' insignifiantes. Les statues colossales des piliers representent : St 
Andre, par Francois Quesnoy (Fiammingo), elle excita la jalousie du 
Bernin ; St. Veronique par M. Mochi, dont il blamait les draperies 
volantes (dans un endroit clos). Un plaisant lui repondait que leur 
agitation provenait du vent qui soufflait par les crevasses de la coupole, 
depuisqu'il avait affaibli les piliers par des niches et tribunes : St. Helene 
par A. Bolgi, St. Longin par Bernin." — A. Du Pays. 

Not very far from the confessional, against the last pier 
on the right of the nave, stands the statue of St. Peter, said 
to have been cast by Leo the Great, from the old statue of 
Jupiter Capitolinus. It is of very rude workmanship. Its 
extended foot is eagerly kissed by Roman Catholic de- 

* Eaton's Rome. 


votees, who then rub their foreheads against its toes. Pro- 
testants wonder at the feeling which this figure excites. 
( gory II. wrote of it to Leo the Isaurian : " Christ is my 
witness, that when I enter the temple of the prince of the 
Apostles, and contemplate his image, I am filled with such 
emotion, that tears roll down my cheeks like the rain from 
heaven." On high festivals the statue is dressed up in full 
pontificals. On the day of the jubilee of Pius IX. (June 
16, 1S71), it was attired in a lace alb, stole, and gold-em- 
broidered cope, fastened at the breast by a clasp of diamonds ; 
and its foot was kissed by upwards of 20,000 persons 
during the day. 

" La coutume antique chez les Grecs d'habiller et de parer les statues 
sacrees s'etait conservee a. Rome et s'y conserve encore. Tout le monde 
a vu la statue de saint Pierre revet ir dans les grandes solennites ses 
magnifiques habits de pape. On lavait les statues des dieux, on les frot- 
tail, on les frisait comme des poupees. Les divinites du Capitole 
avaient un nombreux domestique attache a. leur personne et qui etait 
charge de ce soin. L'usage romain a subsiste chez les populations 
lalines de l'Espagne et clles Font porte jusqu'au Mexique oil j'ai vu, a 
Tuebla, la veille d'une fSte, une femme de chambrc faire une toilette en 
regie a une statue de la Vierge." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iv. 91. 

Along the piers of the nave and transepts are ranged 
statues of the different Founders, male and female, of reli- 
gious Orders. 

Returning to the main entrance, we will now make the 
tour of the basilica. Those who expect to find monuments 
of great historical interest will, however, be totally disap- 
pointed. Scarcely anything remains above-ground which is 
e.arlier than the sixteenth century. Of the tombs of the 
eighty-seven popes who were buried in the old basilica, 
the greater part were totally lost at its destruction; — a few 
were removed to other churches (those of the Piccolomini 


to S. Andrea della Valle, &c), and some fragments are still 
to be seen in the crypt. Only two monuments were replaced 
in the new basilica, those of the two popes who lived in the 
time and excited the indignation of Savonarola — "Sixtus 
IV., with whose cordial concurrence the assassination of 
Lorenzo di Medici was attempted — and Innocent VIII., 
the main object of whose policy was to secure place and 
power for his illegitimate children." 

" The side-chapels are splendid, and so large that they might serve 
for independent churches. The monuments and statues are numerous, 
but all are subordinate, or unite harmoniously with the large and beau- 
tiful proportions of the chief temple. Everything there is harmony, 
light, beauty — an image of the church-triumphant, but a very worldly, 
earthly image; and whilst the mind enjoys its splendour, the soul 
cannot, in the higher sense, be edified by its symbolism."- — Frederika 

The first chapel on the right derives its name from the 
Pieta of Michael Angela, representing the dead Saviour upon 
the knees of the Madonna, a work of the great artist in his 
twenty-fourth year, upon an order from the French ambas- 
sador, Cardinal Jean de Villiers, abbot of St. Denis. The 
sculptor has inscribed his name (the only instance in which he 
has done so) upon the girdle of the Virgin. Francis I. at- 
tempted to obtain this group from Michael Angelo in 1507, 
together with the statue of Christ at the Minerva, " corarae 
de choses que Ton m'a assurd estre des plus exquises et ex- 
cellentes en votre art." Opening from this chapel are two 
smaller ones. That on the right has a Crucifix by Pietro 
Cavatlini ; the mosaic, representing St. Nicholas of Bari, 
is by Christqfari. That on the left is called Cappclla della 
Colonna Santa, from a column, said to have been brought 
from Jerusalem, and to have been that against which our 


Saviour leant, when he prayed and taught in the temple. 
It is inscribed : 

" Hsec est ilia columna in qua DNS N r Jesus XPS appodiatus dum 
populo prredicabat et Deo piio preces in templo effundebat adhrcrendo, 
stabatque una cum aliis undeci hie circumstantibus de Salomonis templo 
in triumphum. Hujus Basilica? hie locata fuit demones expellit et immun- 
dis spiritibus vexatos liberos reddit et multa miracula cotidie facit. P. 
reverendissimum prem et Dominum Dominus. Card, de Ursinis. A.D. 


A more interesting object in this chapel is the sarcophagus 
(once used as a font) of Anicius Probus, a prefect of Rome 
in the fourth century, of the great family of the Anicii, 
to which St. Gregory the Great belonged. Its five com- 
partments have bas-reliefs, representing Christ and the 

Returning to the aisle, on the right, is the tomb of Leo 
XII., Annibale della Genga (1823 — 29) by Fabris ; on the 
left is the tomb of Christina of Sweden, daughter of Gus- 
tavus Adolphus, who died at Rome, 1689, by Carlo Fonfana, 
with a bas-relief by Teudon, representing her abjuration of 
Protestantism in 1655, in the cathedral of Innspruck. 

On the right is the altar of St. Sebastian, with a mosaic 
copy of Domenichino's picture at Sta. Maria degli Angeli ; 
beyond which is the tomb of Innocent XII., Antonio Pigna- 
telli (169 c — 1700). This was the last pope who wore the 
martial beard and moustache, which we see represented in 
his statue. Pignatella is Italian for a little cream-jug ; in 
allusion to this we may see three little cream-jugs in the 
upper decorations of this monument, which is by Filippo 
Valle. On the left is the tomb, by Bernini, of the Countess 
Matilda, foundress of the temporal power of the popes, who 
died in 1115, was buried in a monastery near Mantua, and 
vol. 11. 17 


transported hither by Urban VIII. in 1635. The bas-relief 
represents the absolution of Henry IV. of Germany, by 
Hildebrand, which took place at her intercession and in 
her presence. 

We now reach, on the right, the large Chapel of the San- 
tissimo Sacramento, decorated with a fresco altar-piece, repre- 
senting the Trinity, by Pietro da Cortona, and a tabernacle of 
lapis-lazuli and gilt bronze, copied from Bramante's little 
temple at S. Pietro in Montorio. Here is the magnificent 
tomb of Sixtus IV, Francesco della Rovere (1471 — 81), re- 
moved from the choir of the old St. Peter's, where it was 
erected by his nephew, Cardinal Giulio della Rovere, after- 
wards Pope Julius II. This pope's reign was entirely occu- 
pied with politics, and he was secretly involved in the 
conspiracy of the Pazzi at Florence ; he was the first pope 
who carried nepotism to such an extent as to found a prin- 
cipality (Imola and Forli) for his nephew Girolamo Riario. 
The tomb is a beautiful work of the Florentine artist, Antonio 
PoUajuola, in 1493. The figure of the pope reposes upon a 
bronze couch, surrounded, in memory of his having taught 
successively in the six great universities of Italy, with alle- 
gorical bas-reliefs of Arithmetic, Astrology, Philology, Rhe- 
toric, Grammar, Perspective, Music, Geography, Philosophy, 
and Theology, which last is represented like a pagan Diana, 
with a quiver of arrows on her shoulders. Close to this 
monument of his uncle, a flat stone in the pavement marks 
the grave of Julius II., for whom the grand tomb at S. Pietro 
in Vincoli was intended. 

Returning to the aisle, we see on the right the tomb 
of Gregory XIII., Ugo Buoncompagni (1572 — 85), during 
whose reign the new calendar was invented, an event com- 


memorated in a bas-relief upon the monument, which was 
not erected till 1723, and is by Camillo Rusconi. The 
figure of the pope (he died aged eighty-four) is in the 
attitude of benediction : beneath are Wisdom, represented 
as Minerva, and Faith, holding a tablet inscribed, " Novi 
opera hujus et fidem." Opposite this is the paltry tomb of 
Gregory XIV., Nicolo Sfrondati (1590 — 91). 

" Le tombeau de Gregoire XIII., que le massacre de Saint Barfhe- 
lemy rejouit si fort, est de marbre. Le tombeau de stuc ou d'abord il 
avait ete place, a ete accorde, apres son depart, au cendres de Gregoire 
XIV."— Stendhal. 

On the left, against the great pier, is a mosaic copy of 
Domenichino's Communion of St. Jerome. On the right is 
the chapel of the Madonna, founded by Gregory XIII., and 
built by Giacomo della Porta. The cupola has mosaics by 
Girolamo Muziano. Beneath the altar is buried St. Gre- 
gory Nazianzen, removed hither from the convent of Sta. 
Maria in the Campo Marzo by Gregory XIII. 

St. Gregory Nazianzen (or St. Gregory Theologos) was son of St. 
Gregory and St. Nonna, and brother of St. Gorgonia and St. Cesarea. 
He was born c. a.d. 328. In his childhood he was influenced by a vision 
of the two virgins, Temperance and Chastity, summoning him to pursue 
them t.o the joys of Paradise. Being educated at Athens (together with 
Julian the Apostate), he formed there a great friendship with St. Basil. 
He became first the coadjutor, afterwards the successor, of his father, in 
the bishopric of Nazianzen, but removed thence to Constantinople, 
where he preached against the Arians. By the influence of Theodosius, 
he was ordained Bishop of Constantinople, but was so worn out by 
the cabals and schisms in the Church, that he resigned his office, and 
retired to his paternal estate, where he passed the remainder of his life 
in the composition of Greek hymns and poems. He died May 9, 
A.D. 390. 

On the right is the tomb of Benedict XIV., Prospero 
Lambertini (1740— 58), by Pietro Bracri, a huge and ugly 


monument. On the left is the tomb of Gregory XVI., 
Mauro-Cappellari (1831 — 46), by Amid, erected in 1855 by 
the cardinals he had created. 

Turning into the right transept, used as a council-chamber 
(for which purpose it proved thoroughly unsatisfactory), 
1869 — 70, we find several fine mosaics from pictures, viz. : 
The Martyrdom of SS. Processus and Martinianus from the 
Valentin at the Vatican ; the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus from 
Poussin ; St. Wenceslaus, king of Bohemia, from Caroselli ; 
Our Saviour walking on the sea to the boat of St. Peter, 
from Lanfranco. 

Opposite to the last-named mosaic is the famous monu- 
ment of Clement XIII., Carlo Rezzonico (1758 — 69), in 
whose reign the Order of Jesuits was attacked by all the 
sovereigns of the house of Bourbon, and expelled from Por- 
tugal, France, Spain, Naples, and Parma. The pope, who had 
long defended them, was about to yield to the pressure put 
upon him and had called a consistory for their suppression, 
but died suddenly on the evening before its assembling. This 
tomb, the greatest work of Canova, was uncovered April 4, 
1795, in the presence of an immense crowd, with whom the 
sculptor mingled, disguised as an abbe, to hear their opinion. 
The pope (aged 75) is represented in prayer, upon a pedestal, 
beneath which is the entrance to a vault, guarded by two 
grand marble lions. On the right is Religion, standing erect 
with a cross ; on the left the Genius of Death, holding a 
torch reversed. The beauty of this work of Canova is only 
felt when it is compared with the monuments of the seven- 
teenth century in St. Peter's ; " then it seems as if they were 
separated by an abyss of centuries." * 

• Grcgorovius, Grabmaler tier Tapste. 


Beyond this are mosaics from the St. Michael of Guido at 
the Cappuccini, and from the Martyrdom of St. Petronilla, of 
Guercino, at the Capitol. Each of these large mosaics has 
cost about 150,000 francs. 

Now, on the right, is the tomb of Clement X., Gio. 
Baptista Altieri(i67o — 76), by Rossi, the statue by Ercole 
Ferrata; and on the left, is a mosaic of St. Peter raising 
Tabitha from the dead, by Costanzi. 

Ascending into the tribune, we see at the end of the 
church, beneath the very ugly window of yellow glass, the 
*' Cathedra Petri " of Bernini, supported by figures of the 
four Fathers of the Church, Augustine, Ambrose, Chry- 
sostom, and Athanasius. Enclosed in this, is a very ancient 
wooden senatorial chair, encrusted with ivory, which is 
believed to have been the episcopal throne of St. Peter and 
his immediate successors. Late Roman Catholic authorities 
(Mgr. Gerbet, &c.) consider that it may perhaps have been 
originally the chair of the senator Pudens, with whom the 
apostle lodged. A magnificent festival in honour of St. 
Peter's chair (Natale Petri de Cathedra) has been annually 
celebrated here from the earliest times, and is mentioned in 
a calendar of Pope Liberius of a.d. 354. It was said that if 
any pope were to reign longer than the traditional years of the 
government of St. Peter (Pius IX. is the first pope who has 
done so), St. Peter's chair would be again brought into use. 

On the right of the chair is the tomb of Urban VIII., 
Matteo Barberini(i623 — 44), who was chiefly remarkable from 
his passion for building, and who is perpetually brought to 
mind through the immense number of his erections which still 
exist. The tomb is by Bernini, the architect of his endless 
fountains and public buildings, and has the usual fault of this 


sculptor in overloading his figures (except in that of Urban 
himself, which is very fine,*) with meaningless drapery. 
Figures of Charity and Justice stand by the black marble 
sarcophagus of the pope, and a gilt skeleton is occupied in 
inscribing the name of Urban on the list of Death. The 
whole monument is alive with the bees of the Barberini. 
The pendant tomb on the left is that of Paul III., 
Alessandro Farnese (1534 — 50), in whose reign the Order 
of the Jesuits was founded. This pope (the first Roman 
who had occupied the throne for 103 years — since Martin 
V.) was learned, brilliant, and witty. He was adored 
by his people, in spite of his intense nepotism, which 
induced him to form Parma into a duchy for his natural 
son Pierluigi, to build the Farnese Palace, and to marry 
his grandson Ottavio to Marguerite, natural daughter of 
Charles V., to whom he gave the Palazzo Madama and 
the Villa Madama as a dowry. His tomb, by Guglielma 
della Porta, perhaps the finest in St. Peter's, cost 24,000 
Roman crowns ; it was erected in the old basilica just 
before its destruction in 1562, — and in 1574 was transferred 
to this church, where its position was the source of a quarrel 
between the sculptor and Michael Angelo, by whose interest 
he had obtained his commission. t It was first placed on 
the site where the Veronica now stands, whence it was 
moved to its present position in 1629. The figure of the 
pope is in bronze. In its former place four marble statues 
adorned the pedestal ; two are now removed to the Farnese 
Palace ; those which remain, of Prudence and Justice, were 
once entirely nude, but were draped by Bernini. The statue 

• There is a fine portrait of Urban VIII. by Pietro da Cortona, in the Capitol 

t See Vasari, vi. 2*5. 


of Prudence is said to represent Giovanna Gaetani da Ser- 
nioneta, the mother of the pope, and that of Justice his 
famous sister-in-law, Giulia. 

"On adit de ces figures que c'etait le Rubens en sculpture." — A. 
Du Pays. 

Near the steps of the tribune are two marble slabs, on 
which Pius IX. has immortalised the names of the cardinals 
and bishops who, on December 8, 1854, accepted, on this 
spot, his dogma of the Immaculate Conception. 

Turning towards the left transept ; — on the left is a mosaic 
of St. Peter healing the lame man, from Mancini. On the 
right is the tomb of Alexander VIII., Pietro Ottobuoni 
(1689 — 91), by Giuseppe Ver/osi and Angelo Rossi, gorgeous 
in its richness of bronze, marbles, and alabasters. Beyond 
this is the altar of Leo the Great, over which is a huge bas- 
relief, by Algardi, representing S. Leo calling down the as- 
sistance of SS. Peter and Paul against the invasion of Attila. 

"The king of the Huns, terrified by the apparition of the two 
apostles in the air, turns his back and flies. We have here a picture id 
marble, with all the faults of taste and style which prevailed at that 
time, but the workmanship is excellent; it is, perhaps, the largest bas- 
relief in existence, excepting the rock sculpture of the Indians and 
Egyptians— at least fifteen feet in height." — Jameson 's Sacred Art, p. 685. 

Next to this is the Cappella della Colonna, possessing a 
much revered Madonna from a pillar of the old basilica, and 
beneath it an ancient Christian sarcophagus containing the 
remains of Leo II. (ob. 683), Leo III. (ob. 816), and Leo 
IV. (ob. 855). In the pavement near these two altars is 
the slab tomb of Leo XII. (ob. 1828), with an epitaph illus- 
trating Invocation of Saints, but touching in its humility. 

" Commending myself, a suppliant, to my great celestial patron Leo, 


I, Leo XII., his humble client, unworthy of so great a name, have 
chosen a place of sepulture, near his holy ashes." 

Over the door known as the Porta Sta. Marta (from the 
church in the square behind St. Peter's, to which it leads), is 
the tomb of Alexander VII., Fabio Chigi (1655 — 67), the last 
work of Bernini, who had built for this pope the Scala-Regia 
and the Colonnade of St. Peter's. This is, perhaps, the 
worst of all the papal monuments — a hideous figure of 
Death is pushing aside an alabaster curtain and exhibiting 
his hour-glass to the kneeling pope. 

Opposite to this tomb is an oil painting on slate, by 
Francesco Vanni, of the Fall of Simon Magus. The south 
transept has a series of mosaic pictures ; The Incredulity of 
St. Thomas from Camuccini, the Crucifixion of St. Peter' 
and a St. Francis from Guido, and, on the pier of the Cupola, 
Ananias and Sapphira from the Roncalli at Sta. Maria degli 
Angeli, and the Transfiguration from Raphael.* 

Opposite the mosaic of Ananias and Sapphira is the last 
tomb erected in St. Peter's, that of Pius VIII., Francesco 
Castiglione (1829 — 31), by Tenerani. It represents the pope 
kneeling, and above him the Saviour in benediction, with 
SS. Peter and Paul. It is of no great merit. 

The Cappella Clementina has the Miracle of St. Gregory 
the Great from the Andrea Sacchi at the Vatican. Close to 
this is the fine tomb of Pius VII., Gregorio Chiaramonte 
(1800 — 23), who crowned Napoleon, — who suffered exile for 
seven years for refusing to abdicate the temporal power, — 
and who returned in triumph to die at the Quirinal, after 
having re-established the Order of the Jesuits. His monu- 
ment is the work of Thorwaldscn, graceful and simple, though 

* This mosaic occupied ten men constantly for nine years, and cost Co,ooo francs. 


perhaps too small to be in proportion to the neighbouring 
tombs. The figure of the pope, a gentle old man (he died at 
the age of eighty-one, having reigned twenty-three years), is 
seated in a chair ; figures of Courage and Faith adorn the 
pedestal. The tomb was erected by Cardinal Gonsalvi, the 
faithful friend and minister of this pope (who died very poor, 
having spent all his wealth in charity), at an expense of 
27,000 scudi. 

Turning into the left aisle, — on the right is the tomb of 
Leo XI., Alessandro de Medici (1605), to which one is 
inclined to grudge so much space, considering that the pope 
it commemorates only reigned twenty-six days. The tomb, 
in allusion to this short life, is sculptured with flowers, and 
bears the motto, Sic Florid. It is the work of Algardi. 
The figures of Wisdom and Abundance, which adorn the 
pedestal, are fine specimens of this allegorical type. 

Opposite, is the tomb of Innocent XI., Benedetto Odes- 
calchi (1676 — 89), by Etienne Mofiot, with a bas-relief repre- 
senting the raising of the siege of Vienna by King John 

Near this, is the entrance to the Cappella del Coro, the 
very inconvenient chapel (decorated with gilding and stucco 
by Giacomo della Porta), in which the vesper services are 
held. The altar-piece is a mosaic copy of the Conception by 
Pietro Bianchi at the Angeli. In the pavement is the grave- 
stone of Clement XL, Giov. Francesco Albani (1700 — 21). 

Under the next arch of the aisle, on the left, is the inter- 
esting tomb of Innocent VIII., Gio. Battista Cibo (1484 — 
92), by Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo. The pope is repre- 
sented asleep upon his sarcophagus, and a second time above, 
seated on a throne, his right hand extended in benediction, 


and his left holding the sacred lance of Longinus (said to 
have been that which pierced the side of our Saviour), sent 
to him by the sultan Bajazet. It is supposed that it was 
owing to the representation of this relic, that this tomb alone 
(except that of Sixtus IV., uncle of the destroyer), was 
replaced after the destruction of the old basilica. Upon 
the sarcophagus of the pope is inscribed, in allusion to the 
name of Innocent, the nth verse of the 26th Psalm, " In 
innocentia meS. ingressus sum, redime me Domine et 
miserere mei." Opposite, is a tomb which is a kind of 
Memento Mori to the living pope, which always bears the 
name' of his predecessor, and in which his corpse will be 
deposited, till his real tomb is prepared. " This tomb is 
now empty, and awaits its prey, Pius IX." * 

Passing the Cappella della Presentazione, which contains 
a mosaic from the " Presentation of the Virgin," by Roma- 
nelli, we reach the last arch, which contains the tombs of the 
Stuarts. On the right is the monument, by Filippo Barigioni, 
of Maria Clementina Sobieski, wife of James III., called 
in the inscription " Queen of Great Britain, France, and Ire- 
land" ; on the left is that by Canova to the three Stuart 
princes, James III. and his sons, Charles Edward, and 
Henry — Cardinal York. It bears this inscription : 










* Grcgorovius. 


"George IV., fidele a sa reputation du gentleman le plus accompli 
des trois royaumes, a voulu honorer la cendre des princes malheureux 
que de leur vivant il eiit envoye's a 1'echafaud s'ils fussent tombes en son 
pouvoir." — Stendhal. 

"Beneath the unrivalled dome of St. Peter's, lie mouldering the 
remains of what was once a brave and gallant heart ; and a stately 
monument from the chisel of Canova, and at the charge, as I believe, 
of the house of Hanover, has since arisen to the memory of James the 
Third, Charles the Third, and Henry the Ninth, Kings of England, — 
names which an Englishman can scarcely read without a smile or a sigh ! 
Often at the present day does the British traveller turn from the sunny 
crest of the Pincian, or the carnival throng of the Corso, to gaze, in 
thoughtful silence, on that mockery of human greatness, and that last 
record of ruined hopes ! The tomb before him is of a race justly ex- 
pelled ; the magnificent temple that enshrines it is of a faith wisely 
reformed ; yet who at such a moment would harshly remember the 
errors of either, and might not join in the prayer even of that erring 
Church for the departed, ' Requiescant in pace.' " — Lord Mahon, 

The last chapel is the Baptistery, and contains, as a font, 
the ancient porphyry cover of the sarcophagus of Hadrian, 
which was afterwards used for the tomb of the Emperor 
Otho II. The mosaic of the Baptism of our Saviour is 
from Carlo Maratta. 

Distributed around the whole basilica are confessionals 
for every Christian tongue. 

"Au milieu de toutes les creations hardies et splendides de 1'art 
dans le basilique de St. Pierre, il est une impression morale qui saisit 
l'esprit, a la vue des confessionaux des diverses langues. II y a la encore 
une autre espece de grandeur." — A. Du Pays. 

TJie Crypt of St. Peter's can always be visited by gentle- 
men, on application in the sacristy ; but by ladies only with 
a special permission. The entrance is near the statue of 
Sta. Veronica. The visitor is terribly hurried in his inspec- 
tion of this, the most historically interesting part of the 
basilica, and the works of art it contains are so ill-arranged, 


as to be difficult to investigate or remember. The crypt is 
divided into two portions, the Grotte JVuove, occupying the 
area beneath the dome, and opening into some ancient 
lateral chapels, — and the Grotte Vecchie, which extended 
under the whole nave of the old basilica, and reaches as far 
as the Cappella del Coro of the present edifice. 

The first portion entered is a corridor in the Grotte 
Nuove. Hence open, on the right, two ancient chapels. 
The first, Sta. Maria in Portico, derives its name from a 
picture of the Virgin, attributed to Simone Meiiimi, which 
stood in the portico of the old basilica ; it contains, 
besides several statues from the magnificent monument of 
Nicholas V., which perished with the old church, a statue 
of St. Peter which stood in the portico, and the cross which 
crowned its summit. The second chapel, Sta. Maria delle 
Partoriaiti, has a mosaic of our Saviour in benediction, 
from the tomb of Otho II. ; a mosaic of the Virgin, of the 
eighth century ; several ancient inscriptions ; and, at the 
entrance, statues of the two apostles James, from the tomb 
of Nicholas V. Behind this chapel were preserved the 
remains of Leo II., III., and IX., till they were removed to 
the upper church by Leo XII. 

Entering the Grotte Vecchie, we find a nave and aisles 
separated by pilasters with low arches. Following the south 
aisle we are first arrested by the marble inscription relating 
to the donation of lands made by the Countess Matilda to 
the church in 1102. Near this is the small Cappella del 
Salvatore, containing a bas-relief of the Virgin and Child by 
Arnolfo, which once decorated the tomb of Boniface VIII., 
— and the grave of Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus, who died in 
1487. Near this are the sepulchral urns of the three Stuart 


princes, commemorated in the upper church. At the end of 
this aisle is the tomb of the Emperor Otho II., who died at 
Rome in a.d. 983 ; this formerly stood in the portico of 
the basilica. 

Here is the empty tomb of Alexander VI., Rodrigo Bor- 
gia (1492 — 1503), the wicked and avaricious father of Caesar 
and Lucretia, who is believed to have died of the poison 
which he intended for one of his cardinals. The body of 
this pope was not allowed to rest in peace. Julius II., the 
bitter enemy of the Borgias, turned it out of its tomb, and 
had it carried to S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, whence, when 
that church was pulled down, it was taken to Sta. Maria di 
Monserrato. The empty sarcophagus is surmounted by the 
figure of Alexander, who was himself a handsome old man, 
and in whose features may be traced the lineaments of the 
splendid Caesar Borgia, known to us from the picture in 
the Borghese Palace. 

At the end of the central nave is the sarcophagus of Chris- 
tina of Sweden, who has a nonument in the upper church. 

The first tomb in the south aisle, beginning from the 
west, is that of Boniface VIIL, Benedetto Gaetani (1294 — 

"The last prince of the Church, who understood the papacy in the 
sense of universal dominion, in the spirit of Gregory VII., of Alexander 
and Innocent III. Two kings held the bridle of his palfrey as he rode 
from St. Peter's to the Lateran after his election. He received Dante 
as the ambassador of Florence ; in 1300 he instituted the jubilee ; and 
his reign — filled with contests with Philip le Bel of France and the 
Colonnas — ended in his being taken prisoner in his palace at Anagni 
by Sciarra Colonna and William of Nogaret, and subjected to the must 
cruel indignities. He was rescued by his fellow-citizens and conducted 
to Rome by the Orsini, but he died thirty seven days after of grief and 
mortification. The Ghibelline story relates that he sate alone silently 
gnawing the top of his staff, and at length dashed out his brains against 


the wall, or smothered himself with his own pillows. But the contem- 
porary verse of the Cardinal St. George describes him as dying quietly 
in the midst of his cardinals, at peace with the world, and having re- 
ceived all the consolations of the Church." — See Milinaii's Latin Chris- 
tianity, vol. v. 

The character of Boniface has ever been one of the 
battlefields of history. He was scarcely dead when the 
epitaph, " He came in like a fox, he ruled like a lion, he 
died like a dog," was proclaimed to Christendom. He was 
consigned by Dante to the lowest circle of Hell ; yet even 
Dante expressed the universal shock with which Christen- 
dom beheld " the Fleur de lis enter Anagni, and Christ 
again captive in his Vicar, — the mockery, the gall and 
vinegar, the crucifixion between living robbers, the cruelty 
of the second Pilate." In later times, Tosti, Drumann, 
and lastly, Cardinal Wiseman, have engaged in his de- 

Boniface VIII. was buried with the utmost magnificence 
in a splendid chapel, which he had built himself, and 
adorned with mosaics, and where a grand tomb was erected 
to him. Of this nothing remains now, but the sarcophagus, 
which bears a majestic figure of the pope by Arnolfo del 

" The head is unusually beautiful, severe and noble in its form, and 
corresponds perfectly with the portrait which we have (at the Lateran) 
from the hand of Giotto, which represents his face as beardless and of 
the most perfect oval. His head is covered by a long, pointed mitre, 
like a sugar-loaf, decked with two crowns. This proud man was indeed 
the fust who wore the double crown, — all his predecessors having been 
content with a simple crowned mitre. This new custom existed till the 
time of Urban V., by whom the third crown was added." — Gregorovitts, 
Grabtnaler dry J'<if>sie. 

Close to that of Boniface are the sarcophagi of Pius II., 


yEneas Sylvius Piccolomini (1458 — 64) and Pius III., An- 
tonio Todeschini Piccolomini (1503), whose monuments are 
removed to S. Andrea della Valle. 

Next beyond Boniface is the tomb of Adrian IV. 
(Nicholas Breakspeare, n 54 — 59), the only Englishman who 
ever occupied the papal throne.* He is buried in a pagan 
sarcophagus of red granite, adorned with Medusa heads in 
relief, and without any inscription. 

Opposite this, is a sarcophagus bearing the figure of 
Nicholas V., Tomaso di Sarzana(i447 — 55), being nearly all 
that has been preserved of the glorious tomb of that pope, 
who founded the Vatican library, collected around him a 
court of savants and poets, and " with whom opened the 
age of papacy to which belonged the times of Julius II. and 
Leo X." His epitaph, attributed to Pius II., is by his 
secretary Mafeo Vegio. 

"The bones of Nicholas V. rest in this grave, 
Who gave to thee, O Rome ! thy golden age. 
Famous in council, more famous in shining virtue, 
He honoured wise men, who was himself the wisest of all. 
He gave healing to the world, long wounded with schism, 
And renewed at once its manners and customs, and the buildings and 

temples of the city. 
He gave an altar to St. Bernardino of Siena 
When he celebrated the holy year of jubilee. 
He crowned with gold the forehead of Frederick and his wife, 
And gave order to the affairs of Italy by the treaty which he made. 
He translated many Greek writings into the Latin tongue ; — ■ 
Then offer incense to-day at his holy grave." 

Next comes a remnant of the tomb of Paul II., Pietro 
Barbo (1464—71), chiefly remarkable for his personal 

* He had been bishop of St. Alban's, and a missionary for the conversion of 



beauty, of which he was so vain, that when he issued from 
the conclave as pope, he wished to take the name of 
Formosus. This pontiff built the Palazzo S. Marco, and 
gave a name to the Corso, by establishing the races there. 
He also prepared for himself one of the most splendid 
tombs in the old basilica, for which he obtained Mino da 
Fiesole as an architect. It was his wish to lie in the por- 
phyry sarcophagus of Sta. Costanza, which he stole from her 
church for this purpose ; hence the simplicity of the existing 
sarcophagus, which bears his effigy. Beyond this, are sarco- 
phagi of Julius III., Gio. Maria Ciocchi del Monte (1550 — 
55), builder of the Villa Papa Giulio ; and Nicholas III., 
Orsini (1277 — 81), who made a treaty with Rudolph of 
Hapsburg, and obtained from him a ratification of the dona- 
tion of the Countess Matilda. Then comes the sarcophagus 
of Urban VI., Bartolomeo Prignani (1378 — 87), the sole relic 
of a most magnificent tomb of this cruel pope, who is 
believed to have died of poison. It bears his figure, and 
in the front, a bas-relief of him receiving the keys from St. 
Peter. His epitaph runs : 

" Here rests the just, wise, and noble prince, 
Urban VI., a native of Naples. 

He, full of zeal, gave a safe refuge to the teachers of the faith. 
That gained for him, noble one, a fatal poison cup at the close of 

the repast. 
Great was the schism, but great was his courage in opposing it, 
And in the presence of this mighty pope Simony sate dumb. 
But it is needless to reiterate his praises upon earth, 
While heaven is shining with his immortal glory. 

" Sepelitur in beati Petri Basilica, paucis admodum ejus mortem, 
utpote hominis rustici et inexorabilis, flentibus. IIujus autem se- 
pulchrum adhuc visitur cum epitaphio satis rustico et inepto." — 


Next come the sarcophagi of Innocent VII., Cosmato de 
Miliorati (1404 — 6), bearing his figure; of Marcellus II., 
Marcello Cervini (1555), who only reigned twenty-five days ; 
and of Innocent IX., Giov. Antonio Facchinetti (1591 — 92), 
who reigned only sixty. 

Near these is the urn of Agnese Gaetani Colonna, the 
only lady not of royal birth buried in the basilica. 

Hence we return to the corridor of the Grotte Nuove, 
containing a number of mosaics and statues detached from 
different papal tombs, the best being those from that of Ni- 
cholas V. and that of Paul II., by Miiio da Piesole(a figure of 
Charity is especially beautiful), and a bas-relief of the Virgin 
and Child, by Arnolfo, from the tomb of Benedict VIII. 

Here also are a half-length statue of Boniface VIII., 
ascribed to Andrea Pisano ; a half-length of Benedict XII., 
by Paolo di Siena; and a figure of St. Peter seated on a 
gothic throne which once supported a statue of Benedict 

The Chapel of St. Longimis has a mosaic from a picture 
by Andrea Sacchi. Near the entrance of the shrine are 
marble reliefs of the martyrdoms of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
Opposite to the entrance of the shrine is the magnificent 
sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Christian prefect of Rome, 
who died a.d. 359. It was discovered near its present site 
in 1595. It is adorned with admirable sculptures from the 
Old and New Testament. 

Opening from the centre of the circular passage is the 
Confession or Shrine of SS. Peter and Paul y which contains 
the sarcophagus brought from the Catacomb near S. Sebas- 
tiano in 257, and which the Roman Catholic Church has 
always revered as that of St. Peter. On the altar, conse- 
VOL. 11. iS 


crated in 1122, are two ancient pictures of St. Peter and 
St. Paul. Only half the bodies of the saints are held to be 
preserved here, the other portion of that of St. Peter being 
at the Lateran, and of St. Paul at S. Paolo fuori Mura. 

To the Roman Catholic mind this is naturally one of the 
most sacred spots in the world, since it holds literally the 
words of St. Ambrose, that : " Where Peter is, there is the 
Church, — and where the Church is, there is no death, but 
life eternal." * 

" From this place Peter, from this place Paul, shall be caught up in 
the resurrection. Oh consider with trembling that which Rome will 
behold, when Paul suddenly rises with Peter from this sepulchre, and 
is carried up into the air to meet the Lord." — St. "John Chrysostom, 
Homily on the Ep. to the Romans. 

"Among the cemeteries ascribed by tradition to apostolic times, the 
crypts of the Vatican would have the first claim on our attention, had 
they not been almost destroyed by the foundations of the vast basilica 
which guards the tomb of St. Peter. . . . The Liber Pontificalis 
says that Anacletus, the successor of Clement in the Apostolic See, 
' built and adorned the sepulchral monument {constntxit memoriam) of 
blessed Peter, since he had been ordained priest by St. Peter, and other 
burial-places where the bishops might be laid.' It is added that he 
himself was buried there ; and the same is recorded of Linus and 
Cletus, and of Evaristus, Sixtus I., Telesphorus, Hyginus, Pius I., 
Eleutherius, and Victor, the last of whom was buried A. D. 203 ; and 
after St. Victor, no other pontiff is recorded to have been buried at the 
Vatican until Leo the Great was laid in St. Peter's, A. D. 461. The 
idea conveyed by the words construxit memoriam is that of a monument 
above-ground according to the usual Roman custom ; and we have seen 
that such a monument, even though it covered the tomb of Christian 
bishops, would not be likely to be disturbed at any time during the first 
or second century. For the reason we have already stated, it is impos- 
sible to confront these ancient notices with any existing monuments. It 
is worth mentioning, however, that De Rossi believes that the sepulchre 

* The principal authorities for the fact of St. Peter's being at Rome — so often de- 
nied by ultra-protestants — are: St. Jerome, Catalogus scriptonmi ecclesiasticorum, in 
Petro ; Tertullian, de Prescriptionibus, c. xxxvi. ; and Eusebius, Historia Ecclesias- 
licu, lib. ii. cap. xxiv. 


of St. Linus was discovered in this very place early in the seventeenth 
century, bearing simply the name of Linus. " — Northcote and Brownlow, 
Homa Sottcrranca, 

To ascend the Dome of St. Peter's requires a special order. 
The entrance is from the first door in the left aisle, near the 
tomb of Maria-Clementina Sobieski. The ascent is by an 
easy staircase d cordoni, the walls of which bear memorial 
tablets of all the royal personages who have ascended it. 
The aspect of the roof is exceedingly curious from the 
number of small domes and houses of workmen with which 
it is studded, — quite a little village in themselves. A cham- 
ber in one of the pillars which support the dome contains a 
model of the ancient throne of St. Peter, and a model of 
the church, by Michael Angelo and his predecessor, Antonio 
di Sangallo. The dome is 300 feet above the roof, and 613I 
feet in circumference. An iron staircase leads thence to the 
ball, which is capable of containing sixteen persons. 

" Cette hauteur fait fremir," dit Beyle, "quand on songe aux 
tremblements de terre qui agitent frequemment l'ltalie, et qu'un instant 
peut vous priver du plus beau monument qui existe. Certainement 
jamais il ne serait releve: nous sommes trop raisonnables" 

" De Brosse raconte que deux moines espagnoles, qui se trouvaient 
dans la boule de St. Pierre lors de la secousse de 1730, eurent une telle 
peur, que l'un d'eux mourut sur la place." — A. Du Fays. 

TJie Sacristy of St. Peter's, which is entered by a grey 
marble door on the left, before turning into the south 
transept, was built by Pius VI., in 1755, from designs of 
Carlo Marchione. It consists of three halls, with a corridor 
adorned with columns and inscriptions from the old church, 
and with statues of SS. Peter and Paul, which stood in front 
of it. The central hall, Sagrestia Commune, is adorned with 
eight fluted pillars of grey marble (bigio) from Hadrian's 


Villa. On the left is the Sagrestia dci Canonici, with the 
Cappella dei Canonici, which has two pictures, the Ma- 
donna and Saints (Anna, Peter, and Paul), by Francesco 
Penni, and the Madonna and Child, Giulio Romano. Hence 
opens the Stanza Capitolare, containing an interesting rem- 
nant of the many works of Giotto in the old basilica under 
Boniface VIII. (for which he received 3020 gold florins), in 
three panel pictures belonging to the ciborium for the high 
altar ordered by Cardinal Stefaneschi, and representing, — 
Christ with that Cardinal, — the Crucifixion of St. Peter, — 
the Execution of St. Peter, — and on the back of the same 
panel, another picture, in which Cardinal Stefaneschi is 
offering his ciborium to St. Peter. 

" The fragments which are preserved of the painting which Giotto 
executed for the Church of St. Peter cannot fail to make us regret its 
loss. The fragments are treated with a grandeur of style which has led 
Rumohr to suspect that the susceptible imagination of Giotto was 
unable to resist the impression which the ancient mosaics of the 
Christian basilicas must have produced upon him." — Rio. Poet >y of 
Christian Art. 

Here also are several fragments of the frescoes (of angels 
and apostles), by Mclozzo da Forli, which existed in the 
former dome of the SS. Apostoli, and of which the finest 
portion is now at the Qnirinal Palace. On the right is the 
Sagrestia del Beneftziati, which contains a picture of the 
Saviour giving the keys to St. Peter, by Muziano, and an 
image called La Madonna della Febbre, which stood in the 
old Sacristy. Opening hence is the Treasury of St. Peter's, 
containing some ancient jewels, crucifixes, and candelabra, 
by Benvenuto Cellini and Michael Angelo, and, among 
other relics, the famous sacerdotal robe called the Dalma- 
tica di Papa San Leone, " said to have been embroidered at 


Constantinople for the coronation of Charlemagne as Em- 
peror of the West, but fixed by German criticism as a pro- 
duction of the twelfth, or the early part of the thirteenth 
century. The emperors, at least, have worn it ever since, 
while serving as deacons at the pope's altar during their 

" It is a large robe of stiff brocade, falling in broad and unbroken 
folds in front and behind, — broad and deep enough for the Goliath-like 
stature and the Herculean chest of Charlemagne himself. On the 
breast the Saviour is represented in glory, on the back the Transfigura- 
tion, and on the two shoulders Christ administering the Eucharist to the 
Apostles. In each of these last compositions, our Saviour, a stiff but 
majestic figure, stands behind the altar, on which are deposited a chalice 
and a paten or basket containing crossed wafers. He gives, in the one 
case, the cup to St. Paul, in the other the bread to St. Peter, — they do 
not kneel, but bend reverently to receive it ; five other disciples await 
their turn in each instance, — all are standing. 

" I do not apprehend your being disappointed with the Dalmatica di 
San Leone, or your dissenting from my conclusion, that a master, a 
Michael-Angelo I would almost say, then flourished at Byzantium. 

" It was in this Dalmatica — then semee all over with pearls and glit- 
tering in freshness — that Cola di Rienzi robed himself over his armour 
in the sacristy of St. Peter's and thence ascended to the Palace of the 
Popes, after the manner of the Caesars, with sounding trumpets and his 
horsemen following him — his truncheon in his hand and his crown on 
his head — ' terribile e fantastico,' as his biographer describes him — 
to wait upon the Legate." — Lord Lindsay's Christian Art, i. 137. 

Above the Sacristy are the Archives of St. Peter's, con- 
tain ing, among many other ancient MSS., a life of St. 
George, with miniatures, by Giotto. The entrance to the 
Archivio, at the end of the corridor, is adorned with 
fragments of the chains of the ports of Smyrna and 
Tunis. Here, also, is a statue of Pius VI., by Agostino 

It is quite worth while to leave St. Peter's by the Porta 


Sta. Marta beneath the tomb of Alexander VII., in order to 
examine the exterior of the church from behind, where it 
completely dwarfs all the surrounding buildings. Among 
these are the Church of S. Stefano, with a fine door com- 
posed of antique fragments, and the dismal Church of Sta. 
Marta, which contains several of the Roman weights known 
as " Pietra di Paragone," said to have been used in the 
martyrdoms. Beyond the Sacristy is the pretty little Cime- 
terio del Tedeschi, the oldest of Christian burial-grounds, said 
to have been set apart by Constantine, and filled with earth 
from Calvary. It was granted to the Germans in 1779, by 
Pius VI. Close by is the Church of Sta. Maria delta Pieta 
in Campo Santo. 

Not far from hence (in a street behind the nearest colon- 
nade) is the Palazzo del Santo Uffizio — or of the Inquisition. 
This body, for some time past, suppressed everywhere ex- 
cept in the States of the Pope, was established here in 1536 
by Paul III., acting on the advice of Cardinal Caraffa, after- 
wards Paul IV, for inquiry into cases of heresy, and the 
punishment of ecclesiastical offences. It was by the author- 
ity of the " Holy Office " that the " Index " of prohibited 
books was first drawn up. Paul IV., on his deathbed, sum- 
moned the cardinals to his side, and recommended to them 
this " Santissimo Tribunale," as he called it, and succeeding 
popes have protected and encouraged it. The character of 
the Inquisition has been much changed from that which it 
bore three hundred years ago ; but even in late years, many 
cases of extreme severity have been reported, — especially 
one of a French bishop cruelly imprisoned for sixteen years 
in one of its dungeons (merely because he had received his 
consecration from a French constitutional prelate), and who 


was only released when its doois were opened in the 
revolution of 1848. 

" Within these walls has been confined foi many years a very extra- 
ordinary person — the archbishop of Memphis . . . Pope Leo XII. 
received a letter from the Pacha of Egypt informing his Holiness, that 
he and a large portion of his subjects desired to be received into the 
bosom of the Church of Rome ; and announcing that he and they were 
willing to conform, provided the pope would send out an archbishop, 
with a suitable train of ecclesiastics, and requesting that his Holiness 
would do him the favour of appointing a certain young student whom he 
named, the first archbishop of Memphis, and despatch him to Egypt. 
No doubt was entertained as to the truth of this communication, but an 
objection presented itself in the youth of the ecclesiastical student whom 
the Pacha wished to have as his archbishop. The pope consulted his 
cardinals, who advised him not to make the dangerous precedent of 
raising a novice to so high a rank in the Church, but his Holiness, 
tempted by the desire of converting a kingdom to Christianity, resolved 
to conform to the wishes of the Pacha, and did consecrate the youth 
archbishop of Memphis. The archbishop was sent out attended by a 
train of priests to Egypt. When the ship arrived, the authorities in 
Egypt declared the affair was an imposition. His Grace confessed the 
fraud, was arrested, and reconducted to Rome. He was the author of 
the letter which imposed on the pope — his original intention having 
been to confess to the pope as a priest, after his consecration, the impo- 
sition he had practised ; and as the pope could not betray a secret im- 
parted to him at the confessional, the offender might have obtained 
absolution, and escaped punishment. Whether this would have been 
practicable I know not ; but it was not accomplished, and as the youth 
had the rank of archbishop indelibly imprinted on him, nothing remained 
but to confine his Grace for the remainder of his life ; and accordingly 
he was confined to this prison near the Vatican, whence he may find it 
difficult to escape." — Whiteside 's Italy, i860. 

The tribunal of the Inquisition was formally abolished by 
the Roman Assembly in February, 1849, but was re-estab- 
lished by Pius IX. in the following June. Its meetings, 
however, now take place in the Vatican, and the old palace 
of the Holy Office was long used as a barrack for French 


In the interior of the building is a lofty hall, with gloomy- 
frescoes of Dominican saints, — and many terrible dungeons 
and cells in which the victim is unable to stand upright, 
having their vaulted ceilings lined with reeds, to deaden 
sound,— but all this is seldom seen. When the people 
rushed into the Inquisition at the revolution, a number of 
human bones were found in these vaults, which so excited 
the popular fury, that an attack on the Dominican convent 
at the Minerva was anticipated. Ardent defenders of the 
papacy maintain that these bones had been previously 
transported to the Inquisition from a cemetery, to get up 
a sensation.* 

Built up into the back of this palace is the tribune of the 
Church of S. Salvatore in Torrione or in Macello, whose 
foundation is ascribed to Charlemagne (797). Senerano 
(Sette Chiese) supposes that the French had here their 
schola or special centre for worship and assemblage. The 
windows of this building are among the few examples of 
gothic in Rome, and there are good terrra-cotta mouldings. 
It may best be seen from the Porta Cavalkggieri, which was 
designed by Sangallo, and derives its name from the cavalry 
barracks close by. 

A short distance from the lower end of the Colonnade 
is the Church of S. Michaele in Sassia, whose handsome 
tower is a relic of the church founded by Leo IV., who 
built the walls of the Borgo, especially for funeral masses 
for the souls of those who fell in its defence against the 
Saracens. Raphael Mengs is buried in the modern church. 

The name of this church commemorates the Saxon settle- 
ment "called Burgus Saxonum, Vicus Saxonum, Schola 

* See Kemans' Catholic Italy, vol. i. 


Saxonum, and simply Saxia or Sassia," * founded c. 727 by 
Ina, king of Wessex, and enlarged in 794 by Offa, king of 
Mercia, when he made a pilgrimage to Rome in penance for 
the murder of Ethelbert, king of East-Anglia. Ina founded 
here a church, " Sta. Maria quae vocatur Schola Saxorum," 
which is mentioned as late as 854. Dyer (Hist, of the City 
of Rome) says that " when Leo IV. enclosed this part of 
the city, it obtained the name of Borgo, from the Burgus 
Saxonum, and one of the gates was called Saxonum Posterula. 
The ' Schola Francorum ' was also in the Borgo." 

* See Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome, p. 358. 



History of the Vatican Quarter and of the Palace — Scala Regia — Pauline 
Chapel — Sistine Chapel — Sala Ducale — Court of St. Damasus — 
Galleria Lapidaria — Braccio Nuovo — Museo Chiaramonti — The 
Belvedere — Gallery of Statues — Hall of Busts — Sala delle Muse — 
Sala Rotonda — Sala a Croce Greca — Galleria dei Candelabri — 
Galleria degli Arazzi — Library — Appartamenti Borgia — Etruscan 
Museum — Egyptian Museum — Gardens — Villa Pia — Loggie — 
Stanze— Chapel of S. Lorenzo — Gallery of Pictures. 

T^HE hollow of the Janiculum between S. Onofrio and the 
Monte Mario is believed to have been a site of Etrus- 
can divination. 

" Fauni vatesque canebant." 


Hence the name, which is now only used in regard to the 
papal palace and the basilica of St. Peter, but which was 
once applied to the whole district between the foot of the 
hill and the Tiber near S. Angelo. 

" . . . ut paterni 
Fluminis ripa?, simul et jocosa 
Reddcret laudes tibi Vaticani 

Montis imago." 

Horace, i. Od. 20. 


Tacitus speaks of the unwholesome air of this quarter. In 
this district was the Circus of Caligula, adjoining the gardens 
of his mother Agrippina, decorated by the obelisk which 
now stands in the front of St. Peter's.* Here Seneca de- 
scribes that while Caligula was walking by torchlight, he 
amused himself by the slaughter of a number of distinguished 
persons — senators and Roman ladies. Afterwards it became 
the Circus of Nero, who from his adjoining gardens used 
to watch the martyrdom of the Christians f — mentioned by 
Suetonius as "a race given up to a new and evil super- 
stition " — and who used their living bodies, covered with 
pitch and set on fire, as torches for his nocturnal pro- 

The first residence of the popes at the Vatican was erected 
by St. Symmachus (a.d. 498 — 514) near the forecourt of the 
old St. Peter's, and here Charlemagne is believed to have 
resided on the occasion of his several visits to Rome during 
the reigns of Adrian I. (772 — 795) and Leo III. (795—816). 
This ancient palace having fallen into decay during the twelfth 
century, it was rebuilt in the thirteenth by Innocent III. 
It was greatly enlarged by Nicholas III. (1277 — 1281), but 
the Lateran continued to be the papal residence, and the 
Vatican palace was only used on state occasions, and for 
the reception of any foreign sovereigns visiting Rome. After 
the return of the popes from Avignon, the Lateran palace 
had fallen into decay, and for the sake of the greater secur- 
ity afforded by the vicinity of S. Angelo, it was determined 
to make the pontifical residence at the Vatican, and the first 
conclave was held there in 1378. In order to increase its 
security, John XXIII. constructed the covered passage to 

* Pliny, xxxv. 15. t Tac. Ann. xv. 44. 


S. Angelo in 1410. Nicholas V. (1447 — 1455) had the idea 
of making it the most magnificent palace in the world, 
and of uniting in it all the government offices and dwell- 
ings of the cardinals, but died before he could do more 
than begin the work. The building which he commenced 
was finished by Alexander VI., and still exists under the 
name of Tor di Borgia. In 1473 Sixtus IV. built the Sistine 
Chapel, and in 1490 "the Belvedere" was erected as a 
separate garden-house by Innocent VIII. from designs of 
Antonio da Pollajuolo. Julius II., with the aid of Bramante, 
united this villa to the palace by means of one vast court- 
yard, and erected the Loggie around the Court of St. 
Damasus ; he also laid the foundation of the Vatican 
Museum in the gardens of the Belvedere. The Loggie were 
completed by Leo X. ; the Sala Regia and the Pauline 
Chapel were built by Paul III. Sixtus V. divided the great 
court of Bramante into two by the erection of the library, 
and began the present residence of the popes, which was 
finished by Clement VIII. (1592 — 1605). Urban VIII. 
built the Scala Regia ; Clement XIV. and Pius VII., the 
Museo Pio-Clementino ; Pius VII., the Braccio Nuovo ; 
Leo XII., the picture-gallery; Gregory XVI., the Etruscan 
Museum ; and Pius IX., the handsome staircase leading to 
the court of Bramante. 

The length of the Vatican palace is 1 1 5 1 English feet ; 
its breadth, 767. It has eight grand staircases, twenty 
courts, and is said to contain 11,000 chambers of different 

(The collections in the Vatican may be visited daily with an order 
and at fixed hours, except on Sundays and high festivals. Per- 


mission to make drawings must be obtained from the maggior- 
domo. ) 

The principal entrance of the Vatican is at the end of the 
right colonnade of St. Peter's. Hence a door on the right 
opens upon the staircase leading to the Cortile di S. Da- 
maso, and is the nearest way to the collections of statues 
and pictures. 

Following the great corridor, and passing on the left the en- 
trance to the portico of St. Peter's, we reach the Scala Regia, 
a magnificent work of Bernini, formerly guarded by the pic- 
turesque Swiss soldiers. Hence we enter the Sala Regia, 
built in the reign of Paul III. by Antonio di Sangallo, and 
used as a hall of audience for ambassadors. It is decorated 
with frescoes illustrative of the history of the popes. 

Entrance Wall : 

Alliance of the Venetians with Paul V. against the Turks, and 
Battle of Lepanto, 1571 : Vasari. 

Right Wall : 

Absolution of the Emperor Henry IV., by Gregory VII. : 
Fcderigo and TaJdco Zucchero. 

Left Wall : 

Massacre of St. Bartholomew : Vasari. 
Opposite Wall, towards the Sala Regia : 

Return of Gregory XI. from Avignon. 

Benediction of Frederick Barbarossa by Alexander III., in 
the Piazza of S. Marco : Giuseppe Porta. 

On the right is the entrance of the Pauline Chapel (Cap- 
pella Paolina), also built (1540) by Antonio di Sangallo for 
Paul III. Its decorations are chiefly the work of Sabbatini 
and F. Zucchero, but it contains two frescoes by Michael 


1 "Two excellent frescoes, executed by Michael Angelo on the side 
walls of the Pauline Chapel, are little cared for, and are so much black- 
ened by the smoke of lamps that they are seldom mentioned. The 
Crucifixion of St. Peter, under the large window, is in a most unfavour- 
able light, but is distinguished for its grand, severe composition. That 
on the opposite wall — the Conversion of St. Paul — is still tolerably 
distinct. The long train of his soldiers is seen ascending in the back- 
ground. Christ, surrounded by a host of angels, bursts upon his sight 
from the storm-flash. Paul lies stretched on the ground — a noble and 
finely-developed form. His followers fly on all sides, or are struck 
motionless by the thunder. The arrangement of the groups is excellent, 
and some of the single figures are very dignified ; the composition has, 
moreover, a principle of order and repose, which, in comparison with the 
Last Judgment, places this picture in a very favourable light. If there 
are any traces of old age to be found in these works, they are at most 
discoverable in the execution of details."- — Kugler, p. 308. 

On the left of the approach from the Scala Regia is the 
Sistine Chapel (Cappella Sistina), built by Bacio Pintelli in 
1473 for Sixtus IV. The lower part of the walls of this 
wonderful chapel was formerly hung on festivals with the 
tapestries executed from the cartoons of Raphael ; the upper 
portion is decorated in fresco by the great Florentine masters 
of the fifteenth century. 

" It was intended to represent scenes from the life of Moses on one 
side of the chapel, and from the life of Christ on the other, so that the 
old law might be confronted by the new, — the type by the typified." — 


The following is the order of the frescoes, type and anti- 
type together : 

Over the altar— now destroyed to make way for the Last Judgment : 
I. Moses in the Bulrushes: I. Christ in the Manger: 

Perugino. I Perugino. 

(Between these was the Assumption of the Virgin, in which Pope 
1 [V.was introduced, kneeling: Perugino.) 



On the left wall, still existing : 

2. Moses and Zipporah on 
the way to Egypt, and the cir- 
cumcision of their son : Luca 

3. Moses killing the Egyptian, 
and driving away the shepherds 
from the well : Sandro Botti- 

4. Moses and the Israelites, 
after the passage of the Red Sea : 
Cosimo R 'osselli. 

5- Moses giving the Law 
from the Mount : Cosimo Ros- 

6. The punishment of Korah, 
Dathan, and Abiram, who as- 
pired uncalled to the priesthood : 
Sandro Botticelli. 

7. The last interview of Moses 
and Joshua : Luca Signorelli. 

On the right wall, still existing 

2. The Baptism of Christ 

3. The Temptation of Christ 
Sandro Botticelli. 

4. The calling of the Apostles 
on the Lake of Gennesareth : 
Domenico Ghirlandajo. 

5. Christ's Sermon on the 

Mount : Cosimo Rosselli. 

6. The institution of the 
Christian Priesthood. Christ 
giving the keys to Peter : Pe- 

7. The Last Supper : Cosimo 

On the entrance wall 

8. Michael bears away the 
body of Moses (Jude 9) : 
Cecchino Salviati. 

8. The Resurrection : Do- 
menico Ghirlandajo, restored by 
Arrigo Flamingo. 

On the pillars between the windows are the figures of 
twenty-eight popes, by Sandro Botticelli. 

" Vasari says that the two works of Luca Signorelli surpass in beauty 
all those which surround them, — an assertion which is at least question- 
able as far as regards the frescoes of Perugino ; but with respect to all 
the rest, the superiority of Signorelli is evident, even to the most inex- 
perienced eye. The subject of the first picture is the journey of Moses 
and Zipporah into Egypt : the landscape is charming, although evidently 
ideal ; there is great depth in the aerial perspective ; and in the various 
groups scattered over the different parts of the picture there are female 
forms of such beauty, that they may have afforded models to Raphael. 
The same graceful treatment is also perceptible in the representation of 


the death of Moses, the mournful details of which have given scope to the 
poetical imagination of the artist. The varied group to whom Moses 
has just read the Law for the last time, the sorrow of Joshua, who is 
kneeling before the man of God, the charming landscape, with the river 
Jordan threading its way between the mountains, which are made singu- 
larly beautiful, as if to explain the regrets of Moses when the angel an- 
nounces to him that he will not enter into the promised land — all form a 
series of melancholy scenes perfectly in harmony with one another, the 
only defect being that the whole is crowded into too small a space." — 
Rio. Poetry of Christian Art. 

The avenue of pictures is a preparation for the surpassing 
grandeur of the ceiling : 

"The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel contains the most perfect works 
done by Michael Angelo in his long and active life. Here his great 
spirit appears in its noblest dignity, in its highest purity ; here the at- 
tention is not disturbed by that arbitrary display to which his great 
power not unfrequently seduced him in other works. The ceiling forms 
a flattened arch in its section ; the central portion, which is a plain sur- 
face, contains a series of large and small pictures, representing the most 
important events recorded in the book of Genesis — the Creation and 
Fall of Man, with its immediate consequences. In the large triangular 
compartments at the springing of the vault, are sitting figures of the 
prophets and sibyls, as the foretellers of the coming of the Saviour. In 
the soffits of the recesses between these compartments, and in the arches 
underneath, immediately above the windows, are the ancestors of the 
Virgin, the series leading the mind directly to the Saviour. The ex- 
ternal connection of these numerous representations is formed by an 
architectural framework of peculiar composition, which encloses the 
single subjects, tends to make the principal masses conspicuous, and 
gives to the whole an appearance of that solidity and support so neces- 
sary, but so seldom attended to, in soffit decorations, which may be con- 
sidered as if suspended. A great number of figures are also connected 
witli the framework ; those in unimportant situations are executed in the 
colour of stone or bronze ; in the more important, in natural colours. 
These serve to support the architectural forms, to fill up and to connect 
the whole. They may be best described as the living and embodied 
eenii of architecture. It required the unlimited power of an architect, 
sculptor, and painter, to conceive a structural whole of so much 
grandeur, to design the decorative figures with the significant repose 


required by the sculpturesque character, and yet to preserve their sub- 
ordination to the principal subjects, and to keep the latter in the pro- 
portions and relations best adapted to the space to be filled." — KugUr, 
p. 301- 

The pictures from the Old Testament, beginning from the 
altar, are : 

1. The Separation of Light and Darkness. 

2. The Creation of the Sun and Moon. 

3. The Creation of Trees and Plants. 

4. The Creation of Adam. 

5. The Creation of Eve. 

6. The Fall and the Expulsion from Paradise. 

7. The Sacrifice of Noah. 

8. The Deluge. 

9. The Intoxication of Noah. 

"The scenes from Genesis are the most sublime representations of these 
subjects ; — the Creating Spirit is unveiled before us. The peculiar type 
which the painter has here given of the form of the Almighty Father has 
been frequently imitated by his followers, and even by Raphael, but has 
been surpassed by none. Michael Angelo has represented him in ma- 
jestic flight, sweeping through the air, surrounded by genii, partly sup- 
porting, partly borne along with him, covered by his floating drapery ; 
they are the distinct syllables, the separate virtues of his creating word. 
In the first (large) compartment we see him with extended hands, as- 
signing to the sun and moon their respective paths. In the second, he 
awakens the first man to life. Adam lies stretched on the verge of the 
earth, in the act of raising himself ; the Creator touches him with the 
point of his finger, and appears thus to endow him with feeling and life. 
This picture displays a wonderful depth of thought in the composition, 
and the utmost elevation and majesty in the general treatment and exe- 
cution. The third subject is not less important, representing the Fall of 
Man and his Expulsion from Paradise. The tree of knowledge stands 
in the midst, the serpent (the upper part of the body being that of a 
woman) is twined around the stem ; she bends down towards the guilty 
pair, who are in the act of plucking the forbidden fruit. The figures are 
nobly graceful, particularly that of Eve. Close to the serpent hovers 
the angel with the sword, ready to drive the fallen beings out of Para- 
dise. In this double action, this union of two separate moments, there 
is something peculiarly poetic and significant : it is guilt and punishment 
in one picture. The sudden and lightningdike appearance of the aveng- 
vol. 11. 19 


ing angel behind the demon of darkness has a most impressive effect." — 
ICugler, p. 304. 

"It was the seed of Eve that was to bruise the serpent's head. Hence 
it is that Michael Angelo made the Creation of Eve the central subject 
on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. He had the good taste to suggest, 
and yet to avoid, that literal rendering of the biblical story which in the 
ruder representations borders on the grotesque, and which Milton, with 
all his pomp of words, could scarcely idealise." — Mrs. Jameson, Hist, of 
Our Lord. 

The lower portion of the ceiling is divided into triangles 
occupied by the Prophets and Sibyls in solemn contem- 
plation, accompanied by angels and genii. Beginning from 
the left of the entrance, their order is, — 

1. Jonah. 

2. Jeremiah. 

3. Sibylla Persica. 

4. Ezekiel. 



Sibylla Libyca. 
Sibylla Cumsea. 

5. Sibylla Erythnea. 

6. Joel. 

12. Zai 




Sibylla Delphica 

" The prophets and sibyls in the triangular compartments of the curved 
portion of the ceiling are the largest figures in the whole work ; these, 
too, are among the most wonderful forms that modern art has called into 
life. They are all represented seated, employed with books or rolled 
manuscripts ; genii stand near or behind them. These mighty beings 
sit before us pensive, meditative, inquiring, or looking upwards with 
inspired countenances. Their forms and movements, indicated by the 
grand lines and masses of the drapery, are majestic and dignified. We 
see in them beings, who, while they feel and bear the sorrows of a cor- 
rupt and sinful world, have power to look for consolation into the secrets 
of the future. Yet the greatest variety prevails in the attitudes and ex- 
pression — each figure is full of individuality. Zacharias is an aged man, 
busied in calm and circumspect investigation ; Jeremiah is bowed down 
absorbed in thought — the thought of deep and bitter grief; Ezekiel 
turns with hasty movement to the genius next to him, who points up- 
wards, with joyful expectation, &c. The sibyls are equally characteristic : 
the Persian — a lofty, majestic woman, very aged ; the Erythraean— full 
of power, like the warrior goddess of wisdom ; the Delphic — like Cas- 


sandra, youthfully soft and graceful, but with strength to bear the awful 
seriousness of revelation." — Kitgler, p. 304. 

" The belief of the Roman Catholic Church in the testimony of the 
Sibyl is shown by the well-known hymn, said to have been composed 
by Pope Innocent III. at the close of the thirteenth century, beginning 
with the verse : — 

' Dies iroe, dies ilia, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla, 
Teste David cum Sibylla. 

It may be inferred that this hymn, admitted into the liturgy of the 
Roman Church, gave sanction to the adoption of the Sibyls into Chris- 
tian art. They are seen from this time accompanying the prophets and 

apostles in the cyclical decorations of the church But 

the highest honour that art has rendered to the Sibyls has been by the 
hand of Michael Angelo, on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Here, 
in the conception of a mysterious order of women, placed above and 
without all considerations of the graceful or the individual, the great 
master was peculiarly in his element. They exactly fitted his standard 
of art, not always sympathetic, nor comprehensible to the average 
human mind, of which the grand in form and the abstract in expression, 
were the first and last conditions. In this respect, the Sibyls on the 
Sistine Chapel ceiling are more Michael Angelesque than their com- 
panions the Prophets. For these, while types of the highest monu- 
mental treatment, are yet men, while the Sibyls belong to a distinct 
class of beings, who convey the impression of the very obscurity in 
which their history is wrapt — creatures who have lived far from the 
abodes of men, who are alike devoid of the expression of feminine 
sweetness, human sympathy, or sacramental beauty ; who are neither 
Christians nor Jewesses, Witches nor Graces, yet living, grand, beautiful, 
and true, according to laws revealed to the great Florentine genius only. 
Thus their figures may be said to be unique, as the offspring of a 
peculiar sympathy between the master's mind and his subject. To this 
sympathy may be ascribed the prominence and size given them — both 
Prophets and Sibyls — as compared to their usual relation to the subjects 
they environ. They sit here in twelve throne-like niches, more like 
presiding deities, each wrapt in self-contemplation, than as tributary 
witnesses to the truth and omnipotence of Him they are intended to 
announce. Thus they form a gigantic framework round the subjects of 
the Creation, of which the birth of Eve, as the type of the Nativity, is 
the intentional centre. For some reason, the twelve figures are not Pro- 
phets and Sibyls alternately — there being only five Sibyls to seven 


Prophets— so that the Prophets come together at one angle. Books and 
scrolls are given indiscriminately to them. 

" The Sibylla Persica, supposed to be the oldest of the sisterhood, 
holds the book close to her eyes, as if from dimness of sight, which fact, 
contradicted as it is by a frame of obviously Herculean strength, gives 
a mysterious intentness to the action. 

" The Sibylla Libyca, of equally powerful proportions, but less closely 
draped, is grandly wringing herself to lift a massive volume from a height 
above her head on to her knees. 

"The Sibylla Cumana, also aged, and with her head covered, is read- 
ing with her volume at a distance from her eyes. 

"The Sibylla Delphica, with waving hair escaping from her turban, 
is a beautiful young being — the most human of all — gazing into vacancy 
or futurity. She holds a scroll. 

"The Sibylla Erythrsea, grand bare-headed creature, sits reading in- 
tently with crossed legs, about to turn over her book. 

"The Prophets are equally grand in structure, and though, as we have 
said, not more than men, yet they are the only men that could well bear 
the juxtaposition with their stupendous female colleagues. Ezekiel, be- 
tween Erythraea and Persica, has a scroll in his hand that hangs by his 
side, just cast down, as he turns eagerly to listen to some voice. 

"Jeremiah, a magnificent figure, sits with elbow on knee, and head 
on hand, wrapt in the meditation appropriate to one called to utter 
lamentation and woe. He has neither book nor scroll. 

"Jonah is also without either. His position is strained and ungrace- 
ful — looking upwards, and apparently remonstrating with the Almighty 
upon the destruction of the gourd, a few leaves of which are seen above 
him. His hands are placed together with a strange and trivial action, 
supposed to denote the counting on his fingers the number of days he 
was in the fish's belly. A formless marine monster is seen at his side. 

" Daniel has a book on his lap, with one hand on it. He is young, 
and a piece of lion's skin seems to allude to his history." — Lady East- 
lake, Hist, of Our Lord, i. 248. 

In the recesses between the prophets and sibyls are a 
series of lovely family groups representing the Genealogy of 
the Virgin, and expressive of calm expectation of the future. 
The four corners of the ceiling contain groups illustrative of 
the power of the Lord displayed in the especial deliverances 
of his chosen people. 


Near the altar are : 

Right. — The deliverance of the Israelites by the brazen serpent. 
Left. — The execution of Haman, 

Near the entrance are : 

Right. — Judith and Holofernes. 
Left.- — David and Goliath. 

It was when Michael Angelo was already in his sixtieth 
year that Clement VII. formed the idea of effacing the three 
pictures of Perugino at the end of the chapel, and employ- 
ing him to paint the vast fresco of The Last Judgment in 
their place. It occupied the artist for seven years, and was 
finished in 1541 when Paul III. was on the throne. To 
induce him to pursue his work with application, Paul III. 
went himself to his house attended by ten cardinals ; " an 
honour," says Lanzi, " unique in the annals of art." The 
pope wished that the picture should be painted in oil, to 
which he was persuaded by Sebastian del Piombo, but 
Michael Angelo refused to employ anything but fresco, 
saying that oil-painting was work for women and for idle 
and lazy persons. 

" In the upper half of the picture we see the Judge of the world, 
surrounded by the apostles and patriarchs ; beyond these, on one side, 
are the martyrs ; on the other, the saints, and a numerous host of the 
blessed. Above, under the two arches of the vault, two groups of 
angels bear the instruments of the passion. Below the Saviour another 
group of angels holding the book of life sound the trumpets to awaken 
the dead. On the right is represented the resurrection ; and higher, the 
ascension of the blessed. On the left, hell, and the fall of the con- 
demned, who audaciously strive to press to heaven. 

" The day of wrath ( ' dies irre ' ) is before us — the day, of which the 
old hymn says, — 

' Quantus tremor est futurus, 
Quando judex est venturus 
Cuncta stride discussurus.' 


The Judge turns in wrath towards the condemned and raises his right 
hand, with an expression of rejection and condemnation ; beside him 
the Virgin veils herself with her drapery, and turns, with a countenance 
full of anguish, toward the blessed. The martyrs, on the left, hold up 
the instruments and proofs of their martyrdom, in accusation of those 
who had occasioned their temporal death : these the avenging angels 
drive from the gates of heaven, and fulfil the sentence pronounced 
against them. Trembling and anxious, the dead rise slowly, as if still 
fettered by the weight of an earthly nature ; the pardoned ascend to the 
blessed ; a mysterious horror pervades even their hosts — no joy, nor 
peace, nor blessedness, are to be found here. 

" It must be admitted that the artist has laid a stress on this view of 
his subject, and this has produced an unfavourable effect upon the upper 
half of his picture. We look in vain for the glory of heaven, for beings 
who bear the stamp of divine holiness, and renunciation of human 
weakness ; everywhere we meet with the expression of human passion, 
of human efforts. We see no choir of solemn, tranquil forms, no har- 
monious unity of clear, grand lines, produced by ideal draperies ; instead 
of these, we find a confused crowd of the most varied movements, naked 
bodies in violent attitudes, unaccompanied by any of the characteristics 
made sacred by holy tradition. Christ, the principal figure of the 
whole, wants every attribute but that of the Judge : no expression of 
divine majesty reminds us that it is the Saviour who exercises this office. 
The upper part of the composition is in many parts heavy, notwith- 
standing the masterly boldness of the drawing ; confused, in spite of 
the separation of the principal and accessory groups ; capricious, not- 
withstanding a grand arrangement of the whole. But, granting for a 
moment that these defects exist, still this upper portion, as a whole, has 
a very impressive effect, and, at the great distance from which it is 
seen, some of the defects alluded to are less offensive to the eye. The 
lower half deserves the highest praise. In these groups, from the 
languid resuscitation and upraising of the pardoned, to the despair of 
the condemned, every variety of expression, anxiety, anguish, rage, and 
despair, is powerfully delineated. In the convulsive struggles of the 
condemned with the evil demons, the most passionate energy displays 
itself, and the extraordinary skill of the artist here finds its most appro- 
priate exercise. A peculiar tragic grandeur pervades alike the beings 
who are given up to despair and their hellish tormentors. The repre- 
sentation of all that is fearful, far from being repulsive, is thus invested 
with that true moral dignity which is so essential a condition in the 
higher aims of art." — Kugler, p. 308. 

"The Last Judgment is now more valuable as a school of design 


than as a fine painting, and it will be sought more for the study of the 
artist, than the delight of the amateur. Beautiful it is not — but it is 
sublime ; — sublime in conception, and astonishing in execution. Still, 
I believe, there are few who do not feel that it is a labour rather than a 
pleasure to look at it. Its blackened surface — its dark and dingy 
sameness of colouring — the obscurity which hangs over it — the confusion 
and multitude of naked figures which compose it — their unnatural 
position, suspended in the air, and the sameness of form and attitude, 
confound and bewilder the senses. These were, perhaps, defects in- 
separable from the subject, although it was one admirably calculated to 
call forth the powers of Michael Angelo. To merit in colouring it has 
confessedly no pretensions, and I think it is also deficient in expression 
— that in the conflicting passions, hopes, fears, remorse, despair, and 
transport, that must agitate the breasts of so many thousands in that 
awful moment, there was room for powerful expression which we do not 
see here. But it is faded and defaced ; the touches of immortal genius 
are lost for ever ; and from what it is, we can form but a faint idea of what 
it was. Its defects daily become more glaring — its beauties vanish ; and, 
could the spirit of its great author behold the mighty work upon which 
he spent the unremitting labour of seven years, with what grief and 
mortification would he gaze upon it now. 

"It maybe fanciful, but it seems to me that in this, and in eveiy 
other of Michael Angelo's works, you may see that the ideas, beauties, 
and peculiar excellences of statuary, were ever present to his mind ; that 
they are the conceptions of a sculptor embodied in painting. 

. . St. Catharine, in a green gown, and somebody else in a 
blue one, are supremely hideous. Paul IV., in an unfortunate fit of 
prudery, was seized with the resolution of whitewashing over the whole 
of the Last Judgment, in order to cover the scandal of a few naked 
female figures. With difficulty was he prevented from utterly destroying 
the grandest painting in the world, but he could not be dissuaded from 
ordering these poor women to be clothed in this unbecoming drapery. 
Daniele da Volterra, whom he employed in this office (in the lifetime of 
Michael Angelo), received, in consequence, the name of II Braghettone 
(the breeches-maker)." — Eaton ' s Rome. 

Michael Angelo avenged himself upon Messer Biagio da 
Cesena, master of the ceremonies, who first suggested the 
indelicacy of the naked figures to the pope, by introducing 
him in hell, as Midas, with ass's ears. When Cesena begged 


Paul IV. to cause this figure to be obliterated, the pope 
sarcastically replied, " I might have released you from pur- 
gatory, but over hell I have no power." 

" Michel-Ange est extraordinaire, tandis qu'Orcagna * est religieux. 
Leurs compositions se resument dans les deux Christs qui jugent. L'un 
est un bourreau qui foudroie, l'autre est un monarque qui condamne en 
montrant la plaie sacree de soil cote pour justifier sa sentence." — Carlier, 
Viedu Pere Angelico. 

"The Apostles in Michael Angelo's Last Judgment stand on each 
side of the Saviour, who is not, here, Saviour and Redeemer, but 
inexorable Judge. They are grandly and artificially grouped, all with- 
out any drapery whatever, with forms and attitudes which recall an as- 
semblage of Titans holding a council of war, rather than the glorified 
companions of Christ." — Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, i. 179. 

The Sistine Chapel is associated in the minds of all 
Roman sojourners with the great ceremonies of the Church, 
but especially with the Miserere of Passion Week. 

"On Wednesday afternoon began the Miserere in the Sistine Chapel. 

. . The old cardinals entered in their magnificent violet-coloured 
velvet cloaks, with their white ermine capes ; and seated themselves 
side by side, in a great half-circle, within the barrier, whilst the priests 
who had carried their trains seated themselves at their feet. By the 
little side door of the altar the holy father now entered in his purple 
mantle and silver tiara. He ascended his throne. Bishops swung the 
vessels of incense around him, whilst young priests, in scarlet vestments, 
knelt, with lighted torches in their hands, before him and the high altar. 

"The reading of the lessons began. + But it was impossible to keep 
the eyes fixed on the lifeless letters of the missal — they raised them- 
selves, with the thoughts, to the vast universe which Michael Angelo 
had breathed forth in colours upon the ceiling and the walls. I con- 
templated his mighty sibyls and wondrously glorious prophets, everyone 
of them a subject for a painting. My eyes drank in the magnificent 
processions, the beautiful groups of angels ; they were not to me 
painted pictures, all stood living before me. The rich tree of know- 

* In the Campo-Santo of Pisa. 

t fifteen Psalms arc sung before the Miserere begins, and one light is extinguished 
for each — the Psalms being represented by fifteen candles. 


ledge, from which Eve gave the fruit to Adam : the Almighty God, 
who floated over the waters, not borne up by angels, as the older 
masters had represented him — no, the company of angels rested upon 
him and his fluttering garments. It is true I had seen these pictures 
before, but never as now had they seized upon me. My excited state of 
mind, the crowd of people, perhaps even the lyric of my thoughts, made 
me wonderfully alive to poetical impressions ; and many a poet's heart 
has felt as mine did ! 

"The bold foreshortenings, the determinate force with which eveiy 
figure steps forward, is amazing, and carries one quite away ! It is a 
spiritual Sermon on the Mount in colour and form. Like Raphael, we 
stand in astonishment before the power of Michael Angelo. Every 
prophet is a Moses like that which he formed in marble. What giant 
forms are those which seize upon our eye and our thoughts as we enter ! 
But, when intoxicated with this view, let us turn our eyes to the back- 
ground of the chapel, whose whole wall is a high altar of art and 
thought. The great chaotic picture, from the floor to the roof, shows 
itself there like a jewel, of which all the rest is only the setting. We 
see there the Last Judgment. 

"Christ stands in judgment upon the clouds, and the apostles and his 
mother stretch forth their hands beseeching for the poor human race. 
The dead raise the gravestones under which they have lain ; blessed 
spirits float upwards, adoring, to God, whilst the abyss seizes its victims. 
Here one of the ascending spirits seeks to save his condemned brother, 
whom the abyss already embraces in its snaky folds. The children of 
despair strike their clenched fists upon their brows and sink into the 
depths ! In bold foreshortening, float and tumble whole legions 
between heaven and earth. The sympathy of the angels ; the expres- 
sion of lovers who meet ; the child that, at the sound of the trumpet, 
clings to the mother's breast, is so natural and beautiful, that one 
believes oneself to be among those who are waiting for judgment. 
Michael Angelo has expressed in colours what Dante saw and has sung 
to the generations of the earth. 

"The descending sun, at that moment, threw his last beams in 
through the uppermost windows. Christ, and the blessed around him, 
were strongly lighted up ; whilst the lower part, where the dead arose, 
and the demons thrust their boat, laden with damned, from shore, were 
almost in darkness. 

"Just as the sun went down the last Psalm was ended, and the last 
light which now remained was extinguished, and the whole picture- 
world vanished in the gloom from before me; but, in that same 
moment, burst forth music and singing. That which colour had 


bodily revealed arose now in sound : the day o r judgment, with its 
despair and its exultation, resounded above us. 

" The father of the Church, stripped of his papal pomp, stood before 
the altar, and prayed to the holy cross ; and upon the wings of the 
trumpet resounded the trembling quire, ' Populus mens, quid feci tibi 1 ' 
Soft angel notes rose above the deep song, tones which ascended not 
from a human breast : it was not a man's nor a woman's : it belonged 
to the world of spirits : it was like the weeping of angels dissolved in 
melody." — Anderson's Imprtnnsatorc. 

" Le Miserere, c'est-a-dire, aycz pitie de nous, est un psaume compose 
de versets qui se chantent alternativement d'une maniere tres-differente. 
Tour-a-tour une musique celeste se fait entendre, et le verset suivant, dit 
en recitatif, et murmure d'un ton sourd et presque rauque, on clirait que 
c'est la reponse des caracteres durs aux cceurs sensibles, que c'est le reel 
de la vie qui vient fletrir et repousser les vceux des ames genereuses ; et 
quand le chceur si doux reprend, on renait a l'esperance ; mais lorsque 
le verset recite recommence, une sensation de froid saisit de nouveau ; 
ce n'est pas la terreur qui la cause, mais le decouragement de l'enthou- 
siasme. Enfin le dernier morceau, plus noble et plus touchant encore 
que tous les autres, laisse au fond de Fame une impression douce et 
pure : Dieu nous accorde cette meme impression avant de mourir. 

"On eteint les flambeaux; la liuit s'avance ; les figures des pro- 
phetes et des sibylles apparaissent comme des fantomes enveloppes du 
crepuscule. Le silence est profond, la parole ferait un mal insup- 
portable dans cet etat de Fame, oil tout est intime et interieur ; et 
quand le dernier son s' eteint, chacun s'en va lentement et sans bruit ; 
chacun semble craindre de rentrer dans les interets vulgaires de ce 
monde." — Mad. de Stael. 

Opposite the Sistine Chapel is the entrance of the Sala 
Ditcalc, in which the popes formerly gave audience to foreign 
princes, and which is now used for the consistories for the 
admission of cardinals to the sacred college. Its decora- 
tions were chiefly executed by Bernini for Alexander VII. 
The landscapes are by Brill. This hall is used as a passage 
to the Loggie of Bramante. 

The small portion of the Vatican inhabited by the pope 
is never seen except by those who are admitted to a special 


audience. The rooms of the aged pontiff are furnished 
with a simplicity which would be inconceivable in the 
abode of any other sovereign prince. It is a lonely life, 
as the dread of an accusation of nepotism has prevented 
any of the later popes from having any of their family with 
them, and etiquette always obliges them to dine, &c, alone. 
No one, whatever the difference of creed, can look upon this 
building inhabited by the venerable old men who have borne 
so important a part in the history of Christianity and of 
Europe, without the deepest interest. 

" Je la vois cette Rome, ou d'augustes vieillards, 
Heritiers d'un apotre et vainqueurs des Cesars, 
Souverains sans armee et conquerants sans guerre, 
A leur triple couronne ont asservi la terre." 


Two hundred and fifty-five popes are reckoned from St. 

Peter to Pio IX. inclusive. A famous prophecy of S. Malachi, 

first printed in 1595, is contained in a series of mottoes, one 

for each of the whole line of pontiffs until the end of 

time. Following this it will be seen that only eleven more 

popes are needed to exhaust the mottoes, and to close the 

destinies of Rome, and of the world. The later ones run 

thus : — 

" Pius VII. Aquila Rapax. . . . Fides intrepida. 

Leo XII. Canis et coluber. . . . Pastor angelicus. 

Pius VIII. Vir religiosus. . . . Pastor et nauta. 

Gregory XVI. de Balneis Etrurice. . . . Flos florum. 

Pius IX. Crux de cruce. . . . De medietate lunoe. 

. . . Lumen in coelo. . . . De labore solis. 

. . Ignis ardens. . . . Gloria olivse. 

. . Religio depopulata. 

In persecutione extrema sacra Romanse Ecclesioe sedebit FETRUS 
Romanus, qui pascet oves in multis tribulationibus : quibus transactis, 
civitas septicollis diruetur, et JUDEX tremendus judicabit populum." 


The Cardinal Secretary of State has rooms above the 
pontifical apartments. His collection of antique gems is of 
European celebrity. 

" Antonelli loge au Vatican, sur la tete du pape. Les Romains de- 
mandent, en maniere du calembour, lequel est le plus haut, du pape ou 
d' Antonelli." — About, Question Romaine. 

The entrance to the Museum of Statues (for those who 
do not come from the Sala Regia) is by the central door on 
the left of the Cortile S. Damaso, whence you ascend a 
staircase and follow the loggia on the first floor, covered 
with stuccoes and arabesques by Giovanni da Udine, to the 
door of 

The Galleria Lapidaria, a corridor 2 131 feet in length. 
Its sides are covered on the right with Pagan, on the left 
with Early Christian inscriptions. Ranged along the walls 
are a series of sarcophagi, cippi, and funeral altars, some of 
them very fine. The last door on the left of this gallery is 
the entrance to the Library. 

Separated from this by an iron gate, which is locked, 
except on Mondays, but opened by a custode (fee 50 c), 
is the Museo Chiaramonti ; but the visitors should first 
enter, on the left, 

The Braccio-Nuovo, built under Pius VII. in 18 17, by 
Raphael Stern, a fine hall, 250 feet long, filled with gems 
of sculpture. Perhaps most worth attention are (the chefs 
d'cenvre being marked with an asterisk) : 


5. *Caryatide. 

This statue was admirably restored by Thorwaldsen. Its Greek origin 
is undoubted, and it is supposed to be the missing figure from the Erech- 
theum :it Alliens. 

"Quand line fille des premieres families n'avait pour vetement, 


comme celle-ci, qu'une chemise et par-dessus une demi-chemise ; quand 
elle avait l'habitude de porter des vases sur sa tete, et par suite de se 
tenir droite ; quand pour toute toilette elle retroussait ses cheveux ou les 
laissait tomber en boucles ; quand le visage n'etait pas plisse par les 
mille petites graces et les mille petites preoccupations bourgeoises, une 
femme pouvait avoir la tranquille attitude de cette statue. Aujourd'hui 
il en reste un debris dans les paysannes des environs qui portent leurs 
corbeilles sur la tete, mais elles sont gatees par le travail et les haillons. 
Le sein parait sous la chemise ; la tunique colle et visiblement n'est 
qu'un linge ; on voit la forme de la jambe qui casse 1'etoffe au genou ; 
les pieds apparaissent nus dans les sandales. Rien ne peut rendre le 
serieux naturel du visage. Certainement, si on pouvait revoir la per- 
sonne reelle avec ses bras blancs, ses cheveux noirs, sous la lumiere du 
soleil, les genoux plieraient, comme devant une deesse, de respect et de 
plaisir." — Taint, Voyage en Italie. 

8. Commodus. 

" La statue de Commode est tres curieuse par le costume. II tient a 
la main une lance, il a des especes de bottes : tout cela est du chasseur, 
enfin il porte la tunique a manches dont parle Dion Cassius, et qui 
etait son costume d' amphitheatre." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 246. 

9. Colossal head of a Dacian, from the Forum of Trajan. 
II. Silenus and the infant Bacchus. 

This is a copy from the Greek, of which there were several replicas. 
One, formerly in the Villa Borghese, is now at Paris. The original group 
is described by Pliny, who says that the name of the sculptor was lost 
even in his time. The greater portion of the child, the left arm and 
hand of Silenus, and the ivy-leaves, are restorations. 

' Je pense que ce chef-d'ceuvre est une imitation modifiee du Mercure 
nourricier de Bacchus, par Cephisodote, fils de Praxitele." — Ampere, 
Hist. Rom. iii. 332. 

14. * Augustus, found 1863, in the villa of Livia at Prima-Porta. 
" This is, without exception, the finest portrait statue of this class in 

the whole collection The cuirass is covered with small 

figures, in basso-relievo, which, as works of art, are even finer than the 
statue itself, and merit the most careful examination. These small 
figures are, in their way, marvels of art, for the wonderful boldness of 
execution and minuteness of detail shown in them. They are almost 
like c; meos, and yet, with all the delicacy of finish displayed, there is no 
mere smoothness of surface. The central group is supposed to represent 
the restoration to Augustus by King Phraates of the eagles taken from 


Crassus and Antony. Considerable traces of colour were found on this 
statue and are still discernible. Close examination will also show that 
the fece and eyes were coloured." — Shakspere Wood. 

17. yFsculapius. 

20. Nerva ? Head modern. 

23. *Pudicitia. From the Villa Mattei. Head modern. 
" The portrait of a noble Roman lady, much disfigured by restora- 
tions. This statue shows the neglect, by a sculptor of great ability, of 
that thoroughness of execution which was such a characteristic of Greek 
art. Compare the great beauty of the lower portion of the drapery, seen 
from the front, with the poverty of execution at the back." — Shakspere 

" Qu'on regarde une statue toute voilee, par exemplecelle de la Pudi- 
cite : il est evident que le vetement antique n'altere pas la forme du 
corps, que les plis collants ou mouvants recoivent du corps leurs formes 
et leurs changements, qu'on suit sans peine a travers les plis l'equilibre 
de toute la charpente, la rondeur de l'epaule ou de la hanche, le creux du 
dos." — Taine. 

26. Titus. Found 182S, near theLateran (with his daughter Julia). 

27, 40, 92. Colossal busts of Medusa, from the temple of Venus at 

32, 33. Fauns, sitting, from the villa of Quintilius at Tivoli. 
38. Ganymede, found at Ostia ; on the tree against which he leans 

is engraved the name of Phaedimus. 
29. Vase of black basalt, found on the Quirinal. It stands on a 

mosaic, from the Tor Marancia. 
41. Faun playing on a flute, from the villa of Lucullus 
44. Wounded Amazon (both arms and legs are restorations). 
" Les trois Amazones blessees de Rome ne peuvent etre que des 
copies de la celebre Amazone de Cresilas . . . . Ce Cresilas fut 
l'auteur du guerrier grec mourant qui selon toute apparence a inspire le 
pretendu Gladiateur mourant auquel s'applique merveilleusement bien 
ce que dit Pline du premier." — Afnpire, Hist. Rom. iii. 263. 

47. Caryatide. 

48. Bust of Trajan. 

50. *Diana contemplating the sleeping Endymion. 
53. Euripides. 
"Le plus remarquable portrait d'Euripide est une belle statue au Vati- 
can. Cette statue donne une haute id^e de la sublimit^ de l'art tragique 
en Grece .... Rcgardez ce poe'te, combien toute sa personne a 


de gravite et de grandeur, rien n'avertit qu'on a devant les ycux celui qui 
aux yeux dcs juges severes, affaiblissait l'art et le corrompait ; l'attitude 
est simple, la visage serieux, comme il convient a un poete philosophe. 
Ce serait la plus belle statue de poete tragique si la statue de Sophocle 
n'existait pas." — Ampere, iii. 572. 

62. *Demosthenes, found near Frescati. 
" Both hands were wanting, and the restorer has replaced them 
holding a. roll .... They were originally placed with the fingers 
clasped together, and the proofs are these. An anecdote is related of an 
Athenian soldier, who had hidden some stolen money in the clasped 
hands of a statue of Demosthenes ; and if you observe the lines formed 
by the fore-arms, from the elbows to half-way down the wrists, where 
the restoration commences, you will find that, continued on, they would 
bring the wrists very much nearer to each other than they now are in the 
restoration. It is possible that this is the identical statue spoken of." — 
Skakspere Wood. 

67. *Apoxyomenos. An Athlete scraping his arm with a strigil ; 
found 1849 in the Vicolo delle Palure in the Trastevere. 
This is a replica of the celebrated bronze statue of Lysippus, and is 
described by Pliny, who narrates that it was brought from Greece by 
Agrippa to adorn the baths which he built for the people, and that Ti- 
berius so admired it, that he carried it off to his palace, but was forced to 
restore it by the outcries of the populace, the next time he appeared in 


71. Amazon. (Arms and feet restorations by Thorwaldsen.) 

77. Antonia, from Tusculum. 

81. Bust of Hadrian. 

83. Juno ? (head, a restoration) from Hadrian's villa. 

86. Fortune with a cornucopia, from Ostia. 

92. Venus Anadyomena. 
" La gracieuse Venus Anadyomene, que chacun connait, a le merite de 
nous rendre une peinture perdue d'Apelles ; elle en a un autre encore, 
e'est de nous conserver dans ce portrait — qui n'est point en buste — quel- 
ques traits de la beaute de Campaspe, d'apres laquelle Apelles, dit-on, 
peignit sa Venus Anadyomene."- — Ampere, iii. 324. 

96. Bust of Marc Antony, from the Tor Sapienza. 
109. *Colossal group of the Nile, found, temp. Leo X., near Sta. 
Maria sopra Minerva. 


A Greek statue. The sixteen children clambering over it are re- 
storations, and allude to the sixteen cubits' depth with which the river 
annually irrigates the country. On the plinth, the accompaniments ot 
the river, — the ibis, crocodile, hippopotamus, &c, are represented. 

in. Julia, daughter of Titus, found near the Lateran. 
" Cette princesse, de la nouvelle et bourgeoise race des Flaviens, 
n'offre rien du noble profil et de la here beaute des Agrippines : elle a 
un nez ecrase et l'air commun. La coiffure de Julie achevede la rendre 
disgracieuse : c'est une maniere de pouf assez semblable a. une eponge. 
Compare aux coiffures du siecle d'Auguste, le tour de cheveux ridicule 
de Julie montre la decadence du gout, plus rapide dans la toilette que 
dans Fart." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 120. 

112. Bust of Juno, called the Juno Pentini. 

114. *Minerva Medica, found in the temple so called; formerly in 
the Giustiniani collection. 
A most beautiful Greek statue, much injured by restoration. 
" In the Giustiniani palace is a statue of Minerva which fills me with 
admiration. Winckelmann scarcely thinks anything of it, or at any rate 
does not give it its proper position ; but I cannot praise it sufficiently. 
While we were gazing upon the statue, and standing a long time beside 
it, the wife of the custode told us that it was once a sacred image, and 
that the English, who are of that religion, still held it in veneration, 
being in the habit of kissing one of its hands, which was certainly quite 
white, while the rest of the statue was of a brownish colour. She added, 
that a lady of this religion had been there a short time before, had 
thrown herself on her knees, and worshipped the statue. Such a wonder- 
ful action she, as a Christian, could not behold without laughter, and 
fled from the room, for fear of exploding." — Goethe. 

117. Claudius. 

120. A replica of the Faun of Praxiteles, inferior to that at the 
" Le jeune Satyre qui tient une flute est trop semblable a celui du 
Capitole pour n'etre pas de meme une reproduction de l'un des deux 
Satyres isoles de Praxitele, son Satyre d'Athenes ou son Satyre de 
Megare ; on pourrait croire aussi que le Satyre a la flute a eu pour 
original le Satyre de Protogene qui, bien que peint dans Rhodes assiegee, 
exprimait le calme le plus profond et qu'on appelait celui qui se repose 
(anapauomenos); on pourrait le croire, car la statue a toujours une jam lie 
( roi ' ' sin- L'autre, attitude qui, dans le langage de la sculpture antique, 
designe le repos. II ne serait pas impossible non plus que Protogene 


se fiit inspire de Praxitele; mais en ce cas il n'en avait pas reproduit 
completement le charme, car Apelles, tout en admirant une autre figure 
de Protogene, lui reprochait de manquer de grace. Or, le Satyre a la 
flute est tres-gracieux ; ce qui me porte a croire qu'il vient directement 
de Praxitele plutot que de Praxitele par Protogene." — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iii. 30S. 

123. L. Verus. Naked statue. 
126. Athlete; the discus a restoration. 
129. Domitian, from the Giustiniani collection. 

132. Mercury (the head a restoration by Canova), from the Villa 

Here we re-enter the Museo Chiaramonti, lined with 
sculptures, chiefly of inferior interest. They are arranged 
in thirty compartments. We may notice : 

1. 6, 13. Autumn and Winter, two sarcophagi from Ostia, the 
latter bearing the name of Publius Elius Verus. 
vm. r. 176. A beautiful mutilated fragment, supposed to be one of 
the daughters of Niobe. 
r. 197. Head of Roma, from Laurentum. 
xiv. r. 352. Venus Anadyomena. 
XVI. r. 400. Tiberius, seated, found at Veii in 1811. 

r. 401. Augustus, from Veii. 
XVII. r. 417. *Bust of the young Augustus, found at Ostia, 1808. 
xx. r. 494. Seated statue of Tiberius, from Pipemo. 

r. 495. Cupid bending his bow, a copy of a statue by Lysippus. 
xxi. r. 550, 512. Two busts of Cato. 
xxiv. r. 589. Mercury, found near the Monte di Pieta. 
xxv. r. 606. Head of Neptune, from Ostia. 
XXX. r. 732. Recumbent Hercules, from Hadrian's Villa. 

At the end of this gallery is the entrance to the Giardino 
della Pigna (described under the Vatican Gardens). Ad- 
mittance may probably be obtained from hence for a fee of 
50 c. At the top of the short staircase, on the left, is the 
entrance of the Egyptian Museum. Here we enter the 
Musco Pio-Clcmcntino, founded under Clement XIV., but 
chiefly due to the liberality and taste of Pius VI., in whose 


reign, however, most of the best statues were carried off to 
Paris, though they were restored to Pius VII. 

In the centre of ist Vestibule is the * Torso Belvidere, 
found in the baths of Caracalla, and sculptured, as is told 
by a Greek inscription on its base, by Apollonius, son of 
Nestor of Athens. It was to this statue that Michael- 
Angelo declared that he owed his power of representing the 
human form, and in his blind old age he used to be led up 
to it, that he might pass his hands over it, and still enjoy, 
through touch, the grandeur of its lines. 

"And dost thou still, thou mass of breathing stone 
(Thy giant limbs to night and chaos hurled), 
Still sit as on the fragment of a world, 
Surviving all, majestic and alone? 
What tho' the Spirits of the North, that swept 
Rome from the earth when in her pomp she slept, 
Smote thee with fury, and thy headless trunk 
Deep in the dust 'mid tower and temple sunk ; 
Soon to subdue mankind 'twas thine to rise, 
Still, still unquelled thy glorious energies ! 
Aspiring minds, with thee conversing, caught 
Bright revelations of the good they sought ; 
By thee that long-lost spell in secret given, 
To draw down gods, and lift the soul to Heaven." 


" Quelle a ete l'original du torse d'Hercule, ce chef-d'ceuvre que pal- 
pait de ses mains intelligentes Michel-Ange aveugle et reduit a ne plus 
voir que par elles ? Ileyne a pense que ce pouvait etre une copie en 
grand de 1'Hercule Epitrafezios de Lysippe, mais par le style cette 
statue me semble anterieure a Lysippe. Cependant on lit sur le torse 
le nom d'Apollonios d'Athenes, fils de Nestor, et la forme des lettres 
ne permet pas de placer cette inscription plus haut que le dernier siecle 
de la Republique. 

"Comment admettre que cette statue, aussi admiree par Winckel- 
mann que par Michel-Ange, ce debris auquel on revient apres l'eblouisse- 
ment de l'Apollon du Belvidere, pour retrouver une sculpture plus male 
et plus simple, un style plus fort et plus grand ; comment admettre qu'une 


telle statue soit l'oeuvre d'un sculpteur inconnu dont Pline ne parle point, 
ni personne autre dans l'antiquite, et qu'elle date d'un temps si eloigne 
de la grande epoque de Phidias, quand elle semble y tenir de si pres ? 

" . . . . Pourquoi le torse du Vatican ne serait-il pas d'Alea- 
mene, ou, si Ton veut, d'apres Alcamene, par Apollonios ? " — Ampere, 
Hist. Rome, iii. p. 360, 363. 

Close by, in a niche, is the celebrated peperino *Tomb 
of L. Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, consul B.C. 297. It sup- 
ports a bust, supposed, upon slight foundation, to be that of 
the poet Ennius. Inscriptions from other tombs of the 
Scipios are inserted in the neighbouring wall.f 

" L'epitaphe de Scipion le Barbu semble le resume d'une oraison 
funebre ; elle s'adresse aux spectateurs : ' Cornelius Scipion Barbatus, 
ne d'un pere vaillant, homme courageux et prudent, dont la beaute 
egalait la vertu. II a ete parmi vous consul, censeur, edile ; il a pris 
Taurasia, Cisauna, le Samnium. Ayant soumis toute la Lucanie, il en 
a emmene des otages.' 

" Y a-t-il rien de plus grand ? II a pris le Samnium et la Lucanie. 
Voila tout. 

" Ce sarcophage est un des plus curieux monuments de Rome. Par 
la matiere, par la forme des lettres et le style de 1' inscription, il vous 
represente la rudesse des Romains au sixieme siecle. Le gout tres-pur 
de l'architecture et des ornements vous montre l'avenement de l'art grec 
tombant, pour ainsi dire, en pleine sauvagerie romaine. Letombeaude 
Scipion le Barbu est en peperin, ce tuf rugueux, grisatre, seme de taches 
noires. Les caracteres sont irreguliers, les lignes sont loin d'etre droites, 
le latin est antique et barbare, mais la forme et les ornements du tombeau 
sont grecs. II y a la des volutes, des triglyphes, des denticules ; on ne 
saurait rien imaginerqui fasse mieux voir la culture grecque venant sur- 
prendre et saisir la rudesse latine." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 132. 

The Round Vestibule contains a fine vase of pavonazzetto. 

The adjoining balcony contains a curious Wind Indicator, 
found (1779) near the Coliseum. Hence there is a lovely 
view over the city. In the garden beneath is a fountain 

t See the account of the " Tombs of the Scipios "' in Chapter IX. 


with a curious bronze ship floating in its bason (see Vatican 

At the end of the yd Vestibule stands the ^Statue of 
Meleager, with a boar's head and a dog, supposed to have 
been begun in Greece by some famous sculptor, and finished 
in Rome (the dog, &c.) by an inferior workman. 

" Meleager is represented in a position of repose, leaning on his 
spear, the mark of the junction of which, with the plinth, is still to be 
seen. The want of the spear gives the statue the appearance of leaning 
too much to one side, but if you can imagine it replaced, you will see 
that the pose is perfectly and truthfully rendered. This statue was found 
at the commencement of the sixteenth century, outside the Porta Portese^ 
in a vineyard close to the Tiber." — Shakspere Wood. 

" Ce Meleagre du Vatican respire une grace tranquille, et, place entre 
le sublime Torse et les merveilles du Belvedere, semble etre la pour at- 
tendre et pour accueillir de son air aimable et un pen melancolique, oil 
Ton a era voir le signe d'une destinee qui devait etre courte, l'enthou- 
siasme du voyageur."— Ampin, Hist. Rom. iii. 515. 

From the central vestibule we enter the Cortile del Bel- 
videre, an octagonal court built by Bramante, having a 
fountain in the centre, and decorated with fine sarcophagi 
and vases, &c. From this opens, beginning from the right, 

First Cabinet, containing the Perseus, and the two Boxers 
— Kreugas and Damoxenus, by Canova. 

The Second Cabinet, containing *the Antinous (now called 
Mercury), perhaps the most beautiful statue in the world. 
It was found on the Esquiline near S. Martino al Monte. 
It has never been injured by restoration, but was broken 
across the ankles when found, and has been unskilfully put 

" [<• suis bien tente* de rapportei h un original de Polyclete, qui aimait 
les formes carre'es, le Mercure du Belvedere, qui n'est pas tres-svelte 


pour un Mercure. On a era reconnaitre que les proportions de cette 
statue se rapproehaient beaucoup des proportions prescrites par Polyclete. 
Poussin, comme Polyclete, ami des formes carrees, declarait le Mercure, 
qu'on appelait alors sans motif un Antinoiis, le modele le plus parfait 
dei pioportions du corps humain ; il pourrait a ce titre remplacer jusqu'a 
un certain point la statue de Polyclete, appelee la regie, parcequ'elle passait 
pour offrir ce modele parfait, et faisait regie a cet egard. De plus, on 
sait qu'un Mercure de Polyclete avait ete apporte a. Rome." — Ampere, 
Hist. Rom. iii. 267. 

Third Cabinet, of *the Laocoon. This wonderful group 
was discovered near the Sette Sale on the Esquiline in 
1506, while Michael-Angelo was at Rome. The right arm 
of the father is a terra-cotta restoration, and is said by 
Winckelmann to be the work of Bernini ; the arms of the 
sons are additions by Agostino Cornacchini of Pistoia. 
There is now no doubt that the Laocoon is the group 
described by Pliny. 

" 1'he fame of many sculptors is less diffused, because the number 
employed upon great works prevented their celebrity; for there is 110 
one artist to receive the honour of the work, and where there are more 
than one they cannot all obtain an equal fame. Of this the Laocoon is 
an example, which stands in the palace of the emperor Titus, — a work 
which may be considered superior to all others both in painting and 
statuary. The whole group, — the father, the boys, and the awful folds 
of the serpents, — were formed out of a single block, in accordance with 
a vote of the senate, by Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, 
Rhodian sculptors of the highest merit." — Pliny, lib. xxxvi. c. 4. ' 

"Les trois sculpteurs rhodiens qui travaillerent ensemble au Laocoon 
etaient probablement un pere et ses deux fils, qui executerent Tun la 
statue du pere, et les autres celles des deux fils, touchante analogie entre 
les auteurs et l'ouvrage. 

"Les auteurs du Laocoon etaient Rhodiens, ce peuple auquel, dit 
Pindare, Minerve a donne de l'emporter sur tous les mortels par le tra- 
vail habile de leurs mains, et dont les rues etaient garnies de figures 
vivantes qui semblaient marcher. Or, le grand eclat, la grande puissance 
de Rhodes, appartiennent surtout a l'epoque qui suivit la mort d' Alex- 
andre. Apres qu'elle se fut delivree du joug macedonien, presque 
toujours alliee de Rome, Rhodes fut fiorissante par le commerce, 


les armes et la liberte, jusqu'au jour ou die eut embrasse le parti de 
Cesar ; Cassius prit d'assaut la capitale de File et depouilla ses temples 
de tous leurs ornements. Le coup fut mortel a la republique de 
Rhodes, qui depuis ne s'en releva plus. 

"C'est avant cette fatale epoque, dans l'epoque de la prosperite 
rhodienne, entre Alexandre et Cesar, que se place le grand developpe- 
ment de Fart comme de la puissance des Rhodiens, et qu'on est conduit 
natureUement a placer la creation d'un chef-d'oeuvre tel que le Lao- 

" Pline dit que les trois statues dont se compose le groupe etaient d'un 
seul morceau, et ce groupe est forme de plusieurs, on en a compte jusqu'a 
six. Ceci semblerait faire croire que nous n'avons qu'une copie, mais 
j'avoue ne pas attacher une grande importance a cette indication de 
Pline, compilateur plus erudit qu'observateur attentif. Michel-Ange, 
dit-on, remarqua le premier que le Laocoon n'etait pas d'un seul mor- 
ceau; Pline a tres-bien pu ne pas s'en apercevoir plus que nous et 
repeter de confiance une assertion inexacte." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 
382, 385, 387- 

. . . " Turning to the Vatican, go see 
Laocoon's torture dignifying pain — 
A father's love and mortal's agony 
With an immortal's patience blending, vain 
The struggle ; vain against the coiling strain 
And gripe, and deepening of the dragon's grasp, 
The old man's clench ; the long envenom'd chain 
Rivets the living links, — the enormous asp 
Enforces pang on pang, and stifles gasp on gasp." 

Childe Harold. 

"The circumstance of the two sons being so much smaller than the 
father, has been criticised by some, but this seems to have been neces- 
sary to the harmony of the composition. The same apparent dispro- 
portion exists between Niobe and her children, in the celebrated group 
at Florence, supposed to be by Scopas. The raised arms of the three 
figures are all restorations, as are some portions of the serpents. Ori- 
ginally, the raised hands of the old man rested on his head, and the 
traces of the junction are clearly discernible. For this we have also the 
evidence of an antique gem, on which it is thus engraved. This work was 
found in the baths (?) of Titus, in the reign of Julius II., by a certain 
Felix de Fredis, who received half the revenue of the gabella of the 
Porta San Giovanni as a reward, and whose epitaph, in the church of 
Ara Cceli, records the fact." — Shakspere Wood. 


" II y avait dans la vie, au seizieme siecle, je ne sais qu'elle excitation 
febrile, quelle aspiration vers le beau, vers l'inconnu, qui disposait les 

esprits a l'enthousiasme Felix de Fredis fut gratifie d'une 

part dans les revenus de la porte de Saint Jean de Latran, pour avoir 
trouve le groupe du Laocoon, et, lorsquel'ordre fut donne de transporter 
au Belvedere le Laocoon, PApollon, la Venus, Rome entiere s'e'mut, on 
jetait des fleurs au marbre, on battait des mains ; depuis les thermes de 
Titus jusqu'au Vatican, le Laocoon fut porte en triomphe ; et Sadolet 
chantait sur le mode virgilien que durent reconnaitre les echos de 
l'Esquilin et du palais d'Auguste." — Goumerie, Rome Chritienne. 

" I felt the Laocoon very powerfully, though very quietly ; an im- 
mortal agony, with a strange calmness diffused through it, so that it 
resembles the vast rage of the sea, calm on account of its immensity ; or 
the tumult of Niagara, which does not seem to be tumult, because it 
keeps pouring on for ever and ever." 

" It is a type of human beings, struggling with an inexplicable trouble, 
and entangled in a complication which they cannot free themselves from 
by their own efforts, and out of which Heaven alone can help them." — 
Hawthorne, Notes on Italy. 

TJie Fourth Cabinet contains *the Apollo Belvedere, found 
in the sixteenth century at Porto d'Anzio (Antium), and 
purchased by Julius II. for the Belvedere Palace, which was 
at that time a garden pavilion separated from the rest of 
the Vatican, and used as a museum of sculpture. It is now 
decided that this statue, beautiful as it is, is not the original 
work of a Greek sculptor, but a copy, probably from the 
bronze of Calamides, which represented Apollo, as the 
defender of the city, and which was erected at Athens after 
the cessation of a great plague. Four famous statues of 
Apollo are mentioned by Pliny as existing at Rome in his 
time, but this is not one of them. 

" Or view the Lord of the unerring bow, 
The God of life, and poesy, and light — 
The Sun in human limbs array'd, and brow 
All radiant from his triumph in the fight ; 
The shaft hath just been shot — the arrow bright 

3 1 2 WALK'S IN ROME. 

With an immortal's vengeance ; in his eye 
And nostril beautiful disdain, and might, 
And majesty flash their full lightnings by, 
Developing in that one glance the Deity." 

Childe Harold. 

" Bright kindling with a conqueror's stern delight, 
His keen eye tracks the arrow's fateful flight : 
Burns his indignant cheek with vengeful fire, 
And his lip quivers with insulting ire : 
Firm fix'd his tread, yet light, as when on high 
He walks th' impalpable and pathless sky : 
The rich luxuriance of his hair, confined 
In graceful ringlets, wantons on the wind, 
That lifts in sport his mantle's drooping fold, 
Proud to display that form of faultless mould. 

Mighty Ephesian ! with an eagle's flight 
Thy proud soul mounted through the fields of light, 
View'd the bright conclave of Heaven's blest abode, 
And the cold marble leapt to life a god : 
Contagious awe through breathless myriads ran, 
A.nd nations bow'd before the work of man. 

For mild he seem'd, as in Elysian bowers, 

Wasting in careless ease the joyous hours ; 

iaughty, as bards have sung, with princely sway 

"urbing the fierce flame-breathing steeds of day ; 

Seauteous as vision seen in dreamy sleep 

!y holy maid on Delphi's haunted steep, 

vlid the dim twilight of the laurel grove, 

Too fair to worship, too divine to love." 

Henry Hart Milman. 

In the second portico, between Canova's statues and the 
Antinous, is (No. 43) a Venus and Cupid, — interesting 
because the Venus is a portrait of Sallustia Barbia Orbiana, 
wife of Alexander Severus. It was discovered in the fifteenth 
century, in the ruin near Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, to 
which it has given a name. In the third portico, between 
the Antinous and the Laocoon, are two beautiful dogs. 
Between these we enter : 


The Sala dcgli A?iiniali, containing a number of repre- 
sentations of animals in marble and alabaster. Perhaps 
the best is No. 116 — two greyhounds playing. The statue 
of Commodus on horseback (No. 139) served as a model 
to Bernini for his figure of Constantine in the portico of St. 

" La Salle des Animaux au Vatican est comme un musee de l'ecole de 
Myron ; le naturel parfait qu'il donna a ses representations d'animaux y 
eclate partout. C'est une sorte de menagerie de l'art, et elle merite de 
s'appeler, comme celle du Jardin des Plantes, une menagerie d'animaux 

"Ces animaux sont pourtant d'un merite illegal: parmi les meilleurs 
morceaux on compte des chiens qui jouent ensemble avec beaucoup de 
verite, un cygne dont le duvet, un mouton tue dont la toison sont tres- 
bien rendus, une tete d'ane tres-vraie et portant une couronne de lierre, 
allusion au role de 1' de Silene dans les mysteres bacchiques." — 
Ampire, Hist. Rom. ni. 276. 

On the right we enter : 

The Galleria delle Statue, once a summer-house of Inno- 
cent VIII., but arranged as a statue-gallery under Pius VI. 
In its lunettes are remains of frescoes by Pinturicchio. Be- 
ginning on the right, are : 

248. An armed statue of Claudius Albinus standing on a cippus which 
marked the spot where the body of Caius Caesar was burnt, 
inscribed C. Cesar GERMANICI C/ESARis hic cremai 1 s 


250. The * Statue called "The Genius of the Vatican," supposed to be 

a copy from a Cupid of Praxiteles which existed in the Portico 
of Octavia in the time of Pliny. On the back are the holes 
for the metal pins which supported the wings. 

251. Athlete. 

253. Triton, from Tivoli. 

255. Paris. 

Le Vatican possede une statue de Paris jugeant les deesses. Cette 
statue est-elle, comme on le pense generalement, une copie du Paris 
d'Euphranor ? 


"Euphranor avait-il clioisi le moment ou Paris juge les deesses ? 

Les expressions de Pline pourraient en faire douter : il ne l'affirme 

point; il dit que dans la statue d' Euphranor on eut pu reconnaitre 

le juge des trois deesses, l'amant d'Helene et le vainqueur d'Achille. 


" La statue du Vatican est de beaucoup la plus remarquable des 
statues de Paris. On y sent, malgre ses imperfections, la presence d'un 
original fameux ; de plus, son attitude est celle de Paris sur plusieurs 
vases peints et sur plusieurs bas-reliefs, et nous verrons que les bas- 
reliefs reproduisaient tres-souvent une statue celebre. II m'est impos- 
sible, il est vrai, de voir dans le Paris du Vatican tout ce que Pline dit 
du Paris d'Euphranor. Je ne puis y voir que le juge des deesses. 
L' expression de son visage montre qu'il a contemple la beaute de 
Venus, et que le prix va etre donne. Rien n'annonce l'amant d'Helene, 
ni surtout le vainqueur d'Achille ; mais ce qui etait dans l'original 
aurait pu disparaitre de la copie." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 300. 

256. Young Hercules. 

259. Figure probably intended for Apollo, restored as Minerva. 

260. A Greek relief, from a tomb. 

261. Penelope, on a pedestal, with a relief of Bacchus and 

" L'attente de Penelope nous est presente, et, pour ainsi dire, dure 
encore pour nous dans cette expressive Penelope, dont le torse nous a 
montre un specimen de l'art grec sous la forme la plus ancienne." — 
Ampere, Hist. Rome, iii. p. 452. 

264. * Apollo Sauroctonos (killing a lizard), found on the Palatine in 

1777 — a copy of a work of Praxiteles. Several other copies 

are in existence, one in bronze, in the Villa Albani, inferior 

to this. The right arm and the legs above the knees are 

restorations, well executed. 

" Apollon presque enfant epie un lezard qui se glisse le long d'un 

arbre. On sait, a n'en pouvoir douter, d'apres la description de Pline 

et de Martial, que cet Apollon, souvent repete, est une imitation de 

celui de Praxitele, et quand on ne le saurait pas, on l'eut deviue." — 

Ampere, iii. 313. 

265. Amazon, found in the Villa Mattei, the finest of the three 

Amazons in the Vatican, which are all supposed to be copies 
from the fifty statues of Amazons, which decorated the 
temple of Diana at Ephesus. 
267. Drunken Satyr. 


268. Juno, from Otricoli. 

271, 390. Posidippus and Menander, very fine statues, perfectly 
preserved, owing to their having been kept through the 
middle ages in the church of S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna, where 
they were worshipped under the belief that they were statues 
of saints, a belief which arose from their having metal discs 
over their heads, a practice which prevailed with many 
Greek statues intended for the open air. The marks of the 
metal pins for these discs may still be seen, as well as those 
for a bronze protection for the feet, to prevent their being 
worn away by the kisses of the faithful, — as on the statue of 
St. Peter at St. Peter's. 

Between these statues we enter : 

The Hall of Busts. Perhaps the best are : 

278. Augustus, with a wreath of corn. 
289. Julia Mammrea, mother of Alexander Severus. 
299. Jupiter-Serapis, in basalt. 
325. Jupiter. 
357. Antinous. 

3SS. 'Roman Senator and his wife, from a tomb. (These busts, having 
been much admired by the great historian, were copied for 
the monument of Niebuhr at Bonn, erected, by his former 
pupil the King of Prussia, to his memory — with that of 
his loving wife Gretchen, who only survived him nine 
days. ) 
" Les tetes de deux epoux, represented au devant de leur tombeau d'ou 
ils semblent sortir a mi-corps et se tenant par le main, sont surtout 
d'une simplicite et d'une verite inexprimable. La femme est assez jeune 
et assez belle, l'epoux est vieux et tres-laid ; mais ce groupe a un air 
honnete et digne qui repond pour tous deux d'une vie de serenite et 
de vertu. Nul recit ne pourrait aussi bien que ces deux figures trans- 
porter au sein des mceurs domestiques de Rome ; en. leur presence on 
se sent penetre soi-meme d'honnetete, de pudeur et de respect, comme 
si on etait assis au chaste foyer de Lucrece." — Ampbc, IList. Rom. 
iv. 103. 

Re-entering the Gallery of Statues, and following the left 
Avail, are : 

392. Septimius Severus 

393. Girl at a spring ? 


394. Neptune. 

395. Apollo Citharoedus. 

396. Wounded Adonis. 

397. Bacchus, from Hadrian's Villa. 

398. Macrinus (Imp. 217). 

399. ^Esculapius and Hygeia, from Palestrina. 

400. Euterpe. 

401. Mutilated group from the Niobides, found near Porta San 


405. Danaide. 

406. Copy of the Faun of Praxiteles, very beautiful, but inferior to 

that at the Capitol. 
422. Head of a fountain, with Bacchanalian Procession. 

(Here is the entrance of the Gabinetto drfle Maschere, which 
contains works of small importance. It is named from 
the mosaic upon the floor, of masks from Hadrian's Villa. 
It is seldom shown, probably because it contains a chair 
of rosso-antico, called " Sedia forata," found near the 
Lateran, and supposed to be the famous " Sella Sterco- 
raria" used at the installation of the mediaeval popes, and 
associated with the legend of Pope Joan. 

" LePapeelu (Celestine III. 1 191) se prosterne devantl'autel pendant 
que l'on chante le Te Deum : puis les Cardinaux Eveques le conduisent 
a. son siege derriere l'autel : la. ils viennent a ses pieds, et il leur donne 
le baiser de paix. On le mene ensuite a une chaise posee devant la 
portique de la Basilique du Sauveur de Latran. Cette chaise etait 
nominee des lors ' Stercoraria,' parceque elle est percee au fond : mais 
l'ouverture est petite, et les antiquaires jugent que c'etoit pour egouter 
l'eau, et que cette chaise servait a quelque bain." — Flciuy, Histoire Eccti- 
siastique, xv. p. 525.), 

462. Cinerary Urn of Alabaster. 

4I4.*Sleeping Ariadne, found c. 1503— formerly supposed to repre- 
sent Cleopatra. 
"The effect of sleep, so remarkable in this statue, and which 
could not have been rendered by merely closing the lids over the eyes, 
is produced by giving positive form to the eyelashes ; a distinct ridge, 


being raised at right angles to the surface of the lids, with a slight 
indented line along the edge to show the division." — Skakspere Wood. 

" La figure est certainement ide'ale et n'est point un portrait ; mais ce 
qui ne laisse aucun doute sur le nom a lui donner, c'est un bas-relief, 
un peu refait, il est vrai, qu'on a eu la tres-heureuse idee de placer 
aupres d'elle. 

" On y volt une femme endormie dont l'attidude est tout a fait pareille 
a celle de la statue, Thesee qui va s'embarquer pendant le sommeil 
d'Ariane, et Bacchus qui arrive pour la consoler. C'est exactement ce 
que Ton voyait peint dans le temple de Bacchus a Athenes. 

" Cette statue, belle sans doute, mais peut-etre trop vantee, doit 
etre posterieure a l'epoque d' Alexandre. Sa pose gracieuse est presque 
manieree : on dirait qu'elle se regarde dormir. La disposition de la 
draperie est compliquee et un peu embrouillee, a tel point que les uns 
prennent pour une couverture ce que d'autres regardent comme un man- 
teau." — Ampere, Hist. Rom, iii. 534. 

Beneath this figure is a fine sarcophagus, representing the Battle of the 

412, 413. "The Barberini Candelabra" from Hadrian's Villa. 

416. Ariadne. 

417. Mercury. 

420. Lucius Verus — on a pedestal which supported the ashes of 
Drusus in the Mausoleum of Augustus. 

From the centre of the Sala degli Animali we now enter : 
The Sala delle Muse, adorned with sixteen Corinthian 
columns from Hadrian's Villa. It is chiefly filled with 
statues and busts from the villa of Cassius at Tivoli. The 
statues of the Muses and that called Apollo Musagetes 
(No. 516) are generally attributed to the time of the Anto- 

"Nous savons que l'Apollon Citharede de Scopas etait dans le temple 
d'Apollon Palatin, eleve par Auguste ; les medailles, Properce et 
Tibulle, nous apprennent que le dieu s'y voyait revetu d'une longue 

' Ima videbatur talis illudere palla.' 

Tib. iii. 4, 35. 
' Pythius in longa carmina veste sonat. ' 

Prop. ii. 31, iG. 


"Nous ne pouvons done hesiter a admettre que l'Apollon de la 
salle des Muses au Vatican a eu pour premier original l'Apollon de 

"Nous savons aussi qu'un Apollon de Philiscus et un Apollon de 
Timarchide (celui-ci tenant la lyre), sculpteurs grecs moins anciens que 
Scopas, etaient dans un autre temple d' Apollon, pres du portique 
d'Octavie, en compagnie des Muses, comme l'Apollon Citharede du 
Vatican a ete trouve avec celles qui l'entourent aujourd'hui dans la salle 
des Muses. II est done vraisemblable que cet Apollon est d'apres Phil- 
iscus ou Timarchide, qui eux-memes avaient sans doute copie l'Apollon 
a la lyre de Scopas et 1' avaient place au milieu des Muses. 

" Apollon est la, ainsi que plus anciennement il avait ete represente 
sur le cofFre de Cypselus, avec cette inscription qui conviendrait a la 
statue du Vatican : ' Alentour est '.e choeur gracieux des Muses, auquel 
il preside;' et, comme dit Pindare, 'au milieu du beau chceur des 
Muses, Apollon frappe du plectrum d'or la lyre aux sept voix." — 
Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 292. 

Here we reach the Sala Rotonda, built by Pius VI., paved 
with a mosaic found in 1780 in the baths of Otricoli, and 
containing in its centre a grand porphyry vase from the 
baths of Titus. On either side of the entrance are colossal 
heads of Tragedy and Comedy, from Hadrian's Villa. Be- 
ginning from the right are : 

539. *Bust of Jupiter from Otricoli — the finest extant. 

540. Antinous, from Hadrian's Villa. All the drapery (probably 

once of bronze) is a restoration. 
"Antinous was drowned in the Nile, A.D. 131. Some accounts 
assert that he drowned himself in obedience to an oracle, which de- 
manded for the life of the emperor Hadrian the sacrifice of the object 
dearest to him. However this may be, Hadrian lamented his death 
with extravagant weakness, proclaimed his divinity to the jeering 
Egyptians, and consecrated a temple in his honour. He gave the name 
of Besantinopolis to a city in which he was worshipped in conjunction 
with an obscure divinity named Besa." — Merivale, lxvi. 

541. Faustina the elder, wife of Antoninus Pius. 

542. Augustus, veiled. 

543. "Hadrian, found in his mausoleum. 

544. "Colossal Hercules, in gilt bronze, found (1864) near the 


Theatre of Pompey. The feet and ankles are restorations by 

546. *Bust of Antinous. 

547. Sea-god, from Pozzuoli. 

548. *Nerva. 

" Among the treasures of antiquity preserved in modern Rome, none 
surpasses, — none perhaps equals, — in force and dignity, the sitting statue 
of Nerva, which draws all eyes in the rotonda of the Vatican, embody- 
ing the highest ideal of the Roman magnate, the finished warrior, states- 
man, and gentleman of an age of varied training and wide practical ex- 
perience." — Merivale, ch. xliii. 

549. Jupiter Serapis. 

550. *The Barberini Juno. 

551. Claudius. 

552. Juno Sospita, from Lanuvium. This is the only statue in the 

Vatican of which we can be certain that it was a wor- 
shipped idol ; the sandals of the Tyrrhenian Juno turn up 
at the end, — no other Juno wears these sandals. 

553. Plotina, wife of Trajan. 

554. Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. 
556. Pertinax. 

The Sala a Croce Greca contains : 

On the right.— The porphyry sarcophagus of Sta. Constantia, daughter 
of Constantino the Great, adorned with sculptures of a vintage, brought 
hither most inappropriately, from her church near St' Agnese. 

On the left. — The porphyry sarcophagus of Sta. Helena, mother of 
Constantine the Great, carried off from her tomb (now called Torre 
Pignatarra) by Anastasius IV., and placed in the Lateran, whence it 
was brought hither by Pius VI. The restoration of its reliefs, repre- 
senting battle scenes of the time of Constantine, cost ^"20,000. 

At the end of the hall on the right is a recumbent river- 
god, said to have been restored by Michael Angelo. The 
stairs, adorned with twenty ancient columns from Palestrina, 
lead to : 

The Sala della Biga, so called from a white marble 
chariot, drawn by two horses. Only the body of the 
chariot (which long served as an episcopal throne in the 


church of S. Marco) and part of the horse on the right, 
are ancient ; the remainder is restoration. Among the 
sculptures here, are : 

608. Bearded Bacchus. 

609. An interesting sarcophagus representing a chariot-race. The 

chariots are driven by Amorini, who are not attending to 
what they are about, and drive over one another. The eggs 
and dolphins on the winning-posts indicated the number of 
times they had gone round ; each time they passed another 
egg and dolphin were put up. 

610. Bacchus, as a woman. 

611. Alcibiades? 

612. Veiled priest, from the Giustiniani collection. 

614. Apollo Citharaedus. 

615. Discobolus, copy of a bronze statue by Naubides. 

616. *Phocion, very remai-kable and beautiful from the extreme 

simplicity of the drapery. 

618. Discobolus, copy of the bronze 9tatue of Myron — inferior to 

that at the Palazzo Massimo. 

" II n'y a pas une statue dont Foriginal soit connu avec plus de certi- 
tude que le Discobole. Cet original hit l'athlete lancant le disque de 

" C'est bien la statue se contournant avec effort dont parle Quintilien ; 
en effet, la statue, penchee en avant et dans l'attitude du jet, porte le 
corps sur une jambe, tandis que 1'autre est trainante derriere lui. Ce 
n'est pas la main, c'est la personne tout entiere qui va lancer le disque." 
— Ampire, Hist. Rom. iii. 270. 

619. Charioteer. 

Proceeding in a straight line from the top of the stairs, 
we enter : 

The Galleria dci Candclabri, 300 feet long, filled with 
small pieces of sculpture. Among these we may notice in 
the centre, on the right, Bacchus and Silenus, found near 
the Sancta-Sanctorum, also : 

194. Boy with a goose. 
224. Nemesis. 


' Une petite statue du Vatican rappelle unc curieuse anecdote dont le 
heros est Agoracrite. Alcamene et lui avaient fait chacun une statue 
de Venus. Celle d' Alcamene fut jugee la meilleure par les Atheniens. 
Agoracrite, indigne de ce qui lui semblait une injustice, transforma la 
sienne en Nemesis, deesse vengeresse de l'equite violee, et le rendit aux 
habitants du bourg de Rhamnus, a condition qu'elle ne serait jamais 
exposee a Athenes. Ceci montre combien sa Venus avait garde la 
severite du type primitif. Ce n'est pas de la Venus du Capitole ou de 
la Venus de Media's, qu'on aurait pu faire une Nemesis. Nemesis avait 
pour embleme la coudee, signe de la mesure que Nemesis ne permet point 
de depasser, et l'avant-bras etait la figure de la coudee, par suite, de la 
mesure. C'est pourquoi quand on representait Nemesis on placait 
toujours l'avant-bras de maniere d'attirer sur lui l'attention. Dans la 
Nemesis du Vatican la donnee severe est devenue un motif aimable. 
Cet avant-bras, qu'il fallait montrer pour rappeller une loi terrible, 
Nemesis le montre en effet, mais elle s'en sert avec grace pour rattacher 
son vetement." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 260. 

253. Statuette of Ceres, the head from some other statue. 

Hence we enter : 

The Galleria dcgli Arazzi (open gratis on Mondays), 
hung with tapestries from the New Testament History, 
executed for the lower walls of the Sistine Chapel, in 
1 5 15 — 16, for Leo X., from the cartoons of Raphael, of 
which seven were purchased in Flanders by Charles I., and 
are now at Hampton Court. The tapestries are ill arranged. 
According to their present order, beginning on the left wall, 
they are : 

1. St. Peter receiving the keys. (On the border, the flight of 

Cardinal de' Medici from Florence in 1494, disguised as a 
Franciscan Monk.) 

2. The Miraculous draught of Fishes. 

3. The Sacrifice at Lystra. 

4. St. Paul preaching at Athens. 

5. The Saviour and Mary Magdalene. 

6. The Supper at Emmaus. 

7. The Presentation in the Temple. 

8. The Adoration of the Shepherds. 

VOL. 11. 21 


9. The Ascension. 

10. The Adoration of the Magi. 

11. The Resurrection. 

12. The Day of Pentecost. 

Returning, on the right wall, are : 

1. An Allegorical Composition of the Triumph of Religion (by 

Van Orley and other pupils of Raphael). 

2. The Stoning of Stephen (on the border the return of the Car- 

dinal de' Medici to Florence as Legate). 

3. Elymas the Sorcerer ( ? — removed 1869-70). 

4. 5, 6. Massacre of the Innocents. 

7. (Smaller than the others.) Christ falling under the Cross. 

8. Christ appearing to his disciples on the shore of the Lake of 


9. Peter and John healing the lame man. 
10. The Conversion of St. Paul. 

The Arazzi were long used as church decorations on high 

"On Corpus-Christi Day I learnt the true destination of the Tapestries, 
when they transformed colonnades and open spaces into handsome halls 
and corridors : and while they placed before us the power of the most 
gifted of men, they gave us at the same time the happiest example of art 
and handicraft, each in its highest perfection, meeting for mutual com- 
pletion."- — Goethe. 

The Library of the Vatican is shown from 12 to 3, except 
on Sundays and festivals, but the visitor is hurried through 
in a crowd by a custode, and there is no time for examina- 
tion of the individual objects. The entrance is by a door 
on the left at the end of the Galleria Lapidaria, which leads 
to the museum of statues. The Papal Library was founded 
by the early popes at the Lateran. The Public Library 
was begun by Nicholas V., and greatly increased under 
Sixtus IV. (1475) an( l Sixtus V. (1588), who built the pre- 
sent halls for the collection. In 1623 the library was 


increased by the gift of the " Bibliotheca Palatina " of 
Heidelberg, captured by Tilly from Maximilian of Bavaria ; 
in 1657 by the " Bibliotheca Urbinas," founded by Federigo 
da Montefeltro; in 1690 by the " Bibliotheca Reginensis," 
or " Alexandrina," which belonged to Christina of Sweden ; 
in 1746 by the Bibliotheca Ottoboniana, purchased by the 
Ottobuoni pope, Alexander VIII. The number of Greek, 
Latin, and Oriental MSS. in the collection has been reckoned 
at 23,580. 

The ante-chambers are hung with portraits of the Libra- 
rians ; — among them, in the first room, is that of Cardinal 
Mezzofanti. In this room are facsimiles of the columns 
found in the Triopium of Herodes Atticus (see the account 
of the Valle Caffarelli), of which the originals are at Naples. 
From the second ante-chamber we enter the Great Hall, 
220 feet long, decorated with frescoes by Stipione Gaetani, 
Cesare Nebbia, and others, — unimportant in themselves, 
but producing a rich general effect of colour. No books 
or MSS. are visible ; they are all enclosed in painted cup- 
boards, so that of a library there is no appearance whatever, 
and it is only disappointing to be told that in one cupboard 
are the MSS. of the Greek Testament of the fifth century, 
Virgil of the fifth, and Terence of the fourth centuries, 
and that another contains a Dante, with miniatures by 
Giulio Clovio* &c. Ranged along the middle of the hall 
are some of the handsome presents made to Pius IX. by 
different foreign potentates, including the Sevres font, in 
which the Prince Imperial was baptized, presented by 
Napoleon III., and some candelabra given by Napoleon I. 
to Pius VII. At the end of the hall, long corridors open 

* Who is buried by the altar of S. Pietro in Vincoli. 


out on either side. Turning to the left, the second room 
has two interesting frescoes — one representing St. Peter's 
as designed by Michael Angelo, the other the erection of 
the obelisk in the Piazza S. Pietro under Fontana. At 
the end of the third room are two ancient statues, said to 
represent Aristides, and Hippolytus Bishop of Porto. The 
fourth room is a museum of Christian antiquities, and con- 
tains, on the left, a collection of lamps and other small 
objects from the Catacombs ; on the right, some fine ivories 
by Guido da Spoleto, and a Deposition from the Cross attri- 
buted to Michael Angelo. The room beyond this, painted 
by Raphael Mengs, is called the Stanza dei Papiri, and is 
adorned with papyri of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cen- 
turies. The next room has an interesting collection of 
pictures, by early masters of the schools of Giotto, Giotti/io, 
Cimabue, and Fra Angelico. Here is a Prie Dieu, of carved 
oak and ivory, presented to Pius IX. by the four bishops of 
the province of Tours. 

At the end of this room, not generally shown, is the 
Chapel of St. Pius V. 

The Appartamenti Borgia, which are reached from 
hence, are only shown by a special permission, difficult to 
obtain. They consist of four rooms, which were built by 
Alexander VI., though their beautiful decorations were 
chiefly added by Leo X. The first room is painted by 
Giovanni da [/dine and Picrino del Vaga, and represents 
the course of the planets, — Jupiter drawn by eagles, Venus 
by doves, Diana (the moon) by nymphs, Mars by wolves, 
Mercury by cocks, Apollo (the sun) by horses, Saturn by 
dragons. These frescoes, executed at the time Michael 
Angelo was painting the Last Judgment, are interesting 


as the last revival under Clement VII. of the pagan art so 
popular in the papal palace under Leo X. 

The second room, painted by Pinturicchio, has beautiful 
lunettes of the Annunciation, Adoration of the Magi, 
Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the Holy Ghost, and 
Assumption of the Virgin. The ceiling of the third room 
has paintings by Pinturicchio of the Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian ; the Visitation of St. Elizabeth ; the Meeting of 
St. Anthony with St. Paul, the first hermit ; St. Catherine 
before Maximian ; the Flight of St. Barbara ; St. Julian of 
Nicomedia; and, over the door, the Virgin and Child. 
This last picture is of curious historical interest, as a relic 
of the libertinism of the court of Alexander VI. (Rodrigo 
Borgia), the " figure of the Virgin being a faithful repre- 
sentation of Giulia Farnese, the too celebrated Vanozza," 
mistress of the pope, and mother of his children, Caesar 
and Lucrezia. " She held upon her knees the infant Jesus, 
and Alexander knelt at her feet." 

The fourth room, also painted by Pinturicchio, is adorned 
with allegorical figures of the Arts and Sciences, and of the 
Cardinal Virtues. 

"On the accession of the infamous Alexander VI., Pinturicchio was 
employed by him to paint the Appartamento Borgia, and a great 
number of rooms, both in the castle of S. Angelo and in the pontifical 
palace. The patronage of this pope was still more fatal to the arts than 
that of the Medici at Florence. The subjects represented in the castle 
of S. Angelo were drawn from the life of Alexander himself, and the 
portraits of his relations and friends were introduced there, — amongst 
others, those of his brothers, sisters, and that of the infamous Caesar 
Borgia. To all acquainted with the scandalous history of this family, 
this representation appeared a commemoration of their various crimes, 
and it was impossible to regard it in any other light, when, in addition 
to' the publicity they affected to give to these scandalous excesses, they 
appeared desirous of making art itself their accomplice ; and by an 


excess of profanation hitherto unexampled in the Catholic world, 
Alexander VI. caused himself to be represented, in a room in the 
Vatican, in the costume of one of the Magi, kneeling before the holy- 
Virgin, whose head was no other than the portrait of the beautiful 
Giulia Farnese ('Vanozza'), whose adventures are unfortunately too 
well known. We may indeed say that the walls have in this case made 
up for the silence of the courtiers : for on them was traced, for the benefit 
of contemporaries and posterity, an undeniable proof of the depravity 
of the age. 

" At the sight of that Appartamento Borgia, which is entirely painted 
by Pinturicchio, we shall experience a sort of satisfaction in discovering 
the inferiority of this purely mercenary work, as compared with the other 
productions of the same artist, and we cannot but rejoice that it is so 
unworthy of him. Such an ignoble task was not adapted to an artist 
of the Umbrian school, and there is good reason to believe that, after 
this act of servility, Pinturicchio became disgusted with Rome, and re- 
turned to the mountains of Umbria, in search of nobler inspirations." — 
Rio. Poetry of Christian Art. 

A door on the right of the room with the old pictures 
opens into a room containing a very interesting collection 
of ancient frescoes. On the right wall is the celebrated 
" Nozze Aldobrandini" found in 1606* in some ruins 
belonging to the baths of Titus near the arch of Gal- 
lienus on the Esquiline, and considered to be the finest 
specimen of ancient pictorial art in Rome. It was pur- 
chased at first by the Aldobrandini family, whence its 
name. It represents an ancient Greek ceremony, possibly 
the nuptials of Peleus and Thetis. There is a fine copy 
by Nicholas Poussin in the Doria Palace. 

" S'il fait allusion a un sujet mythologique, le reel y est a cote de 
I'M' al, et la mylhologie y est appliquec a la representation d'un manage 
ordinaire. Tout porte a y voir une peinture romaine, mais l'auteur 
s'etait inspire des Grecs, comme on s'en inspirait presque toujours a 
Rome. La nouvellc mariee, assise sur le lit nuptial ct attendant son 
dpoux, a cette expression tie pudeur virginale, d'embarras modeste, qui 

• Gournci ic, Rome Chn'ticnne, ii. 62. 


avait rendu celebre un tableau dont le sujet etait le mariage de Roxane et 
1'auteur /Etion, peintre grec." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iv. 127. 

Opposite to this is a Race of the Cupids, from Ostia. 
The other frescoes in this room were found in the ruins on 
the Esquiline and at the Torre di Marancia. 

The Etruscan Museum can be visited on application to 
the custode, every day except Monday, from 10 to 2. It 
is reached by the staircase which passes the entrance to 
the Gallery of Candelabra: after which one must ring at a 
closed door on the right. 

" This magnificent collection is principally the fruit of the excavating 
partnership established, some twelve or fifteen years since, between the 
Papal government and the Campanari of Toscanella ; and will render 
the memory of Gregory XVI., who forwarded its formation with more 
zeal than he ordinarily displayed, ever honoured by all interested in 
antiquarian science. As the excavations were made in the neighbour- 
hood of Vulci, most of the articles are from that necropolis ; yet the 
collection has been considerably enlarged by the addition of others pre- 
viously in the possession of the government, and still more by recent 
acquisitions from the Etruscan cemeteries of Cervetri, Corneto, 
Bomarzo, Orte, Toscanella, and other sites within the Papal domi- 
nions." — Dennis. 

The 1st Room — 

Contains three sarcophagi of terra-cotta from Toscanella, with three 
life-size figures reposing upon them. Their extreme length is remark- 
able. The figure on the left wears a fillet, indicating priesthood. The 
head of the family was almost always priest or priestess. Most of the 
objects in terra-cotta, which have been discovered, come from Toscanella. 
The two horses' heads in this room, in nenfro, i.e. volcanic tufa, were 
found at the entrance of a tomb at Vulci. 

The znd Room— 

Is a corridor filled with cinerary urns, chiefly from Volterra, bearing 
recumbent figures, ludicrously stunted. The large sarcophagus on the 
left supports the bearded figure of a man, and is adorned with reliefs 


of a figure in a chariot and musicians painted red. The urns in this 
room are of alabaster, which is the characteristic of Volterra. 

The yd Room — 

Has in the centre a large sarcophagus of nenfro, found at Tarquinii, in 
1834, supporting a reclining figure of a Lucumo, with a scroll in his 
hand, " recalling the monuments of the middle ages." At the sides are 
reliefs representing the story of Clytemnestra and ^Egisthus, — the 
Theban brothers, — the sacrifice of Clytemnestra, — and Pyrrhus slaying 
the infant Astyanax. In this room is a slab with a bilingual inscription, 
in Latin and Umbrian, from Todi. In the corners are some curious 
cinerary urns shaped like houses. 

The 4th Room — 

Is the Chamber of Terra-cottas. In the centre is a most beautiful 
statue of Mercury found at Tivoli. At the sides are fragments of female 
figures from Vulci, — and an interesting terra-cotta urn from Toscanella, 
with a youth lying on a couch. " From the gash in his thigh, and the 
hound at his bed-side, he is usually called Adonis ; but it may be merely 
the effigy of some young Etruscan, who met his death in the wild-boar 

The zjh Room.- — ■ 

This and the three following rooms are occupied by Vases. The 
vases in the 5th room are mostly small amphorae, in the second or 
Archaic style, with black figures on the ground of the clay. On a 
column, near the window, is a Crater, or mixing-vase, from Vulci, with 
parti-coloured figures on a very pale ground, and in the most beautiful 
style of Greek art. It represents Mercury presenting the infant Bacchus 
to Silenus. To the left of the window is a humorous representation 
of the visit of Jupiter and Mercury to Alcmena, who is looking at 
them out of a window. In the cabinets are objects in crystal from 

The 6th Room. — 

In the centre of this room are five magnificent vases. The central, from 
Cervetri, " is of the rare form called Holmos — a large globe-shaped bowl 
on a tall stand, like an enormous cup and ball ; " its paintings areof wild 
animals. Nearest the entrance is, with three handles, " a Calpis, of the 
third or perfect style," from Vulci, with paintings of Apollo and six 
Muses. Behind this, from Vulci, is "a large Amphora of the second or 
Archaic style," in which hardness and severity of design are combined 


with most conscientious execution of detail. It represents Achilles 
(" Achilleos ") and Ajax("Aiantos ") playing at dice, or astralagi. Achilles 
cries " Four ! " and Ajax "Three ! " — the said words, in choice Attic, 
issuing from their mouths. The maker's name, " Echsekias,"is recorded, 
as well as that of " the brave Onetorides " to whom it was presented. On 
the other side of the vase is a family scene of " Kastor " with his horse, 
and " Poludeukes" playing with his clog, " Tyndareos " and " Leda" 
standing by. 4th, is an Amphora from Caere, representing the body of 
Achilles borne to Peleus and Thetis. 5th, is a Calpis from Vulci, 
representing the death of Hector in the arms of Minerva. 

The 6th vase on the shelf of the entrance wall is the kind of 
amphora called a Pelice, from Casre. " Two men are represented sitting 
under an olive-tree, each with an amphora at his feet," and one who is 
measuring the oil exclaims, " O father Jupiter, would that I were rich ! " 
On the reverse of' the vase is the same pair, at a subsequent period, 
when the prayer has been heard, and the oil-dealer cries, " Verily, yea, 
verily, it hath been filled to overflowing." By the window is a Calpis, 
representing a boy with a hoop in one hand, and a stolen cock in the 
other, for which his tutor is reproving him. 

TJic *]th Room — 

Is an arched corridor. In the second niche, is a Hydria with Minerva 
and Hercules, from Vulci. Sixth on the line, is an Amphora from Vulci ; 
" 'Ekabe ' (Hecuba) presents a goblet to her son, ' the brave Hector,' 
■. — and regards him with such intense interest, that she spills the wine as 
she pours it out to him. 'Priamos' stands by, leaning on his staff, 
looking mournfully at his son, as if presaging his fate." Many other 
vases in this room are of great beauty. 

The Sf/i Room— 

"Contains Cy I ices or Patera, which are more rare than the upright 
vases, and not inferior in beauty." 

The gfh Room — ■ 

Entered from the 6th room, is the jewel room. Among the bronzes 
on the right, is a warrior in armour found at Todi in 1835 and a bronze 
couch with a raised place for the head, found in the Regulini Galassi 
tomb at Cervetri, where it bore the corpse of a high priest. A boy with 
a bulla, sitting, from Tarquinii, is "supposed to represent Tages, the 
mysterious boy-god, who sprung from the furrows of that site." 

At the opposite end of the room is a biga or war-chariot, not 
Etruscan, but Roman, found in the villa of the Quintilii, near the Via 

33° Walks in rome. 

Appia. Near this are some colossal fragments of bronze statues, found 
near Civita Vecchia. A beautiful oval Cista, with a handle formed by 
two swans bearing a boy and a girl, is from Vulci ; and so are the braziers 
or censers retaining the tongs, shovel, and rake, found with them : — "the 
tongs are on wheels, and terminate in serpents' heads ; the shovel 
handle ends in a swan's neck ; and the rake in a human hand." Among 
the smaller relics are a curious bottle from Ca?re, with an Etruscan 
alphabet and spelling lesson (!) scratched upon it, and a pair of Etruscan 
clogs found in a tomb at Vulci. 

In the centre of the room is the jewel-case of glass. The whole of 
the upper division and one compartment of the lower are devoted to 
Cervetri (Caere). All these objects are from the Regulini Galassi tomb, 
for all the other tombs had been rifled at an early period, except one, 
whence the objects were taken by Campana. The magnificent oak- 
wreath with the small ornaments and the large ear-rings were worn by 
a lady, over whom was written in Etruscan characters, " Me Larthia," 
— I, the Great Lady, — evidently because at the time of her death, 3000 
years ago, it was supposed that she was so very great that the memory 
of her name could never by any possibility perish, and that therefore it 
was quite unnecessary to record it. The tomb was divided, and she was 
walled up with precious spices (showing what the commerce of Etruria 
must have been) in one half of it. It was several hundred years before 
any one was found of sufficient dignity to occupy the other half of the 
great lady's tomb. Then the high priest of Etruria died, and was buried 
there with all his ornaments. His were the large bracelets, the fillets 
for the head, with the plate of gold covering the head, and a second 
plate of gold which covered the forehead — worn only on the most 
solemn occasions. This may be considered to have been the headdress 
of Aaron. His also was the broad plate of gold, covering the breast, 
reminding of the Urim and Thummim. The bronze bed on which he 
lay (and on which the ornaments were found lying where the body had 
mouldered.) is preserved in another part of the room, and the great 
incense burner filled with precious spices which was found by his side. 
The three large bollas on his breast were filled with incense, whose per- 
fume was still so strong when the tomb was opened, that those who 
burnt it could not remain in the room. 

The ivy leaves on the ornaments denote the worship of Bacchus, 
a late period in Etruria : laurel denotes a victor in battle or the 

The 10th Room — 
(Entrance on right of the jewel-room), is a passage containing a 


number of Roman water-pipes of lead, and the bronze figure of a boy 
with a bird and an Etruscan inscription on his leg, from Perugia. 

The 1 ith Room — 

Is hung with paintings on canvas copied from the principal tombs of 
Vulci and Tarquinii. Beginning from the right, on entering, they take 
the following order : 

From the Camera del Morto : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta delle Bighe, or Grotta Stackelberg : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta Querciola : Tarquinii 

From the Grotta della Iscrizioni : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta del Triclinio, or Grotta Marzi : Tarquinii. 

From the Grotta del Barone, or Grotta del Ministro : Tarquinii. 

From the painted tomb at Vulci. 

"All the paintings from Tarquinii are still to be seen on that site, 
though not in so perfect a state as they are here represented. But the 
tomb at Vulci is utterly destroyed." 

Each of the paintings is most interesting. That of the death-bed 
scene proves that the Etruscans believed in the immortality of the soul. 
In the upper division a daughter is mounting on a stool to reach the 
high bed and give a last kiss to her dying father, while the son is wailing 
and lamenting in the background. Below, is the rejoicing spirit, freed 
from the trammels of the flesh. 

In the scenes representing the games, the horses are painted bright 
red and bright blue, or black and red. These may be considered to 
have been the different colours of the rival parties. A number of jars 
for oil and wine are arranged in this room. All the black pottery is 
from Northern Etruria. 

The 12th Room (entered from the left of the jewel room) 
is a very meagre and most inefficient facsimile of an ordinary 
Etruscan tomb. It is guarded by two lions in nenfro, found 
at Vulci.* 

TJie Egyptian Museum is entered by a door on the left 
of the entrance of the Museo Pio-Clementino. It is open 

* For a detailed account of this collection, see Dennis' " Cities and Cemeteries 
of Etruria," whence many of the quotations above are taken ; also Mrs. Hamilton 
Gray's "Sepulchres of Etruria." 


gratis on Mondays from 12 to 3. The collection is chiefly- 
due to Pius VII. and Gregory XVI. The greater part is 
of no especial importance. 

The 6th Room contains eight statues of the goddess Pasht 
from Carnac. 

Tlie 8th Room is occupied by Roman imitations of 
Egyptian statues, from the Villa Adriana. 

" Ces statues sont toutes des traductions de l'art egyptien en art grec. 
L' alliance, la fusion de la sculpture egyptienne et de la sculpture greco- 
romaine est un des traits les plus saillantes de cosmopolitisme si etranger 
a d'anciennes traditions nationales, et dont Adrien, par ses voyages, ses 
gouts, ces monuments, fut la plus eclatante manifestation. 

" Sauf l'Antinoiis, les produits de cette sculpture d'imitation bien que 
datant d'une epoque encore brillante de l'art romain, ne sauraient le 
disputer a leurs modeles. Pour s'en convaincre, il suffit de les com- 
parer aux statues vraiment egyptiennes qui remplissent une salle 
voisine. Dans celles-ci, la realite du detail est meprisee et sacrifice ; 
mais les traits fondamentaux, les lineaments essentiels de la forme sont 
rendus admirablement. De la un grand style, car employer l'expression 
la plus generale, c'est le secret de la grandeur du style, comme a dit 
Buffon. Cette elevation, cette sobriete du genie egyptien ne se retrou- 
vent plus dans les imitations batardes du temps d' Adrien." — Ampere, 
Emp. ii. 197, 202. 

On the right is the Nile in black marble ; opposite the 
entrance is a colossal statue of Antinous, the favourite of 
Hadrian, in white marble. 

" II est naturel qu' Antinous, qui s'etait, disait-on, precipite dans le 
Nil, ait ete represente sous les traits d'un dieu egyptien ... . La 
physiognomie triste d' Antinous sied bien a un dieu d'Egypte, et le style 
grec emprunte au reflet du style egyptien une grandeur sombre." — ■ 
Ainpire, Emp. ii. 196. 

The 9th Room contains colossal Egyptian statues. On 

the right is the figure of the mother of Rhamses II. (Sesos- 

tris) between two lions of basalt, which were found in the 

Baths of Agrippa, and which long decorated the Fontana 


dei Termini. Upon the base of these lions is inscribed the 
name of the Egyptian king Nectanebo. 

" Dans cette sculpture bien egyptienne, on sent deja le souffle de l'art 
grec. La pose de ces lions est la pose roide et monumentale des lions 
a tete humaine de Louqsor; la criniere est encore de convention, mais 
la vie est exprimee, les muscles sont accuses avec un soin et un relief 
que la sculpture purement egyptienne n'a pas connus." — Ampere, Emp. 
u. 198. 

" Ces lions ont une expression remarquable de force et de repos; il y 
a quelque chose dans leur physiognomie qui n'appartient ni a l'animal 
ni a 1'homme: lis semblent une puissance de la nature, et Ton concoit, en 
les voyant, comment les dieux du paganisme pouvaient etre representees 
sous cet embleme." — Mad. de Stael. 

In the centre of the entrance-wall are, Ptolemy-Philadel- 
phus, and, on his left, his queen Arsinoe, of red granite. 
These were found in the gardens of Sallust, and were 
formerly preserved in the Senator's Palace. 

"There is a fine collection of Egyptian antiquities in the Vatican; 
and the ceilings of the rooms in which they are arranged, are painted to 
represent a starlight sky in the desert. It may seem an odd idea, but 
it is very effective. The grim, half-human monsters from the temples, 
look more grim and monstrous underneath the deep dark blue; it sheds 
a strange uncertain gloomy air on everything — a mystery adapted to the 
objects; and you leave them, as you find them, shrouded in a solemn 
night." — Dickens. 

The Egyptian Gallery has an egress into the Sala a Croce 

The windows of the Egyptian Museum look upon the 
inner Garden of the Vatican, which may be reached by a 
door at the end of the long gallery of the Museo Chiaramonti, 
before ascending to the Torso. The garden which is thus 
entered, called Giardino della Pigna y is in fact mere!}' the 
second great quadrangle of the Vatican, planted with shrubs 
and flowers. Several interesting relics are preserved here. 


In the centre is the Pedestal of the Column of Antoninus 
Pius, found in 1709 on the Monte Citorio. The column 
was a simple memorial pillar of granite, erected by the two 
adopted sons of the emperor, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius 
Verus. It was broken up to mend the obelisk of Psam- 
meticus I. at the Monte Citorio. Among the reliefs of the 
pedestal is one of a winged genius guiding Antoninus and 
Faustina to Olympus. In the great semicircular niche of 
Bramante, at the end of the court-garden, is the famous Pigna, 
a gigantic fir-cone, which once crowned the summit of the 
Mausoleum of Hadrian. Thence it was first removed to the 
front of the old basilica of St. Peter's. In the fresco of 
the old St. Peter's at S. Martino al Monte, the pigna is 
introduced, but it is there placed in the centre of the nave, 
a position it never occupied. Dante saw it at St. Peter's, 
and compares it to a giant's head (it is eleven feet high) 
which he saw through the mist in the last circle of hell. 

" La faccia mi parea lunga e grossa 
Come la pina di S. Pietro in Roma." 

On either side of the pigna are two bronze peacocks, 
which are said to have stood on either side the entrance of 
Hadrian's Mausoleum. 

" Je pense qu'ils y avaient ete places en l'honneur des imperatrices 
dont les cendres devaient s'y trouver. La paon consacre a Junon etait 
le symbole de l'apotheose des imperatrices, comme l'oiseau dedie' a 
Jupiter celui de l'apotheose des empereurs, car le mausolee d'Adrien 
n'clait pas pour lui seul, mais, comme avaient ete le mausolee d'Auguste 
et le temple des Flaviens, pour toule la famille imperial e." — Ampere, 
Emp. ii. 212. 

A flight of steps leads from this court to the narrow 
Terrace of the Navicclla, in front of the palace, so called from 
a bronze ship with which its fountain is decorated. The 


visitor should beware of the tricksome water-works upon 
this terrace. 

Beyond the courtyard is the entrance to the larger garden, 
which may be reached in a carriage by those who do not 
wish to visit the palace on the way, by driving round through 
the courts at the back of St. Peter's. Formerly it was always 
open till 2 p.m., after which hour the pope went there to walk, 
or to ride upon his white mule. It is a most delightful retreat 
for the hot days of May and June, and before that time its 
woods are carpeted with wild violets and anemones. No one 
who has not visited them can form any idea of the beauty 
of these ancient groves, interspersed with fountains and 
statues, but otherwise left to nature, and forming a fragment 
of sylvan scenery quite unassociated with the English idea 
of a garden. They are backed by the walls of the Borgo, 
and a fine old tower of the time of Leo IV. The Casino 
del Papa, or Villa Pia,* built by Pius IV. in the lower and 
more cultivated portion of the ground, is the chef-d'oeuvre 
of the architect, Pirro Ligorio, and is decorated with paint- 
ings by Baroccio, Zucchero, and Sauti di Tito, and a set of 
terra-cotta reliefs collected by Agincourt and Canova. The 
shell decorations are pretty and curious. 

During the hours which he spent daily in this villa, its 
founder Pius IV. enjoyed that easy and simple life for which 
he was far better fitted by nature than for the affairs of 
government ; but here also he received the counsels of his 
nephew S. Carlo Borromeo, who, summoned to Rome in 
1560, became for several succeeding years the real ruler of 
the state. Here he assembled around him all those who 
were distinguished by their virtue or talents, and held many 

* Vasari calls it Palazzo nel Bosco del Belvedere. 


of the meetings which received the name of Notte Vaticane 
— at first employed in the pursuit of philosophy and poetry, 
but — after the necessity of Church reform became apparent 
both to the pope and to S. Carlo — entirely devoted to the 
discussion of sacred subjects, In this villa the late popes, 
Pius VIII. and Gregory XVI., used frequently to give their 

The sixteenth century was the golden age for the Vatican. 
Then the splendid court of Leo X. was the centre of ar- 
tistic and literary life, and the witty and pleasure-loving 
pope made these gardens the scene of his banquets and 
concerts ; and, in a circle to which ladies were admitted, as 
in a secular court, listened to the recitations of the poets 
who sprang up under his protection, beneath the shadow of 
its woods. 

"Le Vatican etait encombre, sous Leon X., d'historiens, de savants, 
de poetes surtout. ' La tourbe importune des poetes,' s' eerie Valerianus, 
' le poursuit de porte en porte, tantot sous les portiques, tantot a la pro- 
menade, tantot au palais, tantot a la chambre, penetralibus in imis ; elle 
ne respecte ni son repos, ni les graves affaires qui l'occupent aujourd'- 
hui que l'incendie ravage le monde.' On remarquait dans cette foule : 
Berni, le poete burlesque ; Flaminio, le poete elegiaque ; Molza, 
l'enfant de Petrarque, et Postumo, Maroni, Carteromachus, Fedra 
Inghirami, le savant bibliothecaire, et la grande himiere d^Arezzo, 
comme dit l'Arioste, F unique Accolti. Accolti jouit pendant toute 
la durce du seizieme siecle d'une reputation que la posterite n'a pas 
confirmee. On 1'appelait le celeste. Lorsqu'il devait reciter ses vers, 
les magasins etaient fermes comme en un jour de fete, et chacun 
accourait pour 1' entendre. 11 etait entoure de prelats de la premiere 
distinction ; un corps de troupes suisses l'accompagnait, et l'auditoire 
etait eclaire par des flambeaux. Un jour qu'Accolti entrait chez le 
pape : — Ouvrcz toutes les portes, s'ecria Leon, et laissez entrer la foule. 
Accolti rccita un ternale a la Vierge, et, quand il eut fini, mille ac- 
clamations retentirent: Vive le poete divin, viveV incomparable Accolti I 
l.i'un <tait le premier a applaudir, et le duchc de Nessi devenait la re- 
compense du poete. 


" Une autre fois, c'etait Faul Jove, l'homme aux oiii-dires, comme 
l'appelle Rabelais, qui venait lire des fragments de son histoire, et que 
Leon X. saluait du titre de Tite-Live italien. II y avait dans ces eloges, 
dans ces encouragements donnes avec entrainement, mais avec tact, je 
ne sais quel souffle de vie pour l'intelligence, qui l'activait et qui lui 
faisait rendre au centuple les dons qu'elle avait recus du ciel. Rome 
entiere etait devenue un musee, une academie ; partout des chants, par- 
tout la science, la poesie, les beaux-arts, une sorte de volupte dans 
l'etude. Ici, c'est Calcagnini, qui a deja devine la rotation de la terre ; 
la, Ambrogio de Pise, qui parle chaldeen et arabe ; plus loin, Valerianus, 
que la philologie, l'archeologie, la jurisprudence revendiquent a la fois, 
et qui se distrait de ses doctes travaux par des poesies dignesd' Horace." 
— Gournerie, Rome Chrctknne, ii. 1 14. 

The Loggie of Raphael are reached, except on Mon- 
days, by the staircase on the left of the fountain in the 
Cortile S. Damaso. Two sides of the corridors on the 
second floor (formerly open) are decorated in stucco by 
Marco da Facnza and Paid Schnorr and painted by Siccio- 
lante da Sermoncta, Tempesta, Sabbatini, and others. The 
third corridor, entered on the right (opened by a custode), 
contains the celebrated frescoes, executed by Raphael, or 
from the designs of Raphael, by Giulio Romano, Pierino del 
Vaga, Pellegrino da Modena, Francesco Penni, and Raffaello 
da Colle. Of the fifty-two subjects represented, forty-eight 
are from the Old Testament, only the four last being from the 
Gospel History, as an appropriate introduction to the pictures 
which celebrate the foundation and triumphs of the Church, in 
the adjoining stanze. The stucco decorations of the gallery 
are of exquisite beauty ; especially remarkable, perhaps, are 
those of the windows in the first arcade, where Raphael is 
represented drawing, — his pupils working from his designs, — 
and Fame celebrating his work. The frescoes are arranged 
in the following order : 

vol. 11. 22 



1st Arcade. 

1. Creation of Light.* 

2. Creation of Dry Land. 

3. Creation of the Sun and Moon. 

4. Creation of Animals. 

2nd Arcade. 

1. Creation of Eve. Raphael. 

2. The Fall. 

3. The Exile from Eden. 

4. The Consequence of the Fall. 

y-d Arcade. 

1. Noah builds the Ark. 

2. The Deluge. 

3. The Coming forth from the Ark. 

4. The Sacrifice of Noah. 

Afth Arcade. 

1. Abraham and Melchizedek. 

2. The Covenant of God with Abraham. 

3. Abraham and the three Angels. 

4. Lot's flight from Sodom. 

$th Arcade. 

1. God appears to Isaac. 

2. Abimelech sees Isaac with Rebecca. 

3. Isaac gives Jacob the blessing. 

4. Isaac blesses Esau also. 

6th Arcade. 

1. Jacob's Ladder. 

2. Jacob meets Rachel. 

3. Jacob upbraids Laban. 

4. The journey of Jacob. 

"Jth Arcade. 

1. Joseph tells his dream. 

2. Joseph sold into Egypt. 

3. Joseph and Potiphar's wife. 

4. Joseph interprets Pharaoh's dream. 


Giulio Romano. 

Giulio Romano. 

Francesco Penni. 

Francesco Penni. 

Pellegrino da 


Giulio Romano. 

* "This is perhaps ll"- grandest of the whole series. Here the Almighty is seen 
r< riding like a thunderbolt the thick shroud of fiery clouds, letting in tint light under 
which his works were to spring into life." — Lady Eastlakc. 

Giulio Romano. 

Raffarflo da Colle. 

Pierino del Va^a. 


St/i Arcade. 

1. The Finding of Moses. \ 

2. Moses and the Burning Bush. 

3. The Destruction of Pharaoh. 

4. Moses striking the rock. 

(jtk Arcade. 

1. Moses receives the Tables of the Law. 

2. The Worship of the Golden Calf. 

3. Moses breaks the Tables. 

4. Moses kneels before the Pillar of Cloud. 

10th Arcade. 

1. The Israelites cross the Jordan. 

2. The Fall of Jericho. 

3. Joshua stays the course of the Sun. 

4. Joshua and Fleazer divide the Promised Land / 

\\th Arcade. 

1. Samuel anoints David. \ 

2. David and Goliath. / 

3. The Triumph of David. ( ° 

4. David sees Bathsheba. / 

12th Arcade. 

1. Zadok anoints Solomon. \ 

2. The Judgment of Solomon. [Pellegrino da 

3. The Coming of the Queen of Sheba. ( Modena. 

4. The Building of the Temple. / 

13^ Arcade. 

1. The Adoration of the Shepherds. \ 

2. The Coming of the Magi. I 

„ T-i T> t - r /-1 • i ' r (jiuho Romano. 

3. 1 he Baptism of Christ. t 

4. The Last Supper. ' 

"From the Sistine Chapel we went to Raphael's Loggie, and I 
hardly venture to say that we could scarcely bear to look at them. The 
eye was so educated and so enlarged by those grand forms and the glori- 
ous completeness of all their parts, that it could take no pleasure in the 
imaginative play of arabesques, and the scenes from Scripture, beauti- 
ful as they are, had lost their charm. To see these works often alter- 
nately and to compare them at leisure and without prejudice, must be 
a great pleasure, but all sympathy is at first one-sided." — Goethe, 
Romische Bricfe. 


Close to the entrance of the Loggie is that of 
The Stanze, three rooms decorated under Julius II. and 
Leo X. with frescoes by Raphael, for each of which he re- 
ceived 1 200 ducats. These rooms are approached through, — 
The Sa/a di Constantino, decorated under Clement VII. 
(Giulio di Medici) in 1523 — 34, after the death of Raphael, 
who however had prepared drawings for the frescoes, and 
had already executed in oil the two figures of Justice and 
Urbanity. The rest of the compositions, completed by 
his pupils, are in fresco. 

" Raphael se multiplie, ll se prodigue, avec une fecondite de toutes les 
heures. De jeunes disciples, admirateurs de son beau genie, le servent 
avec amour, et sont deja admis a l'honneur d'attacher leurs noms a 
quelques parties de ses magnifiques travaux. Le maitre leur distribue 
leur tache : a Jules Romain, le brillant colons des vetements et peut- 
etre meme le dessin de quelques figures; au Fattore, a Jean d'Udine, 
les arabesques; a frere Jean de Verone les clairs-obscurs des portes et 
des lambris qui doivent completer la decoration de ces spendides 
appartements. Et lui, que se reserve-t-il? — la pensee qui anime tout, le 
genie qui enfante et qui dirige." — Gournerie, Koine Chritienne. 

Entrance Watt. — The Address of Constantine to his troops and the 
vision of the Fiery Cross: Giulio Romano. On the left, St. Peter be- 
tween the Church and Eternity, — on the right, Clement I. (the martyr) 
between Moderation and Gentleness. 

Right Wall.— The Battle of the Ponte Molle and the Defeat of Max- 
entius by Constantine, designed by Raphael, and executed by Giulio 
Romano. On the left is Sylvester I. between Faith and Religion, on 
the right Urban I. (the friend of Cecilia) between Justice and Charity. 

Left Wall. — The donation of Rome by Constantine to Sylvester I. 
(a. i). 325), Raffaello da Gollc. (The head of Sylvester was a portrait of 
Clement VII. , the reigning pope; Count Castiglione the friend of 
Raphael, and Giulio Romano, are introduced amongst the attendants.) 
On the left, Sylvester I. with Fortitude; on the right, Gregory VII. with 

Wall of Egress. — The supposititious Baptism of Constantine, interest- 
ing as pourtraying the interior of the Lateran baptistery in the 15th 
century, l>y Francesco Penni, who has introduced his own portrait in 
a black dress and velvet cap. On left, is Damasus I. (a. d. 366—384), 


between Prudence and Peace ; on right, Leo I. (a.D. 440 — 462), 
between Innocence and Truth. The paintings on the socles represent 
.scenes in the life of Constantine by Gialio Romano. 

The Stanza d'Eliodoro, painted in 151 1 — 15 14, shows the 
Church triumphant over her enemies, and the miracles by 
which its power has been attested. On the roof are four 
subjects from the Old Testament, — the Covenant with Abra- 
ham ; the Sacrifice of Isaac ; Jacob's dream : Moses at the 
burning bush. 

Entrance Wall. — Heliodorus driven out of the Temple (Maccabees 
iii.). In the background Onias the priest is represented praying for 
divine interposition ; — in the foreground Heliodorus, pursued by two 
avenging angels, is endeavouring to bear away the treasures of the Temple. 
Amid the group on the left is seen Julius II. in his chair of state, 
attended by his secretaries. One of the bearers in front is Marc- Antonio 
Raimondi, the engraver of Raphael's designs. The man with the 
inscription, 'Jo. Petro de Folicariis Cremonen,' was secretary of briefs 
to Pope Julius. 

" Here you may almost fancy you hear the thundering approach of 
the heavenly warrior and the neighing of his steed ; while in the different 
groups who are plundering the treasures of the Temple, and in those 
who gaze intently on the sudden consternation of Heliodorus, without 
being able to divine its cause, we see the expression of terror, amaze- 
ment, joy, humility, and every passion to which human nature is ex- 
posed." — Lanzi. 

Left Wall. — The Miracle of Bolsena. A priest at Bolsena, who 
refused to believe in the doctrine of transubstantiation, is convinced by 
the bleeding of the host. On the right kneels Julius II., with Cardinal 
Riario, founder of the Cancelleria. This was the last fresco executed by 
Raphael under Julius II. 

Right Wall. — Peter delivered from prison. A fresco by Pietro della 
Francesca was destroyed to make room for this picture, which is said 
to have allusion to the liberation of Leo X., while Legate in Spain, 
after his capture at the battle of Ravenna. This fresco is considered 
especially remarkable for its four lights, those from the double repre- 
sentation of the angel, from the torch of the soldier, and from the 

Wall of Egress. — The Flight of Attila. Leo T. (with the features of 
Leo X.) is represented on his white mule, with his cardinals, calling 


upon SS. Peter and Paul, who appear in the clouds, for aid against 
Attila. The Coliseum is seen in the background. 

The Stanza della Segnatura is so called from a judicial 
assembly once held here. The frescoes in this chamber are 
illustrative of the Virtues of Theology, Philosophy, Poetry, 
and Jurisprudence, who are represented on the ceiling by 
Raphael, in the midst of arabesques by Sodoma. The 
square pictures by Raphael refer : — the Fall of Man to 
Theology ; the Study of the Globe to Philosophy ; the 
Flaying of Marsyas to Poetry ; and the Judgment of Solomon 
to Jurisprudence. 

Entrance Wall. — "The School of Athens." Raphael consulted 
Ariosto as to the arrangement of its 52 figures. In the centre, on the 
steps of a portico, are seen Plato and Aristotle, Plato pointing to heaven, 
and Aristotle to earth. On the left is Socrates conversing with his pupils, 
amongst whom is a young warrior, probably Alcibiades. Lying upon 
the steps in front is Diogenes. To his left Pythagoras is writing on his 
knee, and near him, with ink and pen, is Empedocles. The youth in the 
white mantle is Francesco Maria della Rovere, nephew of Julius II. 
On the right, is Archimedes, drawing a geometrical problem upon the 
floor. The young man near him with uplifted hands is Federigo II., 
Duke of Mantua. Behind these are Zoroaster and Ptolemy, one with a 
terrestrial, the other with a celestial globe, addressing two figures which 
represent Raphael and his master Perugino. The drawing in brown 
upon the socle beneath this fresco, is by Ficrino del Vaga, and repre- 
sents the death of Archimedes. 

Right Wall. — " Parnassus," Apollo surrounded by the Muses, on his 
right Homer, Virgil, and Dante. Below, on the right, Sappho, sup- 
posed to be addressing Corinna, Petrarch, Propertius, and Anacreon ; 
on the left, Pindar and Horace, Sannazzaro, Boccaccio, and others. Be- 
neath this, in grisaille, are, — Alexander placing the poems of Homer in 
the tomb of Achilles,— and Augustus preventing the burning of Virgil's 

Left Wall. — Above the window are Prudence, Fortitude, and Tem- 
perance. On the left, Justinian delivers the Pandects to Tribonian. On 
the right, Gregory IX. (with the features of Julius II.) delivers the 
Decretals to a jurist ; — Cardinal de' Medici, afterwards Leo X., Car- 


dinal Farnese, afterwards Paul III., and Cardinal del Monte, are repre- 
sented near the pope. In the socle beneath is Solon addressing the 
people of Athens. 

Wall of Egress. — " The Disputa," so called from an impression that it 
represents a Dispute upon the ^Sacrament. In the upper part of the 
composition the heavenly host are present ; — Christ between the Virgin 
and St. John Baptist; — On the left, St. Peter, Adam, St. John, David, 
St. Stephen, and another ; — On the right, St. Paul, Abraham, St. James, 
Moses, St. Laurence, and St. George. Below is an altar surrounded by 
the Latin fathers, Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, and Augustine. Near 
St. Augustine stand St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Anacletus with the 
palm of a martyr, and Cardinal Buonaventura reading. Those in front 
are Innocent III., and in the background Dante, near whom a monk in a 
black hood is pointed out as Savonarola. The Dominican on the 
extreme left is supposed to be Fra Angelico. The other figures are 

" Raphael a bien juge Dante en placant parmi les Theologiens, dans 
la Dispute die Saint Sacrement, celui pour la tombe duquel a etc ecrit 
ce vers, aussi vrai qu'il est plat : 

' Theologus Dantes, nullius dogmatis expers.' " 

Ampere, Voyage Dantesque. 

The chiaro-scuros on the socle beneath this fresco are by Pierino del 
Vaga (added under Paul III.) and represent, 1, A heathen sacrifice ; 2, 
St. Augustine finding a child attempting to drain the sea ; 3, The 
Cumaean Sibyl and Augustus. 

" Raphael commenced his work in the Vatican by painting the ceiling 
and the four walls of the room called della Segnatura, on the surface of 
which he had to represent four great compositions, which embraced the 
principal divisions of the encyclopaedia of that period ; namely, Theology, 
j Philosophy, Poetry, and Jurisprudence. 

" It will be conceived, that to an artist imbued with the traditions 
of the Umbrian school, the first of these subjects was an unparalleled 
piece of good fortune ; and Raphael, long familiar with the allegorical 
treatment of religious compositions, turned it here to the most admirable 
account ; and, not content with the suggestions of his own genius, he 
availed himself of all the instruction he could derive from the intelligence 
of others. From these combined inspirations resulted, to the eternal 
glory of the Catholic faith and of Christian art, a composition without a 
rival in the history of painting, and we may also acid without a name ; 
for to call it lyric or epic is not enough, unless, indeed, we mean, by 
using these expressions, to compare it with the allegorical epic of 


Dante, alone worthy to be ranked with this marvellous production of 
the pencil of Raphael. 

" And let no one consider this praise as idle and groundless, for it is 
Raphael himself who forces the comparison upon us, by placing the 
figure of Dante among the favourite sons of the Muses ; and, what is 
still more striking, by draping the allegorical figure of Theology in the 
very colours in which Dante has represented Beatrice ; namely, the 
white veil, the red tunic, and the green mantle, while on her head he 
has placed the olive crown. 

" Of the four allegorical figures which occupy the compartments of 
the ceiling, and which were all painted immediately after Raphael's 
arrival in Rome, Theology and Poetry are incontestably the most re- 
markable. The latter would be easily distinguished by the calm inspir- 
ation of her glance, even were she without her wings, her starry crown, 
and her azure robe, all having allusion to the elevated region towards 
which it is her privilege to soar. The figure of Theology is quite as 
admirably suited to the subject she personifies ; she points to the upper 
part of the grand composition, which takes its name from her, and in 
which the artist has provided inexhaustible food for the sagacity and 
enthusiasm of the spectator. 

"This work consists of two grand divisions, — Heaven and Earth, — 
which are united to one another by that mystical bond, the Sacrament 
of the Eucharist. The personages whom the Church has most honoured 
for learning and holiness are ranged in picturesque and animated groups 
on either side of the altar, on which the consecrated wafer is exposed. 
St. Augustine dictates his thoughts to one of his disciples ; St. Gregory, 
in his pontifical robes, seems absorbed in the contemplation of celestial 
glory ; St. Ambrose, in a slightly different attitude, appears to be 
chaunting the Te Deum ; while St. Jerome, seated, rests his hands on 
a large book, which he holds on his knees. Pietro Lombardo, Duns 
Scotus, St. Thomas Aquinas, Pope Anacletus, St. Buonaventura, and 
Innocent III. are no less happily characterised ; while, behind all these 
illustrious men, whom the Church and succeeding generations have 
agreed to honour, Raphael has ventured to introduce Dante with his 
laurel crown, and, with still greater boldness, the monk Savonarola, 
publicly burnt ten years before as a heretic. 

" In the glory, which forms the upper part of the picture, the Three 
Persons of the Trinity are represented, surrounded by patriarchs, 
apostles, and saints : it may, in fact, be considered in some sort as a 
resumioiaW the favourite compositions produced during the last hun- 
dred years by the Umbrian school. A great number of the types, and 
particularly those of Christ and the Virgin, are to be found in the earlier 


works of Raphael himself. The Umbrian artists, from having so long 
exclusively employed themselves on mystical subjects, had certainly 
attained to a marvellous perfection in the representation of celestial 
beatitude, and of those ineffable things of which it has been said that 
the heart of man cannot conceive them, far less, therefore, the pencil of 
man pourtray ; and Raphael, surpassing them in all, and even in this 
instance while surpassing himself, appears to have fixed the limits, 
beyond which Christian art, properly so called, has never since been 
able to advance." — Rio. Poetry of Christian Art. 

The Stanza of the Incendio del Borgo is decorated with 
frescoes illustrative of the triumphs of the Church from events 
in the reigns of Leo III. and Leo IV. The roof has four 
frescoes by Perugino illustrative of the Saviour in glory. 

Entrance Wall. — The Victory of Leo IV. over the Saracens at Ostia, 
by Giovanni da Udine, from designs of Raphael. The pope is repre- 
sented with the features of Leo X. ; behind him are Cardinal Giulio de' 
Medici (Clement VII. ), Cardinal Bibbiena, and others. The castle of 
( Mia is seen in the background. Beneath are Ferdinand the Catholic 
and the Emperor Lothaire, by Polidoro da Caravaggio. 

Left Wall. — The "Incendio del Borgo," afire in the Leonine City 
in 847. In the background Leo IV. is seen in the portico of the old 
St. Peter's arresting with a cross the progress of the flames, on their ap- 
proach to the basilica. In the foreground is a group of fugitives, by 
Giulio Romano, resembling yLneas escaping from Troy with Anchises, 
followed by Ascanius and Creusa. Beneath are Godfrey de Bouillon 
and Astulf (Ethelwolf), the latter with the inscription : " Astulphus Rex 
sub Leone IV. Pont. Britanniam Beato Petro vectigalem fecit." 

Right Willi. — The Justification of Leo III. before Charlemagne, by 
Pierino del Vaga. The pope is a portrait of Leo X. , the emperor of 
Francis I. 

Wall of Egress. — The Coronation of Charlemagne in the old St. 
Peter's. Leo X. is again represented as Leo III., and Francis I. as 
Charlemagne. This fresco is partly by Raphael, partly by Pierino del 
Vaga. On the socle is Charlemagne, by Polidoro da Caravaggio. 

A Fifth Chamber- has been decorated under Pius IX. with 
frescoes by Fracassini, in honour of the recent dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception. The Proclamation of the Dogma ; 


the Adoration of the image of the Virgin ; and the Reception 
of the news by the Virgin in heaven, from an angelic mes- 
senger, are duly represented ! 

From the corner of the Sala del Constantino, a custode, if 
requested, will give access to the 

Cappella di San Lorenzo, a tiny chapel 'covered with fres- 
coes executed by Fra Angelico for Nicholas V. in 1447. 
The upper series represents events in the life of St. 

1. His Ordination by St. Peter. 

2. His Almsgiving. 

3. His Preaching. 

4. He is brought before the Council at Jerusalem ("his accuser has 

the dress and shaven crown of a monk ''). 

5. He is dragged to Execution. 

6. He is Stoned. Saul is among the spectators. 

"Angelico has represented St. Stephen as a young man, beardless, 
and with a most mild and candid expression. His dress is the deacon's 
habit, of a vivid blue." — Mrs. Jameson. 

The lower series represents the life of St. Laurence. 

1. He is ordained by Sixtus II. (with the features of Nicholas V.). 

2. Sixtus II. delivers the treasures of the Church to him for distribu- 

tion among the poor. 

3. He Distributes them in Alms. 

4. He is carried before Decius the Prefect. 

5. He suffers Martyrdom A.D. 253. 

Introduced in the side arches, are the figures of St. Je- 
rome, St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Gregory, St. John 
Chrysostom, St. Athanasius, St. Leo — as the protector of 
Rome, and St. Thomas Aquinas — as painted by the Domi- 
nican Angelico, and for a Dominican pope Nicholas V. 

" The Consecration of St. Stephen, the Distribution of Alms, and, 
above all, liis Preaching, are three pictures as perfect of their kind as 
any that have been produced by the greatest masters, and it would be 


difficult to imagine a group more happily conceived as to arrangement, 
or more graceful in form and attitude, than that of the seated females 
listening to the holy preacher ; and if the furious fanaticism of the exe- 
cutioners, who stone him to death, is not expressed with all the energy 
we could desire, this may be attributed to a glorious incapacity in this 
angelic imagination, too exclusively occupied with love and ecstasy to 
be ever able to familiarise itself with those dramatic scenes in which 
hateful and violent passions were to be represented." — Rio. Poetry of 
Christian Art. 

"The soul of Angelico lives in perpetual peace. Not seclusion from 
the world. No shutting out of the world is needful for him. There is 
nothing to shut out. Envy, lust, contention, discourtesy, are to him as 
though they were not ; and the cloister walls of Fiesole no penitential 
solitude, barred from the stir and joy of life, but a possessed land of 
tender blessing, guarded from the entrance of all but holiest sorrow. 
The little cell was as one of the houses of heaven prepared for him by 
his Master. What need had it to be elsewhere ? Was not the Val 
d'Arno, with its olive woods in white blossom, paradise enough for a 
poor monk ? Or could Christ be indeed in heaven more than here ? 
Was He not always with him? Could he breathe or see, but that 
Christ breathed beside him, or looked into his eyes ? Under every 
cypress avenue the angels walked ; he had seen their white robes, — 
whiter than the dawn, — at his bedside, as he woke in early summer. 
They had sung with him, one on each side, when his voice failed for joy 
at sweet vesper and matin time ; his eyes were blinded by their wings 
in the sunset, when it sank behind the hills of Luni." — Raskin's Modern 

The same staircase which is usually ascended to reach 
the Stanze (that on the left of the fountain in the Cortile 
S. Damaso) will also lead, bv turning to the left in the 
loggia of the third floor, to : 

The Gallery of Pictures, founded by Pius VII., who acted 
on the advice of Cardinal Gonsalvi and of Canova, and 
formed the present collection from the pictures which had 
been carried off by the French from the Roman churches, 
upon their restoration. The pictures have, to a great extent, 
been recently rearranged and are not all numbered. Each 


picture is worthy of separate examination. They are con- 
tained in four rooms, and according to their present posi- 
tion are : 

ist Room. — 
Entrance Wall : 

1. St. Jerome : Leonardo da Vinci, painted in bistre. 
1 6. St. John Baptist : Guercino. 

4. The Annunciation, Adoration of the Magi, and Presenta- 

tion in the Temple : Raphael; — formerly a predella to t!.e 
Coronation of the Virgin in the third room. 

5. The dead Christ and Mary Magdalen : Andrea Mantegna, — 

from the Aldrovandi gallery at Bologna. 
7. Madonna with the Child and St. John : Fr. Francia. 

Right Wall : 

The Story of St. Nicolo of Bari : Fra Angelico da Ficsole, — 
two out of the three predella pictures once in the sacristy of 
S. Domenico at Florence, whence they were carried off to 
Paris, where the third remains. 
(Above,) The Adoration of the Shepherds : Murillo. 
The Virgin surrounded by Angels : Fra Angelico. 
3. The Story of St. Hyacinth : Benozzo Gozzoli. 

(Above,) The Marriage of St. Catherine : Murillo. 

2. "I Tre Santi :" Perug'nw. 

Part of a large predella in the church of S. Pietro Casinensi at Pe- 
rugia. Several saints from this predella still remain in the sacristy of 
S. Pietro ; two are at Lyons. 

"In the centre is St. Benedict, with his black cowl over his head 
and long parted beard, the book in one hand, and the asperge in the 
other. On one side, St. Placidus, young, and with a mild, candid ex- 
pression, black habit and shaven crown. On the other side is St. 
Flavia (or St. Catherine?), crowned as a martyr, holding her palm, and 
gazing upward with a divine expression." — Mrs. yameson. 

(Above this) The Holy Family and Saints : Bonifazio. 

Left Wall.— The Dead Christ, with the Virgin, St. John, and the 
Magdalen lamenting: Carlo Crivelli. 

Wall of Egress. — Faith, Hope, and Charity, Raphael : — circular 


medallions in bistre, 'which once formed a predella for " the Entomb- 
ment" in the Borghese gallery. 

2nd Room. — 
Entrance J Vail. — The Communion of St. Jerome: Domenichino. This 

is the master-piece of the master, and perhaps second only to the Trans- 
figuration. It was painted for the monks of Ara Cceli, who quarrelled 
with the artist, and shut up the picture. Afterwards they commissioned 
Poussin to paint an altar-piece for their church, and, instead of supplying 
him with fresh canvas, produced the picture of Domenichino, and desired 
him to paint over it. Poussin indignantly threw up his engagement, 
and made known the existence of the picture, which was afterwards pre- 
served in the church of S. Girolamo della Carita, whence it was carried 
off by the French. St. Jerome, dying at Bethlehem, is represented 
receiving the Last Sacraments from St. Ephraim of Syria, while St. 
Paula kneels by his side. 

"The Last Communion of St. Jerome is the subject of one of the 
most celebrated pictures in the world, — the St. Jerome of Domenichino, 
which has been thought worthy of being placed opposite to the Trans- 
figuration of Raphael, in the Vatican. The aged saint, — feeble, ema- 
ciated, dying, — is borne in the arms of his disciples to the chapel of his 
monastery, and placed within the porch.* A young priest sustains him ; 
St. Paula, kneeling, kisses one of his thin bony hands ; the saint fixes 
his eager eyes on the countenance of the priest, who is about to admin- 
ister the Sacrament, — a noble, dignified figure in a rich ecclesiastical 
dress; a deacon holds the cup, and an attendant priest the book; the 
lion droops his head with an expression of grief ;+ the eyes and attention 
of all are on the dying saint, while four angels, hovering above, look 
down upon the scene." — Jameson's Sacred Art. 

"And Jerome's death (a.D. 420) drawing near, he commanded that 
he should be laid on the bare ground and covered with sackcloth, and 
calling the brethren around him, he spake sweetly to them, and ex- 
horted them in many holy words, and appointed Eusebius to be their 
abbot in his room. And then, with tears, he received the blessed Eucha- 
rist, and sinking backwards again on the earth, his hands crossed on his 
heart, he sung the 'Nunc Dimittis,' which being finished, it being the 

* The candle is ingeniously made crooked in the socket, not to interfere with the 
lines of the architecture, while the flame is straight. 

+ "According to the 'Spiritual Meadow' of John Moschus, who died A.D. 620, 
the lion is said to have pined away after Jerome's death, and to have died at last on 
his grave." 


hour of compline, suddenly a great light, as of the noonday sun, shone 
round about him, within which light angels innumerable were seen by 
the bystanders, in shifting motion, like sparks among the dry reeds. 
And the voice of the Saviour was heard, inviting him to heaven, and the 
holy Doctor answered that he was ready. And after an hour, that light 
departed, and Jerome's spirit with it." — Lord Lindsay, from Peter de 

Right Wall. — "The Madonna di Foligno," Raphael, ordered in 15 11 
by Sigismondo Conti for the church of Ara Coeli (where he is buried), and 
removed in 1565 to Foligno, when his great-niece, Anna Conti, took 
the veil there at the convent of St' Anna. The angel in the foreground 
bears a tablet, with the names of the painter and donor, and the date 
15 12. The city of Foligno is seen in the background, with a falling 
bomb, from which one may believe that the picture was a votive offering 
from Sigismondo for an escape during a siege. The picture was origin- 
ally on panel, and was transferred to canvas at Paris. 

"The Madonna di Foligno, however beautiful in the whole arrange- 
ment, however excellent in the execution of separate parts, appears to 
belong to a transition state of development. There is something of the 
ecstatic enthusiasm which has produced such peculiar conceptions and 
treatment of religious subjects in other artists — Correggio, for example — 
and which, so far from harmonizing with the unaffected serene grace of 
Raphael, has in this instance led to some serious defects. This remark 
is particularly applicable to the figures of St. John and St. Francis : the 
former looks out of the picture with a fantastic action, and the drawing 
of his arm is even considerably mannered. St. Francis has an expres- 
sion of fanatical ecstasy, and his countenance is strikingly weak in the 
painting (composed of reddish, yellowish, and grey tones, which cannot 
be wholly ascribed to their restorer). Again, St. Jerome looks up with 
a sort of fretful expression, in which it is difficult to recognise, as some 
do, a mournful resignation ; there is also an exaggerated style of drawing 
in the eyes, which sometimes gives a sharpness to the expression of 
Raphael's figures, and appears very marked in some of his other pictures. 
Lastly, the Madonna and the Child, who turn to the donor, are in atti- 
tudes which, however graceful, are not perhaps sufficiently tranquil for 
the majesty of the queen of heaven. The expression of the Madonna's 
countenance is extremely sweet, but with more of the character of a 
mere woman than of a glorified being. The figure of the donor, on the 
other hand, is excellent, with an expression of sincerity and truth ; the 
angel with the tablet is of unspeakable intensity and exquisite beauty 
— one of the most marvellous figures that Raphael has created." — 


"In the upper part of the composition sits the Virgin in heavenly 
glory ; by her side is the Infant Christ, partly sustained by his mother's 
veil, which is drawn round his body : both look down benignly on the 
votary, Sigismund Contu who, kneeling below, gazes up with an expres- 
sion of the most intense gratitude and devotion. It is a portrait from the 
life, and certainly one of the finest and most life-like that exist in paint- 
ing. Behind him stands St. Jerome, who, placing his hand upon the 
head of the votaiy, seems to present him to his celestial protectress. 
On the other side, John the Baptist, the meagre wild-looking prophet of 
the desert, points upward to the Redeemer. More in front kneels St. 
Francis, who, while he looks up to heaven with trusting and imploring 
love, extends his right hand towards the worshippers supposed to be 
assembled in the church, recommending them also to the protecting 
grace of the Virgin. In the centre of the picture, dividing these two 
groups, stands a lovely angel-boy, holding in his hand a tablet, one of 
the most charming figures of this kind Raphael ever painted ; the head, 
looking up, has that sublime, yet perfectly childish grace, which strikes 
one in those awful angel-boys in the ' Madonna di San Sisto.' The back- 
ground is a landscape, in which appears the city of Foligno at a distance ; 
it is overshadowed by a storm-cloud, and a meteor is seen falling ; but 
above these bends a rainbow, pledge of peace and safety. The whole 
picture glows throughout with life and beauty, hallowed by that profound 
religious sentiment which suggested the offering, and which the sympa- 
thetic artist seems to have caught from the grateful donor. It was dedi- 
cated in the church of the Ara Coeli at Rome, which belongs to the 
Franciscans, hence St. Francis is one of the principal figures. When I 
was asked, at Rome, why St. Jerome had been introduced into the 
picture, I thought it might be thus accounted for: — The patron saint of 
the donor, St. Sigismund, was a king and warrior, and Conti might 
possibly think it did not accord with his profession, as a humble ecclesi- 
astic, to introduce him here. The most celebrated convent of the 
Jeronymites in Italy is that of St. Sigismund, near Cremona, placed 
under the special protection of St. Jerome, who is also in a general sense 
the patron of all ecclesiastics ; hence, perhaps, he figures here as the 
protector of Sigismund Conti." — Jameson's Legends of the Madonna, 
p. 103. 

Wall of Egress. — "The Transfiguration:" Raphael. The grandest pic- 
ture in the world. It was originally painted by order of Cardinal Giulio 
de' Medici (afterwards Clement VII.) Archbishop of Narbonne, for 
that provincial cathedral. But it was scarcely finished when Raphael 
died, and it hung over his death-bed as he lay in state, and was carried 
in his funeral procession. 


"And when all beheld 
Him where he lay, how changed from yesterday — 
Him in that hour cut off, and at his head 
His last great work ; when, entering in, they look' d, 
Now on the dead, then on that masterpiece— 
Now on his face, lifeless and colourless, 
Then on those forms divine that lived and breathed, 
And would live on for ages — all were moved, 
And sighs burst forth and loudest lamentations." 


The three following quotations may perhaps represent the practical, 
aesthetical, and spiritual aspects of the picture. 

" It is somewhat strange to see the whole picture of the Transfiguration 
■ — including the three apostles, prostrate on the mount, shading their 
dazzled senses from the insufferable brightness — occupying only a small 
part of the top of the canvas, and the principal field filled with a totally 
distinct and certainly unequalled picture — that of the demoniac boy, 
whom our Saviour cured on coming down from the mount, after his 
transfiguration. This was done in compliance with the orders of the 
monks of S. Pietro in Montorio, for which church it was painted. It 
was the universal custom of the age — the yet unbanished taste of Gothic 
days — to have two pictures, a celestial and a terrestrial one, wholly 
unconnected with each other ; accordingly, we see few, even of the 
finest paintings, in which there is not a heavenly subject above and an 
earthly below — for the great masters of that day, like our own Shaks- 
peare, were compelled to suit their works to the taste of their employers." 
— Eatoii 's Rome. 

" It must ever be matter of wonder that any one can have doubted of 
the grand unity of such a conception as this. In the absence of the 
Lord, the disconsolate parents bring a possessed boy to the disciples of 
the Holy One. They seem to have been making attempts to cast out the 
Evil Spirit ; one has opened a book, to see whether by chance any 
spell were contained in it which might be successful against this plague, 
but in vain. At this moment appears He who alone has the power, 
and appears transfigured in glory. They remember His former mighty 
deeds ; they instantly point aloft to the vision as the only source of 
healing. How can the upper and lower parts be separated ? Both are 
one ; beneath is Suffering craving for Aid ; above is active Power and 
helpful Grace. Both refer to one another ; both work in one another. 
Those who, in our dispute over the picture, thought with me, confirmed 
their view by this consideration : Raffaelle, they said, was ever distin- 


guished by the exquisite propriety of his conceptions. And is it likely 
that this painter, thus gifted by God, and everywhere recognisable by 
the excellence of this His gift, would in the full ripeness of his powers 
have thought and painted wrongly ? Not so ; he is, as nature is, ever 
right, and then most deeply and truly right when we least suspect it." — 
Goethe s Werke, iii. p. 33. 

" In looking at the Transfiguration we must bear in mind that it is 
not an historical bat a devotional picture, — that the intention of the 
painter was not to represent a scene, but to excite religious feelings by 
expressing, so far as painting might do it, a very sublime idea. 

"If we remove to a certain distance from the picture, so that the 
forms shall become vague, indistinct, and only the masses of colour and 
the light and shade perfectly distinguishable, we shall see that the 
picture is indeed divided as if horizontally, the upper half being all 
light, and the lower half comparatively all dark. As we approach 
nearer, step by step, we behold above, the radiant figure of the Saviour 
floating in mid-air, with arms outspread, garments of transparent light, 
glorified visage upturned as if in rapture, and the hair lifted and scat- 
tered as I have seen it in persons under the influence of electricity. On 
the right, Moses ; on the left, Elijah ; representing respectively the old 
Law and the old Prophecies, which both testified of Him. The three 
disciples lie on the ground, terror-struck, dazzled. There is a sort of 
eminence or platform, but no perspective, no attempt at real locality, 
for the scene is revealed as in a vision, and the same soft transparent 
light envelopes the whole. This is the spiritual life, raised far above the 
earth, but not yet in heaven. Below is seen the earthly light, poor 
humanity struggling helplessly with pain, infirmity, and death. The 
father brings his son, the possessed, or as we should now say, the 
epileptic boy, who oftentimes falls into the water, or into the fire, or lies 
grovelling on the earth, foaming and gnashing his teeth ; the boy strug- 
gles in his arms, — the rolling eyes, the distorted features, the spasmodic 
limbs, are at once terrible and pitiful to look on. 

"Such is the profound, the heart-moving significance of this wonder- 
ful picture. It is, in truth, a fearful approximation of the most opposite 
things ; the mournful helplessness, suffering, and degradation of human 
nature, the unavailing pity, are placed in immediate contrast with 
spiritual light, life, hope,— nay, the very fruition of heavenly rapture. 

" It has been asked, who are the two figures, the two saintly deacons, 
who stand on each side of the upper group, and what have they to do 
with the mystery above, or the sorrow below ? Their presence shows 
that the whole was conceived as a vision, or a poem. The two saints 
are St. Laurence and St. Julian, placed there at the request of the Car- 
VOL. n. 23 


dinal de' Medici, for whom the picture was painted, to be offered by 
him as an act of devotion as well as munificence to his new bishopric ; 
and these two figures commemorate in a poetical w^.y, not unusual at 
the time, his father, Lorenzo, and his uncle, Giuliano de' Medici. They 
would be better away ; but Raphael, in consenting to the wish of his 
patron that they should be introduced, left no doubt of the significance 
of the whole composition, that it is placed before worshippers as a re- 
velation of the double life of earthly suffering and spiritual faith, as an 
excitement to religious contemplation and religious hope. 

" In the Gospel, the Transfiguration of Our Lord is first described, 
then the gathering of the people and the appeal of the father in behalf 
of his afflicted son. They appear to have been simultaneous ; but paint- 
ing only could have placed them before our eyes, at the same moment, 
in all their suggestive contrast. It will be said that in the brief record 
of the Evangelist, this contrast is nowhere indicated, but the painter 
found it there and was right to use it, — just the same as if a man should 
choose a text from which to preach a sermon, and, in doing so, should 
evolve from the inspired words many teachings, many deep reasonings, 
besides those most obvious and apparent. 

"But, after we have prepared ourselves to understand and to take 
into our heads all that this wonderful picture can suggest, considered as 
an emanation of the mind, we find that it has other interests for us, con- 
sidered merely as a work of art. It was the last picture which came 
from Raphael's hand ; he was painting on it when he was seized with 
his last illness. He had completed all the upper part of the composi- 
tion, all the ethereal vision, but the lower part of it was still unfinished, 
and in this state the picture was hung over his bier ; when, after his 
death, he was laid out in his painting-room, and all his pupils and 
friends, and the people of Rome, came to look upon him for the last 
time ; and when those who stood round raised their eyes to the Trans- 
figuration, and then bent them on the lifeless form extended beneath it, 
' every heart was like to burst with grief (faceva scoppiare Fanima di 
dolore a ognuno che quivi guardava), as, indeed, well it might. 

"Two-thirds of the price of the picture, 655 'ducati di camera,' had 
already been paid by the Cardinal de' Medici, and, in the following 
year, that part of the picture which Raphael had left unfinished was 
completed by his pupil Giulio Romano, a powerful and gifted, but not a 
refined or elevated, genius. lie supplied what was wanting in the 
colours and chiaroscuro according to Raphael's design, but not certainly 
as Raphael himself would have done it. The sum which Giulio received 
he bestowed as a dowry on his sister, when he gave her in marriage to 
Lorenzetto the sculptor, who had been a friend and pupil of Raphael. 


The cardinal did not send the picture to Narbonne, but, unwilling to 
deprive Rome of such a masterpiece, he presented it to the church of 
San Pietro in Montorio, and sent in its stead the Raising of Lazarus, by 
Sebastian del Piombo, now in our National Gallery. The French carried 
off the Transfiguration to Paris in 1797, and when restored, it was 
placed in the Vatican, where it now is." — Mrs. Jameson's Histoiy of Our 
Lord, vol. i. 

yd Room. — 

Entrance Wall. — Madonna and Saints : Titian. 

"Titian's altar-piece is a specimen of his pictures of this class. St. 
Nicholas, in full episcopal costume, is gazing upwards with an air of 
inspiration. St. Peter is looking over his shoulder at a book, and a 
beautiful St. Catherine is on the other side. Farther behind, are St. 
Francis and St. Anthony of Padua ; on the left St. Sebastian, whose 
figure recurs in almost all of these pictures. Above, in the clouds, with 
angels, is the Madonna, who looks cheerfully on, while the lovely Child 
holds a wreath, as if ready to crown a votary." — Kugler. 

" In this picture there are three stages, or whatever they are called, 
the same as in the Transfiguration. Below, saints and martyrs are re- 
presented in suffering and abasement ; on every face is depicted sadness, 
nay, almost impatience ; one figure in rich episcopal robes looks up- 
wards, with the most eager and agonized longing, as if weeping, but he 
cannot see all that is floating above his head, but which we see, standing 
in front of the picture. Above, Mary and her Child are in a cloud, 
radiant with joy, and surrounded by angels, who have woven many gar- 
lands ; the Holy Child holds one of these, and seems as if about to 
crown the saints beneath, but his Mother withholds his hand for the 
moment (?). The contrast between the pain and suffering below, 
whence St. Sebastian looks forth out of the picture with gloom and 
almost apathy, and the lofty unalloyed exultation in the clouds above, 
where crowns and palms are already awaiting him, is truly admirable. 
High above the group of Mary hovers the Holy Spirit, from whom 
emanates a bright streaming light, thus forming the apex of the whole 
composition. I have just remembered that Goethe, at the beginning of 
his first visit to Rome, describes and admires this picture ; and he speaks 
of it in considerable detail. It was at that time in the Quirinal." — 
Mendi lss< ihrCs I ettci s. 

Sta. Margherita da Cortona : Guercino. She is represented kneel- 
ing, — angels hovering above, — in the background is the Convent 
of Cortona. 


Right Wall : 

Martyrdom of St. Laurence : Spagnoletto . 

22. The Magdalen, with angels bearing the instruments of the 

Passion : Guerciiw. 

23. The Coronation of the Virgin : Pinturkchio. 

24. The Resurrection : Perugino. The figures are sharply relieved 

against a bright green landscape and a perfectly green sky. 
The figure of the risen Saviour is in a raised gold nimbus 
surrounded by cherubs' heads, as in the fresco of Pintu- 
ricchio at the Ara Cceli. The escaping soldier is said to be 
a portrait of Perugino, introduced by Raphael, — the sleeping 
soldier that of Raphael, by Perugino. 

25. "La Madonna di Monte Luco," designed by Raphael: the 

upper part painted by Giulio Romano, the lower by Francesco 
Penni (II Fattore). The apostles looking into the tomb of 
the Virgin, find it blooming with heartsease and ixias. 
Above, the Virgin is crowned amid the angels. There 
is a lovely landscape seen through a dark cave, which ends 
awkwardly in the black clouds. This picture was painted 
for the convent of Monte Luco near Spoleto. 
The Nativity : Giovanni Spagna. 

27. The Coronation of the Virgin : Raphael. The predella in the 

first room belonged to this picture, which was painted for the 
Benedictines of Perugia. 

28. The Virgin and Child enthroned under an arcade — with S. Lo- 

renzo, St. Louis, S. Ercolano, and S. Costanzo, standing: 
On the step of the throne is inscribed ' Hoc Petrus de 
Chastro Plebis Pinxit.' 

29. Virgin and Child : Sassoferrato. A fat mundane Infant and 

a coarse Virgin seated on a crescent moon. The Child 
holds a rosary. 

End Wall : 

The Entombment : Caravaggio. 

" Caravaggio's entombment of Christ is a picture wanting in all 
the characteristics of holy sublimity ; but is nevertheless full of 
solemnity, only perhaps too like the funeral solemnity of a gipsy 
chief. A figure of such natural sorrow as the Virgin, who is 
lvpn , ni 1 .1 ;i , 1 ■■•.Ii.iii .1 . -i 1 with weeping, with her trembling out- 
stretched hands, has seldom been painted. Even as mother of a 
gipsy chief, she is dignified and touching." — Kugler. 


Left Wall (returning) : 

31. Doge A. Gritti {Titian), half-length, in a yellow robe. 
Two very large pictures in many compartments, by Niccolo Alunno, 
of the Crucifixion and Saints. (Between them.) 

Sixtus IV. and his Court : Melozzo da Fori). A fresco, removed from 
the Vatican library by Leo XII., which is a most interesting memorial of 
an important historical family. Near the figure of the pope, Sixtus IV., 
who is known to Roman travellers from his magnificent bronze tomb in 
the Chapel of the Sacrament at St. Peter's, stand two of his nephews, of 
whom one is Giuliano della Rovere, afterwards Julius II., and the other 
Pietro Riario, who, from the position of a humble Franciscan monk, was 
raised, in a few months, by his uncle, to be Bishop of Treviso, Car- 
dinal-Archbishop of Seville, Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop of 
Valentia, and Archbishop of Florence, when his life changed, and he lived 
with such extravagance, and gave banquets so magnificent, that "never 
had pagan antiquity seen anything like it ;" * but within two years "he 
died (not without suspicion of poison), to the great grief of Pope Sixtus, 
and to the infinite joy of the whole college of cardinals. "+ The kneeling 
figure represents Platina, the historian of the popes and prefect of the 
Vatican library. In the background stand two other nephews of the 
pope, Cardinal Giovanni della Rovere, and Girolamo Riario, who was 
married by his uncle (or father ?), the pope, to the famous Caterina 
Sforza, — was suspected of being the originator of the conspiracy of 
the Pazzi, — was created Count of Forli, and to whose aggrandisement 
Sixtus IV. sacrificed every principle of morality and justice : he was 
murdered at Forli, April 14th, 1488. Beneath is inscribed : 

" Templa domum expositis fora mcenia pontes : 

Virgineam Trivii quod repararis aquam 
Prisca licet nautis statuas dare commoda portus : 

Et Vaticanum cingere Sixte jugum : 
Plus tamen urbs debet : nam qua? squalore latebet. 

Germitur in celebri bibliotheca loco." 

qth Room. — 

Entrance Wall : 

32. The Martyrdom of SS. Processus and Martinianus, the gaolers 
of St. Peter : Valentin. It is stigmatised by Kugler as "an 
unimportant and bad picture," but, perhaps from the con- 

* See Stefano Infessura, Rev. Ital. Script, torn. iii. 
t Corio, 1st mil. p. 876. 


nection of the subject with the story of St. Peter, has been 
thought worthy of being copied in mosaic in the basilica, 
whence this picture was brought. 
"This picture is terrible for dark and effective expression ; it is just 

one of those subjects in which the Caravaggio school delighted." — 

Ja?nesoiCs Sacred Art. 

33. Martyrdom of St. Peter : Gitido Reni. 

"This has the heavy powerful forms of Caravaggio, but wants the 
passionate feeling which sustains such subjects, — it is a martyrdom and 
nothing more, — it might pass for an enormous and horrible genre pic- 
ture." — Kugler. 

34. Martyrdom of St. Erasmus : N. Poitssin. A most horrible 

picture of the disembowelment of the saint upon a wheel. 
It was copied in mosaic in St. Peter's when the picture was 
removed from thence. 

Left Wall : 

35. The Annunciation : Baroccio. From Sta. Maria di Loreto 

detained in the Vatican in exchange for a mosaic, after it was 
sent back by the French. 

36. St. Gregory the Great — the miracle of the Brandeum : Andrea 

"The Empress Constantia sent to St. Gregory requesting some of 
the relics of St. Peter and St. Paul. He excused himself, saying that 
he dared not disturb their sacred remains for such a purpose, — but he 
sent her part of a consecrated cloth (Brandeum) which had enfolded 
the body of St. John the Evangelist. The empress rejected this gift 
with contempt : whereupon Gregory, to show that such things are 
hallowed not so much in themselves as by the faith of believers, laid 
the Brandeum on the altar, and after praying he took up a knife and 
pierced it, and blood flowed as from a living body." — Jameson's Sacred 
Art, p. 321. 

37. The Ecstasy of Sta. Michelina: Baroccio. This picture is 

mentioned by Lanzi as "Sta. Michelina estatica sul Cat- 
vario." The story appears to be lost. 

Between the Windows : 

The Madonna and Child with St. Jerome and St. Bartholomew : 
Morctto da Brescia {Buonvicino). 

38. The Dream of Sta. Helena (of the finding of the true Cross) : 

I\iolo Veronese. Once in the Capitol collection. 


Right Wall (returning) : 

39. Madonna with St. Thomas and St. Jerome : Guido. The St. 

Thomas is very grand. 

40. Madonna della Cintola with St. John and St. Augustin. 

Signed 1521 : Cesare da Sesto. 

41. Salvator Mundi. Christ seated on the rainbow: Correggio ? 

42. St. Romualdo : Andrea Sacchi. The saint sees the vision of 

a ladder by which the friars of his Order ascend to heaven. 
The monks in white drapery are grand and noble figures. 

" It is recorded in the legend of St. Romualdo, that, a short time 
before his death, he fell asleep beside a fountain near his cell ; and he 
dreamed, and in his dream he saw a ladder like that which the patriarch 
Jacob beheld in his vision, resting on the earth, and the top of it reach- 
ing to heaven ; and he saw the brethren of his Order ascending by twos 
and by threes, all clothed in white. When Romualdo awoke from his 
dream, he changed the habit of his monks from black to white, which 
they have ever since worn in remembrance of this vision." — Jameson 's 
Monastic Orders, p . 117- 

A door on the ground-floor of the Cortile di S. Damaso 
will admit visitors (with an order) to visit the Papal Manu- 
factory of Mosaics, whence so many beautiful works have 
issued, and where others are always in progress. 

" Ghirlandajo, who felt the utmost enthusiasm for the august remains 
of Roman grandeur, was still more deeply impressed by the sight of the 
ancient mosaics of the Christian basilicas, the image of which was still 
present to his mind when he said, at a more advanced age, that ' mosaic 
was the true painting for eternity.' " — Rio. 



Ponte Quattro Capi — Gaetani Tower — S. Bartolomeo in Isola — 
Temple of ^Esculapius — Hospital of the Benfratelli — Mills on the 
Tiber — Ponte Cestio — Fornarina's House — S. Benedetto a Piscin- 
aola — Castle of the Alberteschi — S. Crispino — Palazzo Ponziani 
— Sta. Maria in Cappella — Sta. Cecilia — Hospital of S. Michele — 
Porta Portese — Sta. Maria del Orto — S. Francesco a Ripa — Castle 
of the Anquillara — S. Chrisogono — Hospital of S. Gallicano — Sta. 
Maria in Trastevere — S. Calisto — Convent of Sta. Anna — S. Cosi- 
mato — Porta Settimiana — Sta. Dorotea — Ponte Sisto. 

T7OLLOWING the road which leads to the Temple of 
Vesta, &c., as far as the Via Savelli, and then turning 
down past the gateway of the Orsini palace, with its two 
bears, — we reach the Ponte Quattro Capi. 

This was the ancient Pons Fabricius, built of stone in 
the place of a wooden bridge, a.u.c. 733, by Fabricius, the 
Curator Viarum. It has two arches, with a small ornamental 
one in the central pier. In the twelfth century the greater 
part was faced with brickwork. An inscription, only partly 
legible, remains, l . fabricius . c . t . cur . viar . faciun- 

M . LOLLIUS . M . F . COS . EX . S . C . PROBAVERUNT. From 

this inscription the inference has been drawn that the senate 
always allowed forty years to elapse between the completion 


of a public work, and the grant to it of their public approval. 
This bridge, according to Horace, was a favourite spot with 
those who wished to drown themselves ; hence Damasippus 
would have leaped into the Tiber, if it were not for the pre- 
cepts of the stoic Stertinius : 

" Unde ego mira 
Descripsi docilis prsecepta hose, tempore quo me 
Solatus jussit sapientem pascere barbam, 
Atque a Fabricio non tristem ponte reverti." 

Horace, Sat. ii. 3. 

The name of the bridge changed with time to " Pons 
Tarpeius " and " Pons Judaeorum," from the neighbouring 
Ghetto. It is now called Ponte Quattro Capi, from two 
busts of the four-headed Janus, which adorn its parapet, 
and are supposed to have come from the temple of " Janus 
Geminus," which stood in this neighbourhood. 

On crossing this bridge, we are on the Island in the Tiber, 
the formation of which is ascribed by tradition to the produce 
of the corn-fields of the Tarquins (cast contemptuously upon 
the waters after their expulsion), which accumulated here, 
till soil gathered around them, and a solid piece of land was 
formed. Of this, Ampere says : 

" L'effet du courant rapide du fleuve est plutot de detruire les iles que 
d'en former. C'est ainsi qu'une petite ile a ete entrainee par la violence 
des eaux en 1718." — Histoire Romaine a Rome. 

On this island, anciently known as the /sola Tiberina, 
were three temples, — those, namely, of ^Esculapius : 

" Unde Coroniden circumflua Tibridis alveo 
Insula Romulere sacris adsciverit urbis. " 

Ovid, Metam. xv. 624. 
"Accepit Phcebo Nymphaque Coronide natum 
Insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua." 

Ovid, Fast. i. 291. 


of Jupiter : 

"Jupiter in parte est, cepit locus unus utrumque : 
Junctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo." 

Ovid, Fast. i. 293. 

and of Faunus : 

" Idibus agrestis fumant altaria Fauni, 
Hie ubi discretas insula rumpit aquas." 

Ovid, Fast. ii. 193. 

Here also was an altar to the Sabine god Semo-Sancus, 
whose inscription, legible in the early centuries of Chris- 
tianity, led various ecclesiastical authors into the error that 
the words " Semoni Sanco " referred to Simon Magus.* 

In imperial times the island was used as a prison : among 
remarkable prisoners immured here was Arvandus, Prefect of 
Gaul, a.d. 468. In the reign of Claudius sick slaves were 
exposed and left to die here, — that emperor — by a strange 
contradiction in one who caused fallen gladiators to be 
butchered " for the pleasure of seeing them die " — making a 
law that any slave so exposed should receive his liberty if 
he recovered. In the middle ages the island was under 
the jurisdiction of the Cardinal Bishop of Porto, who lived 
in the Franciscan convent. Under Leo X. a fete was 
held here in which Camillo Querno, the papal poet, was 
crowned with ivy, laurel, and cabbage (!). In 1656 the 
whole island was appropriated as a hospital for those stricken 
with the plague, — a singular coincidence for the site of the 
temple of yEsculapius. 

The first building on the left, after passing the bridge, is 
a fine brick tower, of great historic interest, as the only relic 
of a castle, built by the family of the Anicii, of which St. 

* Ampere, i. 436. 


Gregory the Great was a member, and two of whom were 
consuls together under Honorius : 

"Est in Romuleo procumbens insula Tibri, 
Qua medius geminas interfluit alveus urbes, 
Discretas subeunte fieto, pariterque minantes 
Ardua turrigerse surgunt in culmina ripse. 
Hie stetit et subitum prospexit ab aggere votum. 
Unanimes fratres junctos stipante senatu 
Ire forum, strictasque procul radiare secures, 
Atque uno bijuges tolli de limine fasces." 

Claudius, Paneg. in Prob. ct Olyb. Cons. 226. 

From the Anicii the castle passed to the Gaetani. It was 
occupied as a fortress by the Countess Matilda, after she 
had driven the faction of the anti-pope Guibert out of the 
island, and was the refuge where two successive popes, 
Victor III. and Urban II., lived under her protection.* 

The centre of the island is now occupied by the Church 
and Convent of S. Bartolomeo, which gives it its present name. 

The piazza in front of the church is occupied by a pillar, 
erected at the private expense of Pius IX., to commemorate 
the opening of the Vatican Council of 1869 — 70, — adorned 
with statues of St. Bartholomew, St. Paulinus of Nola, St. 
Francis, and S. Giovanni di Dio. Here formerly stood an 
ancient obelisk (the only one of unknown origin). A frag- 
ment of it was long preserved at the Villa Albani, whence it 
is said to have been removed to Urbino. The church, a 
basilica, was founded by Otho III. c. 1000; its campanile 
dates from 11 18. The nave and aisles are divided by red 
granite columns, said to be relics of the ancient temple, — as 
is a marble well-head under the stairs leading to the tribune. 
This was restored in 1798, and dedicated to St. Adalbert 

* See Hemans' Monuments in Rome 


of Gnesen, who bestowed upon the church its great relic, 
the body of St. Bartholomew, which he asserted to have 
brought from Beneventum, though the inhabitants of that 
town profess that they still possess the real body of the 
apostle, and sent that of St. Paulinus of Nola to Rome in- 
stead. The dispute about the possession of this relic ran so 
high as to lead to a siege of Beneventum in the middle ages. 
The convent belongs to the Franciscans (Frati-Minori), who 
will admit male visitors into their pretty little garden at the 
end of the island, to see the remains of 

The Temple of ALscidapius, built after the great plague in 
Rome, in b.c. 291, when, in accordance with the advice of 
the Sibylline books, ambassadors were sent to Epidaurus to 
bring y£sculapius to Rome ; — they returned with a statue of 
the god, but as their vessel sailed up the Tiber, a serpent, 
which had lain concealed during the voyage, glided from it, 
and landed on this spot, hailed by the people under the 
belief that ^Esculapius himself had thus come to them. In 
consequence of this story the form of a ship was given to 
this end of the island, and its bow may still be seen at the 
end of the convent garden, with the famous serpent of 
vEsculapius sculptured upon it in high relief.* The curious 
remains still existing are not of sufficient size to bear out the 
assertion often made that the whole island was enclosed in 
the travertine form of a ship, of which the temple of Jupiter 
at the other end afterwards formed the prow, and the obelisk 
the mast. 

"Pendant les gucrres Samnites, Rome fut de nouveau frappee par 
une deces maladies auxquelles ellc etait souvent en proie ; celle-ci dura 

* Piranesi's engraving shows that a hundred years ago there existed, in addition, 
a colossal bust, and a hand holding the serpent-twined rod of /Esculapius. 


trois annees. On cut recours aux livres Sibyllins. En cas pareil ils 
avaient prescrit de consacrer un temple a Apollon ; cette fois ils pre- 
scrivirent d'aller a Epidaure chercher le fils d' Apollon, Esculape, et de 
l'amener a Rome. Esculape, sous la forme d'un serpent, fut transport^ 
d'Epidaure dans l'ile Tiberine, oil on lui eleva un temple, et oil ont ete 
trouves des ex-voio, representant des bras, des jambes, diverses autres 
parties du corps humain, cx-votos qu'on eut pu croire provenir d'une 
eglise de Rome, car le catholicisme romain a adopte cet usage paiensans 
y rien changer. 

" Pourquoi place-t-on le temple d' Esculape en cet endroit ? On a vu 
que File Tiberine avait ete tres-anciennement consacree au culte d'un 
dieu des Latins primitifs, Faunus ; or ce dieu rendait ses oracles pres 
des sources thermales ; its devaient avoir souvent pourl'objet la guerison 
des malades qui venaient demander la sante a. ces sources. De plus, les 
malades consultaient Esculape dans les songes par incubation, comrne 
dans l'Ovide, Numa va consulter Faunus sur l'Aventin. II n'est done 
pas surprenant qu'on ait institue le culte du dieu grec de la sante, la oil 
le dieu latin Faunus rendait ses oracles dans des songes, et oil etaient 
probablement des sources d'eau chaude qui ont disparu comme les 
lautulcz pres du Forum romain. 

" On donna a l'ile la forme d'un vaisseau, plus tarcl un obelisque figura 
le mat ; en la regardant du Ponte Rotto, on reconnait encore tres bien 
cette forme, de ce cote, on voit sculpte sur le mur qui figure le vaisseau 
d' Esculape line image du dieu avec un serpent entortille autour de son 
sceptre. La belle statue d'Esculape, venue des jardins Farnese, passe 
pour avoir ete celle de File Tiberine. Un temple de Jupiter touchait a 
ce temple d'Esculape. 

" Un jour que je visitais ce lieu, le sacristain de 1'eglise de St. Barthe- 
lemy me dit, ' Al tejnpo d ' Esadapio quando Giove regnava.' Phrase 
singuliere, et qui montre encore vivante une sorte de foi au paganisme 
chez les Romains." — Ampere, iii. 42. 

Opposite S. Bartolomeo, on the site of the temple of 
Faunus, is the Hospital of S. Giovanni Calabita, also called 
BenfratcHi, entirely under the care of the brethren of S. Gio- 
vanni di Dio, who cook, nurse, wash, and otherwise do all 
the work of those who pass under their care, often to the 
number of 1200 in the course of the year, though the hos- 
pital is very small. 


" C'est a PieV. queles freres de 1'ordre de la Charite, institue par saint 
Jean de Dieu, durent leur premier etablissement a Rome. 

' ' Au milieu du cortege triomphal qui accompagnait don Juan 
d'Autriche (1571), lors de son retour de Lepante, on remarquait un 
pauvre homme miserablement vetu et a l'attitude modeste. II se 
nommait Sebastien Arias des freres de yean de Dieu. Jean de Dieu etait 
mort sans laisser d'autre regie a ses disciples que ces touchantes paroles 
qu'il repetait sans cesse, faites le bien, mes freres ; et Sebastien d' Arias 
venait a Rome pour demander au pape l'autorisation de former des 
convents et d' avoir des hospices ou ils pussent suivre les exemples de 
devouement que leur avait laisses Jean de Dieu. Or, Sebastien rencon- 
tra don Juan a Naples, et le vainqueur de Lepante le prit avec lui. II 
se chargea meme d'appuyer sa requete, et Pie V. s'empressa d' ac- 
cord er aux freres non-seulement la bulle qu'ils desiraient, mais encore 
un monastere dans 1'ile du Tibre." — Gourucrie, Rome Chretienne, ii. 

A narrow lane near this leads to the other end of the 
island, where the temple of Jupiter stood. It is worth while 
to go thither for the sake of the view of the river and its 
bridges, which is to be obtained from a little quay leading to 
one of the numerous water-mills which exist near this. 
These floating Mills (which bear sacred monograms upon 
their gables) are interesting as having been invented by 
Belisarius in order to supply the people and garrison with 
bread, during the siege of Rome by Vitiges, when the Goths 
had cut the aqueducts, and thus rendered the mills on the 
Janiculan useless. 

The bridge, of one large and two smaller arches, which 
connects the island with the Trastevere, is now called the 
Ponte S. Bartolomco, but was anciently the Pons Cestius, 
or Gratianus, built a.u.c. 708, by the Praetor Lucius 
Cestius, who was probably father to the Caius Cestius 
buried near the Porta S. Paolo. It was restored a.d. 370 
by the emperors Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, as is seen 


from the fragments of a red letter inscription on the inside 
of the parapet, in which the title " Pontifex Maximus " is 
ascribed to each — ■" a title accepted without hesitation," 
says Gibbon, " by seven Christian emperors, who were in- 
vested with more absolute authority over the religion they 
had deserted, than over that which they professed." 

We now enter the Trastevere, the city " across the Tiber," 
— the portion of Rome which is most unaltered from me- 
diaeval times, and whose narrow streets are still overlooked 
by many ancient towers, gothic windows, and curious frag- 
ments of sculpture. The inhabitants on this side differ in 
many respects from those on the other side of the Tiber. 
They pride themselves upon being born " Trasteverini," 
profess to be the direct descendants of the ancient Romans, 
seldom intermarry with their neighbours, and speak a dialect 
peculiarly their own. It is said that in their dispositions also 
they differ from the other Romans, that they are a far more 
hasty, passionate, and revengeful, as they are a stronger 
and more vigorous race. The proportion of murders (a 
crime far less common in Rome than in England) is larger 
in this than in any other part of the city. This, it is 
believed, is partly due to the extreme excitement which the 
Trasteverini display in the pursuit of their national games, 
especially that of Morra : — 

" Morra is played by the men, and merely consists in holding up, in 
rapid succession, any number of fingers they please, calling out at the 
same time the number their antagonist shows. Nothing, seemingly, 
can be more simple or less interesting. Yet, to see them play, so 
violent are their gestures, that you would imagine them possessed by 
some diabolical passion. The eagerness and rapidity with which they 
carry it on render it very liable to mistake and altercation ; then frenzy 
fires them, and too often furious disputes arise at this trivial play that 

368 WALKS in home. 

end in murder. Morra seems to differ in no respect from the Micare 
Digitis of the ancient Romans." — Eaton ' s Rome. 

A house with gothic windows on the right, soon after 
passing the bridge, is pointed out as that once inhabited by 
the Fornarina, beloved of Raphael, and so well known to us 
from his portrait of her in the Tribune at Florence. 

Crossing the Via Longarina, we find ourselves in the 
little piazza of S. Benedetto a Pisanuola, where there is a 
tiny church, with a good brick campanile intersected by 
terra-cotta mouldings, which occupies the site of the house 
inhabited by St. Benedict before his retreat to Subiaco. 
The exterior is uninviting, but the interior very curious ; 
an atrium with antique columns opens to a vaulted chapel 
(of the same design as the Orto del Paradiso at Sta. 
Prassede), in which is a picture of the Virgin and Child, 
revered as that before which St. Benedict was wont to pray. 
Hence is entered the cell of the saint, of rough-hewn 
stones. His stone pillow is shown. 

The church has ancient pillars, and a rich opus-alexan- 
drinum pavement. 

" Over the high altar is a picture — full-length — of St. Benedict, which 
Mabillon (' Iter Italicum ') considers a genuine contemporary portrait — 
though Nibby and other critics suppose it less ancient. The figure on 
gold background is seated in a chair with gothic carvings, such as were 
in mediaeval use ; the black cowl is drawn over the head, the hair and 
beard are white ; the aspect is serious and thoughtful, in one hand a 
crozier, in the other the book of rules drawn up by the Saint, dis- 
playing the words with which they begin : ' Ausculta fili precepta 
magistri." — Ilemans Ancient Sacred Art. 

Turning down the Via Longarina towards the river, we 
pass, on the left, considerable remains of the old mediaeval 
Castle of the Albaicsclii Family, consisting of a block of 


palatial buildings of handsome masonry, with numerous 
antique fragments built into them, and a very rich porch 
sculptured with egg and billet mouldings of c. a.d. 1150, 
and beyond these, separated from them by a modern street, 
a high brick tower of c. a.d. iioo. Above one of the 
windows of this tower, a head of Jupiter is engrafted in the 

We now reach the entrance of the Ponte Rotto (de- 
scribed Chap. V.). Close to this bridge is the Church of 
S. Crispino al Ponte (the saint is buried at S. Lorenzo Pane 
e Perna). The front is modernized, but the east end 
displays rich terra-cotta cornices, and is very picturesque. 
On the river bank below this are the colossal lions' heads 
mentioned in Chap. V. 

Turning up the Via dei Vascellari, we pass on the right, 
the ancient Palace of the Ponziani Family, once magnificent, 
but now of humble and rude exterior, and scarcely to be 
distinguished, except in March, during the festa of Sta. Fran- 
cesca Romana, when old tapestries are hung out upon its 
white-washed walls, and the street in front is thickly strewn 
with box-leaves. 

" The modern building that has been raised on the foundation of the 
old palace is the Casa dei Esercizii Pii, for the young men of the city. 
There the repentant sinner who longs to break the chain of sin, the 
youth beset by some strong temptation, one who has heard the inward 
voice summoning him to higher paths of virtue, another who is in doubt 
as to the particular line of life to which he is called, may come, and 
leave behind him for three, or five, or ten days, as it may be, the busy 
world, with all its distractions and its agitations, and, free for the time 
being from temporal cares, the wants of the body being provided for, 
and the mind at rest, may commune with God and their own souls. 

"Over the Casa dei Esercizii Pii the sweet spirit of Francesca seems 
still to preside. On the day of her festival its rooms are thrown open, 

VOL. II. 24 


every memorial of the gentle saint is exhibited, lights burn on numerous 
altars, flowers deck the passages, leaves are strewn in the chapel, on the 
stairs, in the entrance-court ; gay carpets, figured tapestry, and crimson 
silks hang over the door, and crowds of people go in and out, and kneel 
before the relics or the pictures of the dear saint of Rome. It is a 
touching festival, which carries back the mind to the day when the 
young bride of Lorenzo Ponziano entered these walls for the first 
time, in all the sacred beauty of holiness and youth." — Lady G. 

In this house, also, Sta. Francesca Romana died, having 
come hither from her convent to nurse her son who was 
ill, and having been then seized with mortal illness her- 

" Touching were the last words of the dying mother to her spiritual 
children : ' Love, love,' was the burden of her teaching, as it had been 
that of the beloved disciple. 'Love one another,' she said, 'and be 
faithful unto death. Satan will assault you, as he has assaulted me, 
but be not afraid. You will overcome him through patience and obedi- 
ence ; and no trial will be too grievous, if you are united to Jesus ; if 
you walk in His ways, He will be with you.' On the seventh day of 
her illness, as she had herself announced, her life came to a close. A 
sublime expression animated her face, a more ethereal beauty clothed 
her earthly form. Her confessor for the last time inquired what it was 
her enraptured eyes beheld, and she answered, ' The heavens open! the 
angels descend ! the ahgel has finished his task. He stands before me. 
He beckons me to follow him.' These were the last words Francesca 
uttered." — Lady G. FullertoiC s Life of Sta. F. Romana. 

Almost opposite the Ponziani Palace, an alley leads to 
the small chapel of Sta. Maria in Caffclla, which has a good 
brick campanile, dating from 1090. This building is 
attached to a hospital for poor women ill of incurable 
diseases, attended by sisters of charity, and entirely under 
the patronage of the Doria family. 

We now reach the front of the Convent and Church of Sta. 
Cecilia (facing which is a picturesque mediaeval house), in 


many ways one of the most interesting buildings in the 

Cecilia was a noble and rich Roman lady, who lived in 
the reign of Alexander Severus. She was married at six- 
teen to Valerian, a heathen, with whom she lived in per- 
petual virginity, telling him that her guardian angel watched 
over her by day and night. 

" I have an angel which thus loveth me — 
That with great love, whether I wake or sleep, 
Is ready aye my body for to keep." 


At length Valerian and his brother Tiburtius were con- 
verted to Christianity by her prayers, and the exhortations 
of Pope Urban I. The husband and brother were be- 
headed for refusing to sacrifice to idols, and Cecilia was 
shortly afterwards condemned by Almachius, prefect of 
Rome, who was covetous of the great wealth she had inhe- 
rited by their deaths. She was first shut up in the Suda- 
torium of her own baths, and a blazing fire was lighted, 
that she might be destroyed by the hot vapours. But 
when the bath was opened, she was found still living, " for 
God," says the legend, " had sent a cooling shower, which 
had tempered the heat of the fire, and preserved the life of 
the saint." Almachius, then, who dreaded the consequences 
of bringing so noble and courageous a victim to public 
execution, sent a lictor to behead her in her own palace, 
but he executed his office so ill, that she still lived after 
the third blow of his axe, after which the Roman law for- 
bade that a victim should be stricken again. " The Chris- 
tians found her bathed in her blood, and during three days 
she still preached and taught, like a doctor of the Church, 


with such sweetness and eloquence, that four hundred 
pagans were converted. On the third day she was visited 
by Pope Urban, to whose care she tenderly committed the 
poor whom she nourished, and to him she bequeathed the 
palace in which she had lived, that it might be consecrated 
as a temple to the Saviour. Then, " thanking God that he 
considered her, a humble woman, worthy to share the glory 
of his heroes, and with her eyes apparently fixed upon the 
heavens opening before her, she departed to her heavenly 
bridegroom, upon the 22nd November, a.d. 280." 

The foundation of the church dates from its consecration 
by Pope Urban I., after the death of St. Cecilia, but it was 
rebuilt by Paschal I. in 821, and miserably modernized by 
Cardinal Doria in 1725. The exterior retains its ancient 
campanile of 11 20, and its atrium of marble pillars, evi- 
dently collected from pagan edifices and surmounted by a 
frieze of mosaic, in which medallion heads of Cecilia, Vale- 
rian, Tiburtius, Urban L, and others are introduced. In 
the courtyard of the convent, which belongs to Benedictine 
nuns, is a fine specimen of the Roman vase called Can- 
tharus, perhaps coeval with St. Cecilia's own residence 

Right of the door, on entering, is the tomb of Adam of 
Hertford, Bishop of London, who died 1398, the only one 
spared from a cruel death, of the cardinals who conspired 
against Urban VI., and were taken prisoners at Lucera — from 
fear of King John who was his friend. His sarcophagus is 
adorned with the arms of England, then three leopards and 
fleurs-de-lis quartered. On the opposite side of the entrance 
is the tomb of Cardinal Fortiguerra, conspicuous in the 
contests of Pius II. and Paul 11. with the Malatestas and 


Savellis in the fifteenth century. The drapery is a beau- 
tiful specimen of the delicate carving of detail during that 

The altar canopy, which bears the name of its artist, Arnol- 
phus, and the date 1286, is a fine specimen of gothic work, 
and has statuettes of Cecilia, Valerian, Tiburtius, and 
Urban. Beneath the altar is the famous statue of St. 

In the archives of the Vatican remains an account 
written by Pope Paschal I. (a.d. Si 7 — 24) himself, describing 
how, " yielding to the infirmity of the flesh," he fell asleep 
in his chair during the early morning service at St. Peter's, 
with his mind pre-occupied with a longing to find the 
burial-place of Cecilia, and discover her relics. Then in a 
glorified vision the virgin-saint appeared before him, and 
revealed the spot where she lay, with her husband and 
brother-in-law, in the catacomb of Calixtus, and there they 
were found, and transported to her church on the following 

In the sixteenth century, Sfondrato, titular cardinal of 
the church, opened the tomb of the martyr, when the em- 
balmed body of Cecilia was found, as it had been previously 
found by Paschal, robed in gold tissue, with linen clothes 
steeped in blood at her feet, " not lying upon the back, like 
a body in a tomb, but upon its right side, like a virgin in 
her bed, with her knees modestly drawn together, and 
offering the appearance of sleep." Pope Clement VIII. 
and all the people of Rome rushed to look upon the saint, 
who was afterwards enclosed as she was found, in a shrine 
of cypress wood cased in silver. But before she was again 
hidden from sight, the greatest artist of the day, Stefano 


Maderno, was called in by Sfondrato, to sculpture the 
marble portrait which we now see lying upon her grave. 
Sfondrato (whose tomb is in this church) also enriched her 
shrine with the ninety-six silver lamps which burn con- 
stantly before it. In regarding this statue it will be remem- 
bered that Cecilia was not beheaded, but wounded in the 
throat, — a gold circlet conceals the wound. 

In the statue " the body lies on its side, the limbs a little drawn up ; 
the hands are delicate and tine, — they are not locked, but crossed at the 
wrists : the arms are stretched out. The drapery is beautifully mo- 
delled, and modestly covers the limbs It is the statue of 

a lady, perfect in form, and affecting from the resemblance to reality in 
the drapery of white marble, and the unspotted appearance of the statue 
altogether. It lies as no living body could lie, and yet correctly, as the 
dead when left to expire, — I mean in the gravitation of the limbs." — Sir 
C. Bell. 

The inscription says : "Behold the body of the most holy virgin 
Cecilia, whom I myself saw lying incorrupt in her tomb. I have in 
this marble expressed for thee the same saint in the very same posture 
of body." 

The tribune is adorned with mosaics of the ninth cen- 
tury, erected in the lifetime of Paschal I. (see his square 
nimbus). The Saviour is seen in the act of benediction, 
robed in gold : at his side are SS. Peter and Paul, St. Cecilia 
and St. Valerian, St. Paschal I. carrying the model of his 
church, and St. Agatha, whom he joined with Cecilia in its 
dedication. The mystic palm-trees and the phoenix, the 
emblem of eternity, are also represented, and, beneath, the 
four rivers, and the twelve sheep, emblematical of the apos- 
tles, issuing from the gates of Bethlehem and Jerusalem, 
to the adoration of the spotless Lamb. The picture of St. 
Cecilia behind the altar is attributed to Guido. 

A I the end of the right aisle is an ancient fresco repre- 

STA. CECIL/A. 375 

senting the dream of Pope Paschal, — the (mitred) pope 
asleep upon his throne, and the saint appearing before him 
in a rich robe adorned with gems. This is the last of a 
series of frescoes which once existed in the portico of the 
church. The rest were destroyed in the seventeenth century. 
There are copies of them in the Barberini Library, viz. 

1. The marriage feast of Valerian and Cecilia. 

2. Cecilia persuades Valerian to seek for St. Urban. 

3. Valerian rides forth to seek for Urban. 

4. Valerian is baptized. 

5. An Angel crowns Cecilia and Valerian. 

6. Cecilia converts her executioners. 

7. Cecilia suffers in the bath. 

8. The Martyrdom of Cecilia. 

9. The Burial of Cecilia. 
10. The dream of Paschal. 

Opening out of the same aisle are two chambers in the 
house of St. Cecilia, one the sudatorium of her baths, in 
which she was immured, actually retaining the pipes and 
calorifers of an ancient Roman bath. 

The Festa of St. Cecilia is observed in this church on 
November 22nd, when — 

— "rapt Cecilia, seraph-haunted queen of harmony" — * 

is honoured in beautiful music from the papal choir as- 
sembled here. Visitors to Bologna will recollect the glori- 
ous figure of St. Cecilia by Raphael, rapt in ecstasy, and 
surrounded by instruments of music. This association with 
Cecilia probably arises from the tradition of the church, 
which tells how Valerian, returning from baptism by Pope 
Urban, found her singing hymns of triumph for his conver- 
sion, of which he had supposed her to be ignorant, and that 

* Wordsworth. 


when the bath was opened after her three days' imprison- 
ment, she was again found singing the praises of her 

It is said that " she sang with such ravishing sweetness, 
that even the angels descended from heaven to listen to 
her, or to join their voices with hers." 

The antiphons sung upon her festival are . 

" And Cecilia, thy servant, serves thee, O Lord, even as the bee that 
is never idle. 

" I bless thee, O Father of my Lord Jesus Christ, for through thy 
Son the fire hath been quenched round about me. 

" I asked of the Lord a respite of three days, that I might consecrate 
my house as a church. 

"O Valerian, I have a secret to tell thee ; I have for my lover an 
angel of God, who, with great jealousy, watches over my body. 

"The glorious virgin ever bore the Gospel of Christ in her bosom, and 
neither by day nor night ceased from conversing with God in prayer." 

And the anthem : 

" While the instruments of music were playing, Cecilia sang unto the 
Lord, and said, Let my heart be undefiled, that I may never be con- 

"And Valerianus found Cecilia praying in her chamber with an 

It will be remembered that Cecilia is one of the chosen 
saints daily commemorated in the canon of the mass. 

"Nobis quoque peccatoribus famulis tuts, de multitudine misera- 
tionum tuarum sperantibus, partem aliquam et societatem donare digneris 
cum tuis Sanctis Apostolis et Martyribus : cum Joanne, Stephano, 
Matthia, Bamaba, Ignatio, Alexandro, Marcellino, Fetro, Felicitate, 
Perpetua, Agata, Lucia, Agnete, Cacilia, Anastasia, et omnibus 

Just beyond St. Cecilia is the immense Hospital of S. 
Michele, founded by Cardinal Odescalchi, nephew of Inno- 
cent XI., in 1693, as a refuge for vagabond children, where 

S. MICHELE. 377 

they might be properly brought up and taught a trade. 
Innocent XII. (Pignatelli) added to this foundation a hos- 
pital for sick persons of both sexes, and each succeeding 
pope has increased the buildings and their endowment. 
The establishment is now divided into an asylum for old 
men and women, a school with ateliers for boys and girls, 
and a penitentiary (" Casa delle Donne cattive "). A large 
church was attached to the hospital by Leo XII. No old 
men are admitted who have not inhabited Rome for five 
years ; if they are still able to work a small daily task is 
given to them. The old women, as long as they can work, 
are obliged to mend and wash the linen of the establish- 
ment. The boys, for the most part orphans, are received 
at the age of eleven. The girls receive a dowry of 300 
francs if they marry, but double that sum if they consent 
to enter a convent. A printing press is attached to the 

S. Michele occupies the site of the sacred grove of the 
goddess Furina (not of the Furies), where Caius Gracchus 
was killed, B.C. 123. Protected by his friends, he escaped 
from the Aventine, where he had first taken refuge, and 
crossed the Pons Sublicius. A single slave reached the 
grove of Furina with him, who having in vain sought for a 
horse to continue their flight, first slew his master and 
then himself. One Septimuleius then cut off the head of 
Gracchus, and — a proclamation having been issued that any 
one who brought the head of Caius Gracchus should receive 
its weight in gold — first filled it with lead, and then carried 
it on a spear to the consul Opimius, who paid him his 

At the end of this street is the Porta Portese, built by 


Urban VIII.., through which runs the road to Porto and 

Outside this gate was the site of the camp of Tarquin, — • 
afterwards given by the senate to Mutius-Scsevola, for 
his bravery in the camp of Lars Porsenna. The vine- 
yards here have an interest to Roman Catholics as the 
scene of one of the miracles attributed to Sta. Francesca 

" One fine sunny January day, Francesca and her companions had. 
worked since dawn in the vineyards of the Porta Portese. They had 
worked hard for several hours, and then suddenly remembered that they 
had brought no provisions with them. They soon became faint and 
hungry, and, above all, very thirsty. Perna, the youngest of all the 
oblates, was particularly heated and tired, and asked permission of the 
Mother Superior to go to drink water at a fountain some way off on the 
public road. 

" ' Be patient, my child,' Francesca answered, and they went on with 
their work ; but Francesca withdrawing aside, knelt down, and said, 
' Lord Jesus, I have been thoughtless in forgetting to provide food for 
my sisters, — help us in our need.' 

"Perna, who had kept near the Mother Superior, said to herself, 
with some impatience, ' It would be more to the purpose to take us 
home at once.' Then Francesca, turning to her, said, ' My child, you 
do not trust in God ; look up and see.' And Perna saw a vine entwined 
around a tree, whose dead and leafless branches were loaded with grapes. 
In speechless astonishment the oblates assembled around the tree, for 
they had all seen its bare and withered branches. Twenty times at least 
they had passed before it, and the season for grapes was gone by. 
There were exactly as many bunches as persons present.' — See Lady G. 
Fullertoris Life of Sta. F. Romana. 

From the back of S. Michele a cross street leads to the 
Church of Sta. Maria deW Orto, designed by Giulio Ro- 
mano, c. 1530, except the facade, which is by Martino 
Lunghi. The high altar is by Giacomo della Porta. The 
church contains an Annunciation by Taddeo Zucchcro. 


" Cette eglise appartient a plusieurs corporations ; chacunca sa tombe 
devant sa propre chapelle, et sur le couvercle sont gravees ses armespar- 
ticulicres ; 1111 coq sur la tombe des marchands de volaille, une pan- 
touffle sur celle des savetiers, des artichauts sur celledes jardiniere, &c." 
— Robcllo. 

Close to this, at the end of the street which runs parallel 
with S. Michele, is the Church of S. Francesco a Ripa, the 
noviciate of the Franciscans — " Frati Minori." The convent 
contains the room (approached through the church) in which 
St. Francis lived, during his visits at Rome, with many 
relics of him. His stone pillow and his crucifix are shown, 
and a picture of him by G. de' Lettesoli. An altar in his 
chamber supports a reliquary in which 18,000 relics are 
displayed ! 

The church was rebuilt soon after the death of St. 
Francis by the knight Pandolfo d' Anquillara (his castle is in 
the Via Lungaretta), whose tomb is in the church, with his 
figure, in the dress of a Franciscan monk, which he assumed 
in the latter part of his life. It was again rebuilt by 
Cardinal Pallavicini, from designs of Matteo Rossi. Among 
its pictures are the Virgin and St. Anne by Baciccio, the 
Nativity by Simon Vouet, and a dead Christ by Annibale 
Caracci. On the left of the altar is the Altieri chapel, in 
which is a recumbent statue of the blessed Luigi Albertoni, 
by Bernini. In the third chapel on the right is a mummy, 
said to be that of the virgin martyr Sta. Semplicia. The 
convent garden has some beautiful palm-trees. 

Following the Via Morticelli we regain the Via Lunga- 
retta near S. Benedetto. This street, more than any other 
in Rome, retains remnants of mediaeval architecture. On 
the right (opposite the opening to the west end of S. Chri- 
sogono) is the entrance to the old Castle of the An^uil- 


lara Family, of whom were Count Pandolfo d' Anguillara 
already mentioned, and Everso, his grandson, celebrated 
for his highway robberies between Rome and Viterbo in 
the fifteenth century ; also Orso d' Anguillara, senator of 
Rome, who crowned Petrarch at the Capitol on Easter 
Day, 1341. "The family device, two crossed eels, sur- 
mounted by a helmet, and a wild boar holding a serpent in 
his mouth, is believed to refer to the story of the founder of 
their house, Malagrotta, a second St. George, who slew a 
terrible serpent, which had devastated the district round his 
abode, and received in recompense from the pope the gift 
of as much land as he could walk round in one day."* 

The existing remains consist of an arch, called " L' Arco 
dell' Annunziata," and a brick tower, which is now in the 
possession of a Signor Forti, who exhibits here, during 
Epiphany, a remarkably pretty Presepio, in which the Holy 
Family and the Shepherds are seen backed by the real 
landscape. For those who witness this sight it will be inter- 
esting to turn to the origin of a Presepio. 

" St. Francis asked [of Pope Honorius III. 1223], with his usual 
simplicity, to be allowed to celebrate Christmas with certain unusual 
ceremonies which had suggested themselves to him — ceremonies which 
he must have thought likely to seize upon the popular imagination and 
impress the unlearned folk. He would not do it on his own authority, 
we are told, lest he should be accused of levity. When he made this 
petition, he was bound for the village of Grecia, a little place not far 
from Assisi, where he was to remain during that sacred season. In this 
village, w hen the eve of the nativity approached, Francis instructed a cer- 
tain grave and worthy man, called Giovanni, to prepare an ox and an 
ass, along with a manger and all the common fittings of a stable, for his 
use, in the church. When the solemn night arrived, Francis and his 
brethren arranged all these things into a visible representation of the oc- 
currences of the night at Bethlehem. The manger was filled with hay, 

* Remans' Monuments in Rome. 


the animals were led into their places ; the scene was prepared as we 
see it now through all the churches of Southern Italy — a reproduction, 
so far as the people know how, in startling realistic detail of the sur- 
roundings of the first Christmas We are told that Francis 

stood by this, his simple theatrical (for such, indeed, it was — no shame 
to him) representation, all the night long, sighing for joy, and filled with 
an unspeakable sweetness." — Mrs. Oliphant, St. Francis. 

On the left, is the fine Church of S. Chrisogono, founded by- 
Pope Sylvester, but rebuilt in 731, and again by Cardinal 
Scipio Borghese (who modernized so many of the old 
churches), in 1623. The tower is mediaeval (rebuilt?), but 
spoilt by whitewash ; the portico has four ancient granite 
columns. The interior is a basilica, the nave being separ- 
ated from the aisles by twenty-two granite columns, and 
the tribune from the nave by two magnificent columns of 
porphyry. The baldacchino, of graceful proportions, rests 
on pillars of yellow alabaster. Over the tabernacle is a 
picture of the Virgin and Child by the Cav. d'Arpino. The 
mosaic in the tribune, probably only the fragment of a 
larger design, represents the Madonna and Child enthroned, 
between St. James the Great and St. Chrisogonus. The 
stalls are good specimens of modern wood-carving. Near 
the end of the right aisle is the modern tomb of Anna 
Maria Taigi, lately beatified and likely to be canonized, 
though readers of her life will find it difficult to imagine 
why, — the great point of her character being that she was 
a good wife to her husband, though he was "ruvido di 
maniere, e grossolano." Stephen Langton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, was titular cardinal of this church. 

S. Chrisogono, represented in the mosaic as a young 
knight, stood by Sta. Anastasia during her martyrdom, ex- 
horting her to patient endurance. He was afterwards him- 


self beheaded under Diocletian, and his body thrown into 
the sea. 

In 1S66 an Excubitorium of the vnth cohort of Vigiles 
(a station of Roman firemen) was discovered near this 
church. Several chambers were tolerably perfect. 

On the left, we pass the Hospital of S. Gallicano, founded 
by Benedict XIII. (Orsini), in 1725, as is told by the inscrip- 
tion over the entrance, for the " neglectis rejectisque ab 
omnibus." The interior contains two long halls opening 
into one another, the first containing 120 beds for men, 
the second 88 for women. Patients affected with maladies 
of the skin are received here to the number of 100. The 
principal treatment is by means of baths, which gives the 
negative, within these walls, to the Italian saying that " an 
ancient Roman took as many baths in a week as a modern 
Roman in all his life." The establishment is at present 
under the management of the Benfratelli (" Fate bene 
fratelli "). S. Gallicano, to whom the hospital is dedicated, 
was a Benfratello of the time of Constantine, who devoted 
his time and his fortune to the poor. 

At the upper end of the Via Lungaretta is. a piazza with a 
very handsome fountain, on one side of which is the Church 
of Sta. Maria in Trastevere, supposed to be the first church 
in Rome dedicated to the Virgin. It was founded by St. 
Calixtus in a.d. 224, on the site of the Taberna-Meritoria, 
an asylum for old soldiers ; where, according to Don Cas- 
sius, a fountain of pure oil sprang up at the time of our 
Saviour's birth, and flowed away in one day to the Tiber, a 
Story which gave the name of " Fons Olei " to the church in 
early times. It is said that wine-sellers and tavern-keepers 
(popinarii) disputed with the early Christian inhabitants for 


this site, upon which the latter had raised some kind of 
humble oratory, and that they carried their complaint before 
Alexander Severus, when the emperor awarded the site to 
the Christians, saying, " I prefer that it should belong to 
those who honour God, whatever be their form of worship." 

" Ce souvenir augmente encore l'interet qui s'attache a 1'eglise de 
Santa Maria in Trastevere. . Les colonnes antiques de granit egyptien 
de cette basilique et les belles mosai'ques qui la decorent me touchent 
moins que la tradition d'apres laquelle elle fut elevee la 011 de pauvres 
Chretiens se rassemblaient dans un cabaret purine par leur piete, pour y 
celebrer le culte qui devait un jour etaler ses magnificences sous le dome 
resplendissant de Saint-Pierre." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 318. 

The church was rebuilt in 340 by Julius I., and after a 
series of alterations was again almost entirely reconstructed 
in 1139 by Innocent II., as a thanksgiving offering for the 
submission of the anti-pope. Eugenius III. (1145 — 5°) 
finished what was left uncompleted, but the new basilica 
was not consecrated till the time of Innocent III. (1198 — 
1 2 16). The tower, apse, tribune, and mosaics belong to 
the early restoration ; the rest is due to alterations made by 
Bemardino Rossellini for Nicholas V. 

The west facade is covered with mosaics \ the upper part 
— representing the Saviour throned between angels — and the 
lower — of palms, the twelve sheep, and the mystic cities — are 
additions by Pius IX. in 1869. The central frieze was 
begun in the twelfth century under Eugenius III., and com- 
pleted in the fourteenth by Pietro Cavallini. It represents 
the Virgin and Child enthroned in the midst, and ten female 
figures, generally described as the Ten Virgins, — but Hemans 
remarks : 

"It is evident that such subject cannot have been in the artist's 
thoughts, as each stately figure advances towards the throne with the 


same devout aspect and graceful serenity, the same faith and confidence ; 
the sole observable distinctions being that the two with unlit lamps are 
somewhat more matronly, their costumes simpler, than is the case with 
the rest ; and that instead of being crowned, as are the others, these 
two wear veils. Explanation of such attributes may be found in the 
mystic meaning — the light being appropriate to virgin saints, the oil 
taken to signify benevolence or almsgiving ; and we may conclude that 
those without light represent wives or widows, the others virgin saints, 
in this group. Two other diminutive figures (the scale indicating 
humility), who kneel at the feet of Mary, are Innocent II. and Eugenius 
III., both vested in the pontifical mantle, but bareheaded. Originally the 
Mother and Child alone had the nimbus around the head, as we see in a 
water-colour drawing from this, original (now in the Barberini Library) 
dated 1640, made before a renovation by which that halo has been given 
alike to all the female figures. Another much faded mosaic, the Madonna 
and Child, under an arched canopy, high up on the campanile, may per- 
haps be as ancient as those on the facade." — Mediaeval Christian Art. 

The portico contains two frescoes of the Annunciation, 
one of them ascribed to Cavallini. Its walls are occupied 
by early Christian and pagan inscriptions. One, of the time 
of Trajan, is regarded with peculiar interest : " marcus 


the doors is preserved a curious relic — the stone said to have 
been attached to St. Calixtus when he was thrown into the 
well. The interior is that of a basilica. The nave, paved 
with opus-alexandrinum, is divided from the aisles by twenty- 
two ancient granite columns, whose Ionic capitals are in 
several instances decorated with heads of pagan gods. They 
support a richly-decorated architrave. The roof, in the 
1 'Hire of which is a picture of the Assumption of the Vir- 
gin, is painted by Domenichino. On the right of the entrance 
is a ciborium by Mino da Fiesole. The high altar covers a 
confessional, beneath which are the remains of five early 


popes, removed from the catacombs. Among the tombs are 
those of the painters, Lanfranco and Ciro Ferri, and of Bas- 
tari, librarian of the Vatican, editor of the dictionary of the 
Delia Cruscan Academy, and canon of this church, ob. 1775. 

Pope Innocent II. is buried here without a tomb. 

In the left transept is a beautiful gothic tabernacle over 
an altar, erected by Cardinal d'Alengon, nephew of Charles 
de Valois, and brother of Philippe le Bel. On one side is 
the tomb of that cardinal (the fresco represents the martyrdom 
of his patron St. Philip, who is pourtrayed as crucified with his 
head downwards like St. Peter); on the other is the monument 
of Cardinal Stefaneschi, by Paolo, one of the first sculptors 
of the fourteenth century. Opening from hence is a chapel, 
which has a curious picture of the Council of Trent by Taddeo 
Zucchero. At the end of the right aisle are several more 
fine tombs of the sixteenth century, and the chapel of the 
Madonna di Strada Cupa, designed by Domenichino, from 
whose hand is the figure of a child scattering flowers, 
sketched out in one corner of the vaulting. 

The upper part of the tribune is adorned with magni- 
ficent mosaics, (restored in modern times by Camuccini,) of 
the time of Innocent II. 

" In the centre of the principal group on the vault is the Saviour, 
seated, with his Mother, crowned and robed like an Eastern Queen, 
beside him, both sharing the same gorgeous throne and footstool ; 
while a hand extends from a fan-like glory with a jewelled crown held 
over his head ; she (a singular detail here) giving benediction with the 
usual action ; He embracing her with the left arm, and in the right 
hand holding a tablet that displays the words ' Veni, electa mea, et 
ponam in thronum meum ; ' to which corresponds the text, from the song 
of Solomon, on a tablet in her left hand, 'Lceva ejus sub capite meo et 
dextera illius amplexabitur me.' Below the heavenly throne stand, each 
with name inscribed in gold letters, Innocent II., holding a model of 
vol. 11. 25 


this church ; St. Laurence, in deacon's vestments, with the Gospels and 
the jewelled cross ; the sainted popes, Calixtus I., Cornelius, and Julius 
I. ; St. Peter (in classic white vestments), and Calepodius, a martyr of 
the third century, here introduced because his body, together with those 
of the other saints in the same group, was brought from the catacombs 
to this church. 

"As to ecclesiastical costume, this work affords decisive evidence of 
its ancient splendour and varieties. We do not see the keys in the hands 
of St. Peter, but the large tonsure on his head ; that ecclesiastical badge 
which he is said to have invented, and which is sometimes the sole 
peculiarity (besides the ever-recognisable type) given to this Apostle 
in art. 

" Above the archivolt we see a cross between the Alpha and Omega, 
and the winged emblems of the Evangelists ; laterally, Jeremiah and 
Isaiah, each with a prophetic text on a scroll; along a frieze below, 
twelve sheep advancing from the holy cities, Jerusalem and Bethlehem, 
towards the Divine Lamb, who stands on a mount whence issue the four 
rivers of Paradise — or, according to perhaps juster interpretation, the 
four streams of gospel truth. Palms and a phoenix are seen beside the 
two prophets ; also a less common symbol — caged birds, that signify the 
righteous soul incarcerated in the body, or (with highest reference) the 
Saviour in his assumed humanity ; such accessory reminding of the 
ancient usage, in some countries, of releasing birds at funerals, and of 
that still kept up amidst the magnificent canonization-rites, of offering 
various kinds of birds, in cages, at the papal throne. 

" Remembering the date of the composition before us, about a 
century and a half before the time of Cimabue and Giotto, we may hail 
in it, if not an actual Renaissance, the dawn, at least, that heralds a 
brighter day for art, compared with the deep gloom previous." — Hc7?ians 
Mediccval Christian Art. 

Below these are another series of mosaics representing 
six scenes in the life of the Virgin, the work of Pietro Ca- 
vallini, of the thirteenth century, when they were ordered 
by Bertoldo Stefaneschi, who is himself introduced in 
one of the subjects. In the centre of the tribune is an 
ancient marble episcopal throne, raised by a flight of steps. 

In the Sacristy is a picture of the Virgin with S. Rocco 
and S. Sebastiano, by Penigino. Here are preserved some 

S. CALISTO. 387 

beautiful fragments of mosaics of birds, &c, from the cata- 

Outside the right transept of Sta. Maria is a picturesque 
shrine, and there are many points about this ancient church 
which are interesting to the artist. The palace, which forms 
one side of the piazza at the west end of the church, formerly 
Palazzo Moroni, is now used as the summer residence of the 
Benedictine monks of S. Paolo, who are driven from their 
convent by the malaria during the hot months. During the 
revolutionary government of 1848 — 49, a number of priests 
suffered death here, which has led to the monastery being 
regarded as " the Carmes of Rome." The modern Church 
of S. Calisto contains the well in which he suffered martyr- 
dom, a.d. 222. This well, now seen through a door near 
the altar, was then in the open air, and the pope was 
thrown into it from the window of a house in which he 
had been imprisoned and scourged, and where he had con- 
verted the soldier who was appointed to guard him. His festi- 
val is celebrated here with great splendour by the monks. 

Opposite S. Calisto is the Monastery of St. Anna, in 
which were passed the last days of the beautiful and learned 
Vittoria Colonna. As her death approached she was re- 
moved to the neighbouring house of her kinsman Giuliano 
Cesarini, and there she expired (February, 1547) in the 
presence of her devoted friend, Michael Angelo, who always 
regretted that he had not in that solemn moment ventured 
to press his lips for the first and last time to her beautiful 
countenance. She was buried, by her own desire, in the 
convent chapel, without any monument. 

Hence a lane leads to the Church of S. Cosimato, in an 
open space facing the hill of S. Rietro in Montorio (where 


stands of seats are placed during the Girandola). A court- 
yard is entered through a low arch supported by two ancient 
columns, having a high roof with rich terra-cotta mouldings, 
— beautiful in colour. The court contains an antique foun- 
tain, and is exceedingly picturesque. The church has care- 
fully sculptured details of cornice and moulding ; the door 
is a good specimen of mediaeval wood-carving. The wall 
on the left of the altar is occupied by a most beautiful fresco 
of Pinturicchio, representing St. Francis and St. Clare stand- 
ing on either side of the Virgin and Child. Opening from 
the end of the left aisle is a very interesting chapel, decor- 
ated with frescoes, and containing a most beautiful altar of 
the fifteenth century, in honour of the saints Severa and 
Fortunata, with statuettes of Faith, Justice, Charity, and 
Hope. Attached to the church is a very large convent of 
Poor Clares, which produced two saints, Theodora and 
Seraphina, in the fifteenth century. 

Following the Via della Scala, on the south side of Sta. 
Maria in Trastevere, we reach the Porta Settimiana, built by 
Alexander VI. on the site of a gateway raised by Honorius, 
which marked the position of an arch of Septimius Severus. 
This is the entrance of the Via Lungara, containing the 
Corsini and Farnesina Palaces (see Chapter XX.). The 
gateway has forked battlements, but is much spoilt by recent 
plasterings. Near this is Sta. Dorotca, an ugly church, but 
important in church history from its connection with the 
foundation of the Order of the Theatins, which arose out of 
a revulsion from the sensuous age of Leo X. ; and as con- 
taining the tomb of their founder, Don Gaetano di Teatino, 
the friend of Paul IV. 

"Des le regne de Leon X., quelqucs symptomes d'une reaction 


religieuse se manifesterent dans les hautes classes de la societe romaine. 
On vit un certain nombre d'hommes eminents s'affilier les uns aux 
autres, afin de trouver dans de saintes pratiques assez de force pour 
resister a l'atmosphere enervante qui les entourait. lis prirent pour leur 
association le titre et les emblemes de l'amour divin, et ils s'assemble- 
rent, a des jours determines, dans l'eglise de Sainte-Dorothee, pits de la 
porte Settimiana. Parmi ces hommes de foi et d'avenir, on citait un 
archeveque, Caraffa ; un protonotaire apostolique, Gaetan de Thiene ; 
un noble Venitien aussi distingue par son caractere que par ses talents, 
Contarini ; et cinquante autres dont les noms rappellaient tons, ou une 
illustration ou une haute position sociale, tels que Lippomano, Sadolet ? 

"Mais bientot ces premiers essais de rupture avec la tendance 
generale des esprits enflammerent le zele de plusieurs des membres de 
la Congregation de V Amour divin. Caraffa surtout, dont fame ardente 
n'avait trouve qu'anxietes et fatigue dans les grandeurs, aspirait a une 
vie d'action qui lui permit de s' employer, de tous ses moyens, a. la 
reforme du monde. II trouva dans Gaetan de Thiene des dispositions 
conformes a ce qu'il desirait. Gaetan avait cependant un caractere tres- 
different du sien ; doue d'une angelique douceur, craignant de se faire 
entendre, recherchant la meditation et la retraite, il eut voulu, lui aussi, 
reformer le monde, mais il n'eut pas voulu en etre connu. Les qualites 
diverses de ces deux hommes rares se combinerent heureusement dans 
l'execution du projet qu'ils avaient concu, c'etaitde former des ecclesias- 
tiques voues, tout ensemble a la contemplation et a une vie austere, a la 
predication et au soin des malades ; des ecclesiastiques qui donnassent 
partout au clerge l'exemple de l'accomplissement des devoirs de sa 
sainte mission."— Goumerie, Rome Chrcticiuie, ii. 157. 

"When Dorothea, the maiden of Caesarea, was condemned to death 
by Sapritius, she replied, ' Be it so, then I shall the sooner stand in 
the presence of Christ, my spouse, in whose garden are the fruits of 
paradise, and roses that never fade.' As she was being led to execution, 
the young Theophilus mocking said, ' O maiden, goest thou to join thy 
bridegroom ? send me then, I pray thee, of the fruits and flowers which 
grow in his garden.' And the maiden bowed her head and smiled, 
saying, 'Thy request is granted, O Theophilus,' whereat he laughed, 
and she went forward to death. 

" And behold, at the place of execution, a beautiful child, with hair 
like the sunbeam, stood beside her, and in his hand was a basket con- 
taining three fresh roses and three apples. And she said, ' Take these 
to Theophilus, and tell him that Dorothea waits for him in the garden 
from whence they came.' 


"And the child sought Theophilus, and gave him the flowers and the 
fruits, saying, 'Dorothea sends thee these,' and vanished. And the 
heart of Theophilus melted, and he ate of the fruit from heaven, and was 
converted and professed himself one of Christ's servants, so that he also 
was martyred, and was translated into the heavenly garden." — Legend. 

This story is told in nearly all the pictures of Sta. Do- 

Hence we reach the Ponte Sisto, built 1473 — 75 by Sixtus 
IV. in the place of the Pons Janiculensis, (or, according 
to Ampere, the Pons Antoninus,) which Caracalla had 
erected to reach the garden in the Trastevere, formerly be- 
longing to his brother Geta, — but which was known as 
the Pons Fractus after a flood had destroyed part of it 
in 792. The Acts of Eusebius describe the many Christian 
martyrdoms which took place from this bridge. S. Sympho- 
rosa under Hadrian, S. Sabas under Aurelian, S. Calepo- 
dius under Alexander, and S. Anthimius under Diocletian, 
were thrown into the Tiber from hence, with many others, 
whose bodies, usually drifting to the island then called Ly- 
caonia, were recovered there by their faithful disciples.* An 
inscription upon the bridge begs the prayers of the passengers 
for its papal founder. 

Beautiful views may be obtained from this bridge, — 
on the one side, of the island, of the temple of Vesta, and 
the Alban hills ; on the other, of St. Peter's, rising 
behind the Farnesina Gardens, and the grand mass of 
the Farnese Palace, towering above the less important 

" They had reached the bridge and stopped to look at the view, ] er- 
haps the most beautiful of all those seen from the Roman bridges. 

* See the Acts of the Martyrs St. Hippolytus and St. Adrian, and the Acts of St. 
Calepodius, quoted by Canina, R. Aut. p. 584. 


Looking towards the hills, the Tiber was spanned by Ponte Rotto, 
under which the old black mills were turning ceaselessly, almost level 
with the tawny water ; the sunshine fell full on the ruins of the Palatine, 
about the base of which had gathered a crowd of modern buildings ; 
a brick campanile, of the middle ages, rose high above them against the 
blue sky, which was seen through its open arches ; beyond were the 
Latin Hills ; on the other hand, St. Peter's stood pre-eminent in the 
distance ; nearer, a stack of picturesque old houses were half hidden by 
orange-trees, where golden fruit clustered thickly ; women leant from 
the windows, long lines of flapping clothes hung out to dry ; below, the 
ferry-boat was crossing the river, impelled by the current. Modern and 
ancient Rome all mingled together — everywhere were thrilling names 
connected with all that was most glorious bi the past. The moderns 
are richer than their ancestors, the past is theirs as well as the present." 
— Mademoiselle Mori. 

Close to the further entrance of the bridge, opposite the 
Via Giulia, is the Fountain of the Ponte Sisto, built by 
Paul V. from a design of Fontana. The water, which falls 
in one body from a niche in the wall of a palace, is dis- 
charged a second time from the mouths of two monsters 



The Marmorata — Arco di S. Lazzaro — Protestant Cemetery — Pyramid 
of Caius Cestius — Monte-Testaccio — Porta S. Paolo — Chapel of the 
Farewell — The Tre Fontane (SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio — Sta. 
Maria Scala Cceli — S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane) — Basilica and 
Monastery of S. Paolo. 

T3EYOND the Piazza Bocca della Verita, the Via della 
Marmorata is spanned by an arch which nearly 
marks the site of the Porta Trigemina, by which Marius 
fled to Ostia before Sylla in b.c. 88. Near this stood the 
statue erected by public subscription to Minucius, whose 
jealousy brought about the execution of the patriot Mselius, 
B.C. 440. Here also was the temple of Jupiter Inventor, 
whose dedication was attributed to the gratitude of Hercules 
for the restoration of his cattle, carried off by Cacus to his 
cave on the neighbouring Aventine. 

It was at the Porta Trigemina that Camillus (b.c. 391), 
sent into exile to Ardea by the accusations of the plebs, 
stayed, and, stretching forth his hands to the Capitol, 
prayed to the gods who reigned there that if he was 
unjustly expelled, Rome might " one day have need of 

Passing the arch, the road skirts the wooded escarpment 


of the Aventine, crowned by its three churches — Sta. 
Sabina, S. Alessio, and the Priorato. 

" De ce cote, entre l'Aventin et le Tibre, hors de la porte Trigemina, 
etaient divers marches, notamment le marche aux bois, le marche a la 
farine et au pain, les horrea, magasins de bles. Le voisinage de ces 
marches, de ces magasins et de l'emporium, produisait un grand mouve- 
ment de transport et fournissait del'occupation a beaucoup de portefaix. 
Plaute* fait allusion a ces porteurs de sacs de la porte Trigemina. On 
peut en voir encore tous les jours remplir le meme office au meme lieu." 
— Ampire, Hist. Rom. iv. 75. 

From the landing-place for modern Carrara marble, a 
new road on the right, planted with trees, leads along the 
river to the ancient Marmorata, discovered 1867 — 68, when 
many magnificent blocks of ancient marble were found 
buried in the mud of the Tiber. Recent excavations have 
laid bare the inclined planes by which the marbles were 
landed, and the projecting bars of stone with rings for 
mooring the marble vessels. 

In the neighbouring vineyard are the massive ruins of the 
Emporium, or magazine for merchandise, founded by M. 
^Emilius Lepidus and L. yEmilius Paulus, the sediles in 
B.C. 186. Upon the ancient walls of this time is engrafted 
a small and picturesque winepress of the fifteenth century. 
The neighbouring vineyard is much frequented by marble 

A short distance beyond the turn to the Marmorata the 
main road is crossed by an ancient brick arch, called Arco 
di S. Lazzaro, or Arco della Salara, by the side of which is 
a hermitage. 

About half a mile beyond this we reach the Porta S. 

* Plautus, Capt. i. i, 22. 


Paolo, built by Belisarius on the site of the Ancient Porta 

It was here, just within the Ostian Gate, that the 
Emperor Claudius, returning from Ostia to take vengeance 
upon Messalina, was met by their two children, Octavia 
and Britannicus, accompanied by a vestal, who insisted 
upon the rights of her Order, and imperiously demanded 
that the empress should not be condemned undefended. 

" Totila entra par la porte Asinaria et une autre fois par la porte 
Ostiensis, aujourd'hui porte Saint-Paul ; par la meme porte, Genseric, 
que la mer apportait, et qui, en s'embarquant, avait dit a son pilote : 
' Conduis-moi vers le rivage que menace la colere divine.' " — Amphv, 
Emp. ii. 325. 

Close to this, is the famous Pyramid of Cains Cestius. 
It is built of brick, coated with marble, and is 125 feet high, 
and 100 feet wide at its square basement. In the midst is a 
small sepulchral chamber, painted with arabesques. Two 
inscriptions on the exterior show that the Caius Cestius 
buried here was a praetor, a tribune of the people, and one 
of the " Epulones " appointed to provide the sacrificial feasts 
of the gods. He died about 30 B.C., leaving Agrippa as his 
executor, and desiring by his will that his body might be 
buried, wrapped up in precious stuffs. Agrippa, however, 
applied to him the law which forbade luxurious burial, and 
spent the money, partly upon the pyramid and partly upon 
erecting two colossal statues in honour of the deceased, of 
which the pedestals have been found near the tomb. In 
the middle ages this was supposed to be the sepulchre of 

" Cette pyramidc, sauf les dimensions, est absolument semblable aux 
pyramides d'Egypte. Si Ton pouvait encore douter que celles-ci 


eaient des tombeaux, limitation des pyramides egyptiennes dans un 
tombeau remain serait un argument de plus pour prouver qu'elles 
avaient une destination funeraire. La chambre qu'on a trouvee dans le 
monument de Cestius etait decoree de peintures dont quelques unes 
ne sont pas encore effacees. C 'etait la coutume des peuples anciens, 
notamment des Egyptiens et des Etrusques, de peindre l'interieur des 
tombeaux, que Ton fermait ensuite soigneusement. Ces peintures, 
souvent tres-considerables, n'etaient que pour le mort, et ne devaient 
jamais etre vues par l'ceil d'un vivant. II en etait certainement ainsi de 
celles qui decoraient la chambre sepulchrale de la pyramide de Cestius, 
car cette chambre n'avait aucune entree. L'ouverture par laquelle on y 
penetre aujourd'hui est moderne. On avait depose le corps ou les 
cendres avant de terminer le monument, on acheva ensuite de la batir 
jusqu'au sommet." — Ampere, Emp. i. 347. 

" St. Paul was led to execution beyond the city walls, upon the road 
to Ostia. As he issued forth from the gate, his eyes must have rested 
for a moment on that sepulchral pyramid which stood beside the road, 
and still stands unshattered, amid the wreck of so many centuries, upon 
the same spot. That spot was then only the burial-place of a single 
Roman ; it is now the burial-place of many Britons. The mausoleum 
of Caius Cestius rises conspicuously amongst humbler graves, and marks 
the site where Papal Rome suffers her Protestant sojourners to bury 
their dead. In England and in Germany, in Scandinavia and in 
America, there are hearts which turn to that lofty cenotaph as the 
sacred point of their whole horizon ; even as the English villager turns 
to the grey church tower, which overlooks the grave-stones of his 
kindred. Among the works of man, that pyramid is the only surviv- 
ing witness of the martyrdom of St. Paul ; and we may thus regard it 
with yet deeper interest, as a monument unconsciously erected by a 
pagan to the memory of a martyr. Nor let us think they who lie be- 
neath its shadow are indeed resting (as degenerate Italians fancy) in un- 
consecrated ground. Rather let us say, that a spot where the disciples 
of Paul's faith now sleep in Christ, so near the soil once watered by his 
blood, is doubly hallowed ; and that their resting-place is most fitly 
identified with the last earthly journey, and the dying glance of their 
own patron saint, the apostle of the Gentiles." — Conybeare and 

At the foot of the Pyramid is the Old Protestant Cemetery, 
a lovely spot, now closed. Here is the grave of Keats, with 
the inscription : 


"This grave contains all that was mortal of a young English poet, 
who, on his death-bed, in the bitterness of his heart at the malicious 
power of his enemies, desired these words to be engraven on his tomb- 
stone: ' Here lies one whose name was writ in water.' February 24, 

" Go thou to Rome — at once the paradise, 
The grave, the city, and the wilderness ; 
And where its wrecks like shattered mountains rise, 
And flowering weeds, and fragrant copses dress 
The bones of desolation's nakedness, 
Pass, till the spirit of the spot shall lead 
Thy footsteps to a slope of green access, 
Where, like an infant's smile, over the dead, 
A light of laughing flowers along the grass is spread, 

" And grey walls moulder round, on which dull Time 
Feeds, like slow fire upon a hoary brand ; 
And one keen pyramid, with wedge sublime, 
Pavilioning the dust of him who planned 
This refuge for his memory, doth stand 
Like flame transformed to marble ; and beneath 
A field is spread, on which a newer band 
Have pitched in Heaven's smile their camp of death, 
Welcoming him we lose with scarce extinguished breath." 

Shelley's Adonais. 

Very near the grave of Keats is that of Augustus William 
Hare, the elder of the two brothers who wrote the " Guesses 
at Truth," ob. 1834. 

" When I am inclined to be serious, I love to wander up and down 
before the tomb of Caius Cestius. The Protestant burial-ground is 
there, and most of the little monuments are erected to the young — young 
men of promise, cut off when on their travels full of enthus asm, full of 
enjoyment ; brides, in the bloom of their beauty, on their first journey ; 
or children borne from home in search of health. This stone was placed 
by his fellow-travellers, young as himself, who will return to the house 
of his parents without him ; that, by a husband or a father, now in his 
native country. His heart is buried in that grave. 

" It is a quiet and sheltered nook, covered in the winter with violets ; 
and the pyramid, that overshadows it, gives it a classic and singu- 
larly solemn air. You feel an interest there, a sympathy you were 


not prepared for. You are yourself in a foreign land ; and they are for 
the most part your countrymen. They call upon you in your mother 
tongue— in English — in words unknown to a native, known only to 
yourself: and the tomb of Cestius, that old majestic pile, has this also 
in common with them. It is itself a stranger among strangers. It has 
stood there till the language spoken round about it has changed ; and 
the shepherd, born at the foot, can read the inscription no longer." — 

The New Burial Ground was opened in 1825. It 
extends for some distance along the slope of the hill under 
the old Aurelian Wall, and is beautifully shaded by- 
cypresses, and carpeted with violets. Amid the forest of 
tombs we may notice that which contains the heart of Shelley 
(his body having been burnt upon the shore at Lerici, where 
it was thrown up by the sea), inscribed : 

" Percy Bysshe Shelley, Cor Cordium. Natus iv. Aug. mdccxcii. 
Obiit viii. Jul. MDCCCXXII. 

' Nothing of him that doth fade, 
But doth suffer a sea change 
Into something rich and strange.' " 

Another noticeable tomb is that of Gibson the sculptor, 
who died 1868. 

From the fields in front of the cemetery (Prati del Popolo 
Romano) rises the Monte Testaceio, only 160 feet in height, but 
worth ascending for the sake of the splendid view it affords. 
The extraordinary formation of this hill, which is entirely 
composed of broken pieces of pottery, has long been an 
unexplained bewilderment. 

" Le Monte-Testaccio est pour moi des nombreux problemes qu'offrent 
les antiquites romaines le plus difficile a. resoudre. On ne peut s'arreter 
a discuter serieusement la tradition d'apres laquelle il aurait ete forme 
avec les debris des vases contenant les tributs qu'apportaient a Rome les 
peuples sounds par elle. C'est la evidemment une legende du moyen age 
nee du souvenir de la grandeur romaine et imaginee pour exprimer la 


haute idee qu'on s'en faisait, comme on avait imagine ces statues de pro- 
vinces placees au Capitole, et dont chacune portait au cou une cloche qui 
sonnait tout-a-coup d'elle-meme, quand une province se soulevait, comme 
on a pretendu que le lit du Tibre etait pave en airain par les tributs 
apportes aux empereurs romains. II faut done chercher une autre explica- 
tion." — Ampere, Emp. ii. 386. 

Just outside the Porta S. Paolo is (on the right) a vine- 
yard which belonged to Sta. Francesca Romana (born 1384, 
canonized 1608 by Paul V.). 

"Instead of entering into the pleasures to which her birth and riches 
entitled her, Sta. Francesca went every day, disguised in a coarse 
woollen garment, to her vineyard, and collected faggots, which she 
brought into the city on her head, and distributed to the poor. If the 
weight exceeded her womanly strength, she loaded therewith an ass, 
following after on foot in great humility." — Mrs. Jameson's Monastic 

A straight road a mile and a half long leads from the gate 
to the basilica. Half way (on the left) is the humble chapel 
which commemorates the farewell of St. Peter and St. Paul 
on their way to martyrdom, inscribed : 

"In this place SS. Peter and Paul separated on their way to mar- 

"And Paul said to Peter, 'Peace be with thee, Foundation of the 
Church, Shepherd of the flock of Christ.' 

"And Peter said to Paul, 'Go in peace, Preacher of good tidings, 
and Guide of the salvation of the just.' " * 

Passing the basilica, which looks outside like a very ugly 
railway station, let us visit the scene of the martyrdom, 
before entering the grand church which arose in conse- 

The road we now traverse is the scene of the legend of 

* Sec the Epistle of St. Denis, the Areopagite, to Timothy. 


"St. Paul was beheaded by the sword outside the Ostian gate, about 
two miles from Rome, at a place called the Aqua Salvias, now the ' Tre 
Fontane.' The legend of his death relates that a certain Roman matron 
named Plautilla, one of the converts of St. Feter, placed herself on the 
road by which St. Paul passed to his martyrdom, to behold him for the 
last time; and when she saw him she wept greatly, and besought his 
blessing. The apostle then, seeing her faith, turned to her, and begged 
that she would give him her veil to blind his eyes when he should be 
beheaded, promising to return it to her after his death. The attendants 
mocked at such a promise, but Plautilla, with a woman's faith and 
charity, taking off her veil, presented it to him. After his martyrdom, 
St. Paul appeared to her, and restored the veil stained with his blood. 

"In the ancient representations of the martyrdom of St. Paul, the 
legend of Plautilla is seldom omitted. In the picture by Giotto in the 
sacristy of St. Peter's, Plautilla is seen on an eminence in the back- 
ground, receiving the veil from the hands of St. Paul, who appears in 
the clouds above ; the same representation, but little varied, is executed 
in bas-relief on the bronze doors of St. Peter's." — 'Jameson's Sacred Art. 

The lane which leads to the Tre Fontane turns off to the 
left a little beyond S. Paolo. 

" In all the melancholy vicinity of Rome, there is not a more melan- 
choly spot than the Tre Fontane. A splendid monastery, rich with all 
the offerings of Christendom, once existed there: the ravages of that 
mysterious scourge of the Campagna, the malaria, have rendered it a 
desert ; three ancient churches and some ruins still exist, and a few 
pale monks wander about the swampy dismal confines of the hollow in 
which they stand. In winter you approach them through a quagmire ; 
in summer, you dare not breathe in their pestilential vicinity ; and yet 
there is a sort of dead beauty about the place, something hallowed as 
well as sad, which seizes on the fancy." — Ja meson's Sacred Art. 

The convent was bestowed in 1867 by Pius IX. upon the 
French Trappists, and twelve brethren of the Order went to 
reside there. Entering the little enclosure, the first church on 
the right is Sta. Maria Scala Ca'/i, supposed to occupy the 
site of the cemetery of S. Zeno, in which the 12,000 Chris- 
tians employed in building the Baths of Diocletian were 
buried. The present edifice was the work of Vignola and 



Giacomo della Porta in 1582. The name is derived from 
the legend that here St. Bernard had a vision of a ladder 
which led to heaven, its foot resting on this church, and of 
angels on the ladder leading upwards the souls whom his 
prayers had redeemed from purgatory. The mosaics in 
the apse were the work of F. Zucchero, in the sixteenth 
century, and are perhaps the best of modern mosaics. They 
represent the saints Zeno, Bernard, Vincenzo, and Anastasio, 
adored by Pope Clement VIII. and Cardinal Aldobrandini, 
under whom the remodelling of the church took place. 

The second church is the basilica of SS. Vincenzo ed 
Anastasio, founded by Honorius I. (625), and restored by 
Honorius III. (12 21), when it was consecrated afresh. It 
is approached by an atrium with a penthouse roof, sup- 
ported by low columns, and adorned with decaying frescoes, 
among which the figure of Honorius III. may be made out. 
The interior, which reeks with damp, is almost entirely of 
the twelfth century. The pillars are adorned with coarse 
frescoes of the apostles. 

" S. Vincenzo alle Tre Fontane so far deviates from the usual basilican 
arrangement as almost to deserve the appellation of gothic. It has the 
same defect as all the rest — its pier arches being too low, for which 
there is no excuse here ; but both internally and externally it shows a 
uniformity of design, and a desire to make every part ornamental, that 
produces a very pleasing effect, although the whole is merely of brick, 
and ornament is so sparingly applied as only just to prevent the building 
sinking to the class of mere utilitarian erections." — Fergicssou 's Hand- 
book of Architecture, vol. ii. 

The two saints whose relics are said to repose here were in no wise 
connected in their lifetime. S. Vincenzo, who suffered a.d. 304, was a 
native of Saragossa, cruelly tortured to death at Valencia, under Dacian, 
by being racked on a slow fire over a gridiron, " of which the bars were 
framed like scythes." His story is told with horrible detail by Tru- 
dentius. Anastasius, who died A. n. 62S, was a native of Persia, who 
had become a Christian and taken the monastic habit at a convent near 


Jerusalem. He was tortured and finally strangled, under Chosroes, at 
Barsaloe, in Assyria. He is not known to be represented anywhere 
in art, save in the almost obliterated frescoes in the atrium of this 

The third church, S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane, was built by 
Giacomo della Porta for Cardinal Aldobrandini in 1590. 
It contains the pillars to which St. Paul is said to have 
been bound, the block of marble upon which he is sup- 
posed to have been beheaded, and the three fountains 
which sprang forth, wherever the severed head struck the 
earth during three bounds which it made after decapitation. 
In proof of this story, it is asserted that the water of the 
first of these fountains is still warm, of the second tepid, of 
the third cold. Three modern altars above the fountains 
are each decorated with a head of the apostle in bas- 

"A la premiere, fame vient a l'instant memede s'echapper du corps. 
Ce chef glorieux est plein de vie ! A la seconde, les ombres de la mort 
couvrent deja ses admirables traits ; a. la troisieme, le sommeil eternel 
les a envahis, et, quoique demeures tout rayonnants de beaute, ils disent, 
sans parler, que dansce monde ces levresne s'entr'ouvriront plus, et que 
ce regard d'aigle s'est voile pour toujours." — Une Chrcticnne a Rome* 

The pavement is an ancient mosaic representing the 
Four Seasons, brought from the excavations at Ostia. 
The interior of this church has been beautified at the 
expense of a French nobleman, and the whole enclosure 
of the Tre Fontane has been improved by Mgr. de 

* The accounts of the apostle's death vary greatly: "St. Prudentius says that 
both St. Peter and St. Paul suffered together in the same field, near a swampy 
ground, on the banks of the Tiber. Some say St. Peter suffered on the same day 
of the month, but a year before St. Paul. But Eusebius, St. Epiphanius, and 
most others, affirm that they suffered the same year, and on the 29th of June." — 
Alban Butler. 

VOL. II. 26 


"As the martyr and his executioners passed on (from the Ostian 
gate), their way was crowded with a motley multitude of goers and 
comers between the metropolis and its harbour — merchants hastening 
to superintend the unlading of their cargoes — sailors eager to squander 
the profits of their last voyage in the dissipations of the capital — officials 
of the government charged with the administration of the provinces, or 
the command of the legions on the Euphrates or the Rhine — Chaldean 
astrologers — Phrygian eunuchs — dancing-girls from Syria, with their 
painted turbans — mendicant priests from Egypt, howling for Osiris — 
Greek adventurers, eager to coin their national cunning into Roman 
gold — representatives of the avarice and ambition, the fraud and lust, the 
superstition and intelligence, of the Imperial world. Through the dust 
and tumult of that busy throng, the small troop of soldiers threaded 
their way silently, under the bright sky of an Italian midsummer. They 
were marching, though they knew it not, in a procession more really 
triumphal than any they had ever followed, in the train of general or 
emperor, along the Sacred Way. Their prisoner, now at last and for ever 
delivered from captivity, rejoiced to follow his Lord 'without the gate.' 
The place of execution was not far distant, and there the sword of the 
headsman ended his long course of sufferings, and released that heroic 
soul from that feeble body. Weeping friends took up his corpse, and 
carried it for burial to those subterranean labyrinths, where, through 
many ages of oppression, the persecuted Church found refuge for the 
living, and sepulchres for the dead. 

" Thus died the apostle, the prophet, and the martyr, bequeathing to 
the Church, in her government, and her discipline, the legacy of his 
apostolic labours ; leaving his prophetic words to be her living oracles ; 
pouring forth his blood to be the seed of a thousand martyrdoms. 
Thenceforth, among the glorious company of the apostles, among the 
goodly fellowship of the prophets, among the noble army of martyrs, 
his name has stood pre-eminent. And wheresoever the holy Church 
throughout all the world doth acknowledge God, there Paul of Tarsus 
is revered, as the great teacher of a universal redemption and a catholic 
religion — the herald of glad tidings to all mankind." — Conybcare and 

Let us now return to the grand Basilica which arose to 
commemorate the martyrdom on this desolate site, and 
which is now itself standing alone on the edge of the 
Campagna, entirely deserted except by a few monks who 


•linger in its monastery through the winter months, but take 
flight to St. Calisto before the pestilential malaria of the 
summer, — though in the middle ages it was not so, when S. 
Paolo was surrounded by the flourishing fortified suburb 
of Joanopolis (so called from its founder, John VIII.), 
whose possession was sharply contested in the wars between 
the popes and anti-popes.* 

The first church on this site was built in the time of 
Constantine, on the site of the vineyard of the Roman 
matron Lucina, where she first gave a burial-place to the 
apostle. This primal oratory was enlarged into a basilica 
in 386 by the emperors Valentinian II. and Theodosius. 
The church was restored by Leo III. (795 — 816), and every 
succeeding century increased its beauty and magnificence. 
The sovereigns of England, before the Reformation, were 
protectors of this basilica — as those of France are of St. John 
Lateran, and of Spain of Sta. Maria Maggiore — and the 
emblem of the Order of the Garter may still be seen amongst 
its decorations. 

"The very abandonment of this huge pile, standing in solitary 
grandeur on the banks of the Tiber, was one source of its value. While 
it had been kept in perfect repair, little or nothing had been done to 
modernize it, and alter its primitive form and ornaments, excepting the 
later addition of some modern chapels above the transept ; it stood 
naked and almost rude, but unencumbered with the lumpish and taste- 
less plaster encasement of the old basilica in a modern Beminesque 
church, which had disfigured the Lateran cathedral under pretence of 
supporting it. It remained genuine, though bare, as S. Apollinare in 
Classe, at Ravenna, the city eminently of unspoiled basilicas. No 
chapels, altars, or mural monuments softened the severity of its out- 
lines ; only the series of papal portraits, running round the upper line of 
the walls, redeemed this sternness. But the unbroken files of columns 

* It is under the shadow of S. Paolo that Cervantes ("Wanderings of Persiles and 
Sigismunda "} places the scene of the death of Periander. 


along each side, carried the eye forward to the great central object, the 
altar and its 'Confession ;' while the secondary row of pillars, running 
behind the principal ones, gave depth and shadow, mass and solidity, 
to back up the noble avenue along which one glanced." — Cardinal 

On the 15th of July, 1823, this magnificent basilica was 
almost totally destroyed by fire, on the night which preceded 
the death of Pope Pius VII. 

" Quelque-chose de mysterieux s'est lie dans 1' esprit des Romains a 
l'incendie de St. Paul, et les gens a l'imagination de ce peuple parlent 
avec ce sombre plaisir qui tient a la melancolie, ce sentiment si rare en 
Italie, et si frequent en Allemagne. Dans le grand nef, sur le mur, au 
dessus des colonnes, se trouvait la longue suite des portraits de tous les 
papes, et le peuple de Rome voyait avec inquietude qu'il n'y avait plus 
de place pour le portrait du successeur de Pie VII. De la les fruits de 
la suppression du saint-siege. Le venerable pontife, qui etait presqu' 
un martyre aux yeux de ses sujets, touchait a ses derniers moments 
lorsqu'arriva l'incendie de Saint-Paul. II eut lieu dans la nuit du 15 
au 16 Juillet, 1823 ; cette meme nuit, le pape, presque mourant, fut 
agite par un songe, qui lui presentait sans cesse un grand malheur arrive 
a l'eglise de Rome. II s'eveilla en sursaut plusieurs fois, et demanda 
s'il n'etait rien arrive de nouveau. Lelendemain, pour ne pas aggraver 
son etat, on lui cacha l'incendie, et il est mort apres sans l'avoir jamais 
su." — Stendhal, ii. 94. 

" Not a word was said to the dying Pius VII. of the destruction of 
St. Paul. For at St. Paul's he had lived as a quiet monk, engaged in 
study and in teaching, and he loved the place with the force of an early 
attachment. It would have added a mental pang to his bodily suf- 
ferings to learn the total destruction of that venerable sanctuary, in 
which he had drawn down by prayer the blessings of heaven on his 
youthful labour." — Wiseman, Life of Pius VII. 

The restoration of the basilica was immediately begun, 
and a large contribution levied for the purpose from all 
Roman Catholic countries. In 1854 it was re-opened in its 
present form by Pius IX. Its exterior is below contempt; 
its interior, supported by eighty granite columns, is most 
striking and magnificent, but it is cold and uninteresting 


when compared with the ancient structure, " rich with in- 
estimable remains of ancient art, and venerable from a 
thousand associations." * 

If we approach the basilica by the door on the side of 
the monastery, we enter, first, a portico, containing a fine 
statue of Gregory XVI., and many fragments of the ancient 
mosaics, collected after the fire ; — then, a series of small 
chapels which were not burnt, from the last of which ladies 
can look into the beautiful cloister of the twelfth century, 
which they are not permitted to enter, but which men may 
visit (through the sacristy), and inspect its various architec- 
tural remains, and a fine sarcophagus, adorned with reliefs 
of the story of Apollo and Marsyas. 

The church is entered by the south end of the transept. 
Hence we look down upon the nave (306 feet long and 222 
wide) with its four ranges of granite columns (quarried near 
the Lago Maggiore), surmounted by a mosaic series of por- 
traits of the popes, each five feet in diameter, — most of them 
of course being imaginary. The grand triumphal arch which 
separates the transept from the nave is a relic of the old 
basilica, and was built by Galla-Placidia, sister of Honorius, 
in 440. On the side towards the nave it is adorned with 
a mosaic of Christ adored by the twenty-four elders, and the 
four beasts of the Revelation ; — -on that towards the transept 
by the figure of the Saviour, between St. Peter and St. 

It bears two inscriptions, the first : 

" Theodosius coepit, — perfecit Honorius aulam 
Doctoris mundi sacratam corpore Pauli." 

The other, especially interesting as the only inscription 

* Mrs. Jameson. 


commemorating the great pope who defended Rome against 

Attila : 

" Placidise pia mens operis decus homne [sic) paterni 
Gaudet pontificis studio splendere Leonis." 

The mosaics of the tribune, also preserved from the 
fire, were designed by Cavallini, a pupil of Giotto, in the 
thirteenth century, and were erected by Honorius III. 
They represent the Saviour with St. Peter and St. Andrew 
on the right, and St. Paul and St. Luke on the left, — and 
beneath these twelve apostles and two angels. The Holy 
Innocents (supposed to be buried in this church !) are repre- 
sented lying at the feet of our Saviour. 

" In the mosaics of the old basilica of S. Paolo the Holy Innocents 
were represented by a group of small figures holding palms, and placed 
immediately beneath the altar or throne, sustaining the gospel, the 
cross, and the instruments of the passion of our Lord. Over these 
figures was the inscription, H. I. S. Innocentes." — Jameson's Sacred 

Beneath the triumphal arch stands the ugly modern bal- 
dacchino, which encloses the ancient altar canopy, erected, 
as its inscription tells us, by Arnolphus and his pupil 
Petrus, in 1285. In front is the " Confession," where the 
Apostle of the Gentiles is believed to repose. The baldac- 
chino is inscribed : 

" Tu es vas electionis, 

Sancte Paule Apostole, 

Prsedicator veritatis 

In universo mundo." 

It is supported by four pillars of Oriental alabaster, 
presented by Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt. The altars 
of malachite, at the ends of the transepts, were given by the 
Emperor Nicholas of Russia. 


" Les schismatiques et les mussulmans eux-memes sont venus rendre 
hommage a ce souverain de la parole, qui entrainait les peuples au 
niartyre et subjuguait toutes les nations." — Unc Chritienne h Rome. 

In a building so entirely modern, there are naturally few 
individual objects of interest. Among those saved * from 
the old basilica, is the magnificent paschal candlestick, 
covered with sculpture in high-relief. The altar at the south 
end of the transept has an altar-piece representing the 
Assumption, by Agricola, and statues of St. Benedict, 
Baini, and Sta. Scholastica, by Tenerani. Of the two chapels 
between this and the tribune, the first has a statue of St. 
Benedict by Tenerani ; the second, the Cappella del Coro, 
was saved from the fire, and is by Carlo Maderno. 

The altar at the north end of the transept is dedicated 
to St. Paul, and has a picture of his conversion, by Ca- 
muccini. At the sides are statues of St. Gregory by 
Labour air and of S. Romualdo by Stocchi. Of the 
chapels between this and the tribune, the first, dedicated to 
St. Stephen, has a statue of the saint, by Rinaldi; the 
second is dedicated to St. Bridget (Brigitta Brahe), and 
contains the famous crucifix of Pietro Cavallini, which is 
said to have spoken to her in 1370. 

"Not far from the chancel is a beautiful chapel, dedicated to St. 
Bridget, and ornamented with her statue in marble. During her re- 
sidence in Rome, she frequently came to pray in this church ; and here 
is preserved, as a holy relic, the cross from which, during her ecstatic 
devotion, she seemed to hear a voice proceeding." — Fredeiika Bremer. 

The upper walls of the nave are decorated with frescoes 
by Galiardi, Podesti, and other modern artists. 

* Among the most interesting of the objects lost in the fire were the bronze gates 
ordered by Hildebrand (afterwards Gregory VII.) when legate at Constantinople, 
for Pantaleone Castelli, in 1070, and adorned with fifty-four scriptural compositions, 
wrought in silver thread. 


The two great festivals of St. Paul are solemnly observed 
in this basilica upon January 25 and June 30, and that of 
the Holy Innocents upon December 28. 

Very near S. Paolo, the main branch of the little river 
Almo, the " cursuque brevissimus Almo " of Ovid, falls into 
the Tiber. This is the spot where the priests of Cybele 
used to wash her statue and the sacred vessels of her 
temple, and to raise their loud annual lamentation for the 
death of her lover, the shepherd Atys : 

" Est locus, in Tiberim quo lubricus influit Almo, 
Et nomen magno perdit ab amne minor, 
Illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos, 
Almonis dominam sacruque lavit aquis." 

Ovid, Fast. iv. 337. 

" Phrygizeque matris Almo qua levat ferrum." 

Martial, Ep. iii. 472. 

" Un vieux pretre de Cybele, vetu de pourpre, y lavait chaque annee la 
pierre sacree de Pessinunte, tandis que d'autres pretres poussaient des 
hurlements, frappaient sur le tambour de basque qu'on place aux mains 
de Cybele, soufflaient avec fureur dans les flutes phrygiennes, et que 
Ton se donnait la discipline, — ni plus ni moins qu*on le fait encore 
dans l'eglise des Caravite, — avec des fouets garnis de petits cailloux 
ou d'osselets." — Ampere, Hist- Rom. iii. 145. 

The Campagna on this side of Rome is perhaps more 
stricken by malaria than any other part, and is in con- 
sequence more utterly deserted. That this terrible scourge 
has followed upon the destruction of the villas and gardens 
which once filled the suburbs of Rome, and that it did not 
always exist here, is evident from the account of Pliny, who 
says : 

" Such is the happy and beautiful amenity of the Campagna that it 
seems to be the work of a rejoicing nature. For truly so it appears in 
the vital and perennial salubrity of its atmosphere [vitalis ac perennis 
salubritatis cali tempcries), in its fertile plains, sunny hills, healthy 


woods, thick groves, rich varieties of trees, breezy mountains, fertility in 
fruits, vines, and olives, its noble flocks of sheep, abundant herds of 
cattle, numerous lakes, and wealth of rivers and streams pouring in 
upon its many seaports, in whose lap the commerce of the world lies, 
and which run largely into the sea as it were to help mortals." 

Under the emperors, the town of Ostia (founded by 
Ancus Martius) reached such a degree of prosperity, that 
its suburbs are described as joining those of Rome, so that 
one magnificent street almost united the two. There is now, 
beyond S. Paolo, a road through a desert, only one human 
habitation breaking the utter solitude. 



Protestant Churches — Villa Borghese — Raphael's Villa — Casino and 
Villa of Papa Giulio — (Claude's Villa — Arco-Oscuro — Acqua- 
Acetosa)— Chapel of St. Andrew — Ponte-Molle (Castle of Cres- 
cenza — Prima Porta — The Crimera — The Allia) — (The Via Cassia) 
— Villa Madama — Monte Mario— Villa Mellini — Porta Angelica. 

IMMEDIATELY outside the Porta del Popolo, on the 
left, are the English and American churches. 

"As to the position selected for these buildings, it is to be observed 
that, although restricted by the regulations of the Roman Catholic 
hierarchy to a locality outside the walls, the greatest possible attention 
has been paid to the convenience of the English, the great majority of 
whose dwelling-houses are in this immediate quarter. The English 
church in Rome, therefore, though nominally outside the walls, is really, 
as regards centrality, in the very heart of the city. The greatest possible 
facilities are afforded by the authorities to our countrymen in all matters 
relating to the establishment ; and though the general behaviour of the 
Roman inhabitants is such as to render the precaution almost unneces- 
sary, the protection of the police and military is invariably afforded 
during the hours of divine service Whatever be the dis- 
agreements on points of religious faith between Protestant and Catholic, 
there is at least one point of feeling in common between both in this 
respect ; for the streets are tranquil, the shops are shut, the demeanour 
of the people is decent and orderly, and, notwithstanding the distance 


from England, Sunday feels more like a Sunday at Rome than in any 
other town in Europe." — Sir G. Head's " Tour in Rome." 

The papal government of Rome had more tolerance for 
a religion which was not its own than that of the early- 
emperors. Augustus refused to allow the performance of 
Egyptian rites within a mile of the city walls. 

On the right of the Gate is the handsome entrance of the 
beautiful Villa Borg/iesc, most liberally thrown open to the 
public on every day except Monday, when the Villa Doria 
is open. 

"The entrance to the Villa Borghese is just outside the Porta del 
Popolo. Passing beneath that not very impressive specimen of Michael 
Angelo's architecture, a minute's walk will transport the visitor from the 
small uneasy lava stones of the Roman pavement, into broad, gravelled 
carriage drives, whence a little further stroll brings him to the soft turf 
of a beautiful seclusion. A seclusion, but seldom a solitude ; for priest, 
noble, and populace, stranger and native, all who breathe the Roman 
air, find free admission, and come hither to taste the languid enjoyment 
of the day-dream which they call life. 

" The scenery is such as arrays itself to the imagination when we read 
the beautiful old myths, and fancy a brighter sky, a softer turf, a more 
picturesque arrangement of venerable trees, than we find in the rude and 
untrained landscapes of the western world. The ilex-trees, so ancient 
and time-honoured are they, seem to have lived for ages undisturbed, 
and to feel no dread of profanation by the axe any more than overthrow 
by the thunder-stroke. It has already passed out of their dreamy old 
memories that only a few years ago they were grievously imperilled by 
the Gauls' last assault upon the walls of Rome. As if confident in the 
long peace of their lifetime, they assume attitudes of evident repose. 
They lean over the green turf in ponderous grace, throwing abroad their 
great branches without danger of interfering with other trees, though 
other majestic trees grow near enough for dignified society, but too dis- 
tant for constraint. Never was there a more venerable quietude than 
that which sleeps among their sheltering boughs ; never a sweeter sun- 
shine than that which gladdens the gentle bloom which these leafy 
patriarchs strive to diffuse over the swelling and subsiding lawns. 

"In other portions of the grounds the stone pines lift their dense 

4 1 2 WALKS IN H OME. 

clumps of branches upon a slender length of stem, so high that they 
look like green islands in the air, flinging down a shadow upon the turf 
so far off that you scarcely know which tree has made it. 

" Again, there are avenues of cypress, resembling dark flames of huge 
funeral candles, which spread dusk and twilight round about them in- 
stead of cheerful radiance. The more open spots are all a-bloom, early 
in the season, with anemones of wondrous size, both white and rose- 
coloured, and violets that betray themselves by their rich fragrance, even 
if their blue eyes fail to meet your own. Daisies, too, are abundant, 
but larger than the modest little English flower, and therefore of small 

"These wooded and flowery lawns are more beautiful than the finest 
English park scenery, more touching, more impressive, through the 
neglect that leaves nature so much to her own ways and methods. 
Since man seldom interferes with her, she sets to work Tn her quiet way 
and makes herself at home. There is enough of human care, it is true, 
bestowed long ago, and still bestowed, to prevent wildness from growing 
into deformity ; and the result is an ideal landscape, a woodland scene 
that seems to have been projected out of the poet's mind. If the ancient 
Faun were other than a mere creation of old poetry, and could reappear 
anywhere, it must be in such a scene as this. 

"In the openings of the wood there are fountains plashing into marble 
basons, the depths of which are shaggy with water-weeds ; or they 
tumble like natural cascades from rock to rock, sending their murmur 
afar, to make the quiet and silence more appreciable. Scattered here 
and there with careless artifice, stand old altars, bearing Roman inscrip- 
tions. Statues, grey with the long corrosion of even that soft atmosphere, 
half hide and half reveal themselves, high on pedestals, or perhaps 
fallen and broken on the turf. Terminal figures, columns of marble or 
granite porticoes and arches, are seen in the vistas of the wood-paths, 
either veritable relics of antiquity, or with so exquisite a touch of artful 
ruin on them that they are better than if really antique. At all events, 
grass grows on the tops of the shattered pillars, and weeds and flowers 
root themselves in the chinks • of the massive arches and fronts of 
temples, as if this were the thousandth summer since their winged seeds 
alighted there. 

" What a strange idea — what a needless labour — to construct artificial 
ruins in Rome, the native soil of ruin ! But even these sportive imita- 
tions, wrought by man in emulation of what time has done to temples 
and palaces, are perhaps centuries old, and, beginning as illusions, have 
grown to be venerable in sober earnest. The result of all is a scene, 


such as is to be found nowhere save in these princely villa-residences in 
the neighbourhood of Rome; a scene that must have required genera- 
tions and ages, during which growth, decay, and man's intelligence 
wrought kindly together, to render it so gently wild as we behold it 

"The final charm is bestowed by the malaria. There is a piercing, 
thrilling, delicious kind of regret in the idea of so much beauty being 
thrown away, or only enjoyable at its half-development, in winter and 
early spring, and never to be dwelt amongst, as the home scenery of any 
human being. For if you come hither in summer, and stray through 
these glades in the golden sunset, fever walks arm-in-arm with you, and 
death awaits you at the end of the dim vista. Thus the scene is like 
Eden in its loveliness ; like Eden, too, in the fatal spell that removes it 
beyond the scope of man's actual possessions." — Transformation. 

"Oswald et Corinne terminerent leur voyage de Rome par la Villa- 
Borghese, celui de tous les jardins et de tous les palais romains oil les 
splendeurs de la nature et des arts sont rassemblees avec le plus de gout 
et d'eclat. On y voit des arbres de toutes les especes et des eaux mag- 
nifiques. Une reunion incroyable de statues, de vases, de sarcophages 
antiques, se melent avec la fraicheur de la jeune nature du sud. La 
mythologie des anciens y semble ranimee. Les naiades sont placees sur 
le bord des ondes, les nymphes dans les bois dignes d'elles, les tombeaux 
sous les ombrages elyseens ; la statue d'Esculape est au milieu d'une 
ile; celle de Venus semble sortir des ondes; Ovide et Virgile pourraient 
se promener dans ce beau lieu ; et se croire encore au siecle d'Auguste. 
Les chefs-d'oeuvre de sculpture que renferme le palais, lui donnent 
une magnificence a jamais nouvelle. On apercoit de loin a travers les 
arbres, la ville de Rome et Saint-Pierre, et la campagne, et les longues 
arcades, debris des aqueducs qui transportaient les sources des montagnes 
dans l'ancienne Rome. Tout est la pour la pensee, pour 1'imagination, 
pour la reverie. 

"Les sensations les plus pures se confondent avec les plaisirs de 
l'ame, et donnent l'idee d'un bonheur parfait ; mais quand on demande, 
pourquoi ce sejour ravissant n'est-il pas habite? Ton vous repond que le 
mauvais air (la cattiva aria) ne permet pas d'y vivre pendant l'ete." — 
Madame de Sta'el. 

The Casino, at the further end of the villa, built by Car- 
dinal Scipio Borghese, the favourite nephew of Paul A'., 
contains a collection of sculpture. The first room entered 
is a great hall, with a ceiling painted by Mario Rossi, and a 


floor paved with an ancient mosaic discovered at the Torre 
Nuova (one of the principal Borghese farms) in 1835. 

" Cette mosaique fort curieuse nous offre et les combats des gladia- 
teurs entre eux et leurs luttes avec les animaux feroces. Cette mosaique 
est d'un dessin aussi barbare que les scenes representees ; tout est en 
harmonie, le sujet et le tableau. Le sentiment de repulsion qu'inspire 
la cruaute romaine n'en est que plus complet ; celle-ci n'est point adoucie 
par Tart et parait dans toute sa laideur. 

" On voit les gladiateurs poursuivre, s'attaquer, se massacrer, couverts 
d'armures qui ressemblent a celle des chevaliers : vous diriez une odieuse 
parodie du moyen age. Dans le corps de Fun des combattants un glaive est 
enfonce. Des cadavres sont gisant parmi les flaques de sang ; a cote d'eux 
est le 6 fatal, initiale du mot grec Qdvaroq— a. laquelle leur juge impitoy- 
able, le peuple, les a condamnes ; du grec parlout. Le maitre excite ses 
eleves on leur montrant le fouet et la palme ; les vainqueurs elevent leurs 
epees, et sans doute la foule applaudit. lis ont un air de triomphe. Ce 
sont des acteurs renommes. Aupres de chacun son nom est ecrit ; ces 
noms barbares ou etranges : l'un s'appelle Buccibus, un autre Cupidor, un 
autre Licentiosus. avis effronte aux dames romaines." — Ampere, iv. 31. 

The collection in this villa contains no exceedingly im- 
portant statues. In the vestibule are some reliefs from the 
arch of Claudius in the Corso, destroyed in 1527. Leaving 
the great hall to the left we may notice : 

1 st Room. — 
In the Centre: 

Juno Pronuba, from Monte Calvi. 

2nd Room. — 
In the Centre: 

A Fighting Amazon, on horseback. 

yd Room. — 

4. Daphne changed into a Laurel. 
13. Anacreon, seated, 

"La statue d' Anacreon est tres-remarquable, elle ressemble a la 
figure du poete sur une medaille de Ti'-os. Le style est simple et gran- 
diose, I'expression energiquc plutGt que gracieuse, la draperie est rude, 


la statue respire l'enthousiasme ; ce n'est pas le faux Anacreon que nous 
connaissons et dont les poesies sont posterieures au moins en grande 
partie a la date du veritable ; c'est le vieil et primitif Anacreon ; cet 
Anacre'on-la ne vit plus que dans cet e'nergique portrait, seule image de 
son inspiration veritable, dont les produits authentiques ont presque 
entierement disparu." — Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 567. 

4th Room. — 

A handsome gallery with paintings by Marchetti and De Angelis, 

adorned with porphyry busts of the twelve Caesars. 
32. Bronze statue of a boy. 

6 th Room. — 
In the Centre : 

A Greek poet, probably Alcseus. 
7. The Hermaphrodite ; found near Sta. Maria Vittoria. 

1th Room. — 

In the Centre : 

Boy on a Dolphin. 
*' D'autres statues peuvent deliver de la grande composition maritime 
de Scopas. Tel est la Palemon, assis sur un dauphin, de la villa Bor- 
ghese, d'apres lequel a ete evidemment concu le Jonas de 1'eglise de 
Sainte-Marie du Peuple, qu'on attribue a Raphael." — Ampere, Hist. 
Rom. iii. 284. 

8th Room. — 

I. Dancing Satyr. 

The Upper Story, reached by a winding staircase from 
the Galleria, contains : 

1st Room. — Three fine works by Bernini. 
David with the sling : executed in his iSth year. 
Apollo and Daphne. 

/Eneas carrying off Anchises : executed when the sculptor was only 
15 years old. 

2nd Room. — 

Filled with a collection of portraits, for the most part unknown. 
Worthy of attention are the portraits of Paul V. by Caravaggio,s.r\A 
of his father Marc- Antonio Borghese, attributed to Guido; also 


the busts of Paul V. and of Cardinal Scipio Borghese, who built 
the villa, by Bernini. 

^th Room. — 

Statue of Princess Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I., by 
Canova, as Venus-Victrix. 
" Canova esteemed his statue of the Princess Borghese as one of his 
best works. No one else could have an opportunity of judging of it, 
for the prince, who certainly was not jealous of his wife's person, was so 
jealous of her statue, that he kept it locked up in a room in the Borghese 
Palace, of which he kept the key, and not a human being, not even 
Canova himself, could get access to it." — Eaton' s Ro?ne. 

Canova took Chantrey to see this statue by night, wishing, as was his 
wont, to show it by the light of a single taper. Chantrey, wishing to do 
honour to the artist, insisted upon holding the taper for the best light 
himself, which gave rise to Moore's lines : 

" When he, thy peer in art and fame, 
Hung o'er the marble with delight ; 
And while his ling' ring hand would steal 

O'er every grace the taper's rays, 
Gave thee, with all the generous zeal 
Such master-spirits only feel, 

The best of fame — a rival's praise ! " 

In the upper part of the grounds, not far from the walls 
of Rome, stood the Villa Olgiati, once the Villa of Raphael. 
It contained three rooms ornamented with frescoes from the 
hand of the great master. The best of these are now pre- 
served in a room at the end of the gallery in the Borghese 
Palace. The villa was destroyed during the siege of Rome 
in 1849, when many of the fine old trees were cut down on 
this side of the grounds. 

" The Casino of Raphael was unfurnished, except with casks of wine, 
and uninhabited, except by a contadina. The chamber which was the 
bclroom of Raphael was entirely adorned with the work of his own 
hands. It was a small pleasant apartment, looking out on a little green 
lawn, fenced in with trees irregularly planted. The walls were covered 
with arabesques, in various whimsical and beautiful designs — such as the 
sports of children ; Loves balancing themselves on poles, or mounted 


on horseback, full of glee and mirth ; Fauns and Satyrs ; Mercury and 
Minerva ; flowers and curling tendrils, and every beautiful composition 
that could suggest itself to a classic imagination in its most sportive 
mood. The cornice was supported by painted Caryatides. The coved 
roof was adorned with four medallions, containing portraits of his 
mistress, the Fornarina — it seemed as if he took pleasure in multiplying 
that beloved object, so that wherever his eyes turned her image might 
meet them. There were three other paintings, one representing a Ter- 
minus with a target before it, and a troop of men shooting at it with bows 
and arrows which they had stolen from unsuspecting Cupid, lying asleep 
on the ground. The second represented a figure, apparently a god, seated 
at the foot of a couch, with an altar before him, in a temple or rotunda, 
and from the gardens which appeared in perspective through its open 
ink-rcolumniations, were seen advancing a troop of gay young nymphs, 
bearing vases full of roses upon their heads.* .... The last and 
best of these paintings represented the nuptials of Alexander the Great 
and Roxana." — Eaton's Rome. 

Just outside the Porta del Popolo, a small gate on the 
left of the Villa Borghese leads to the Villa Esmeack, — the 
property of an Englishman, — of considerable extent, and pos- 
sessing beautiful views of Rome and the Sabine mountains 
from its heights, which are adorned with a few ancient statues 
and vases. 

Unpleasantly situated near the gate of the Villa Borghese 
is the Pig-market. Fortunately the manner of pig-killing at 
Rome is not so noisy as that in northern countries. The 
throats of the animals are not cut, but they are pierced under 
the left shoulder with a long pointed bodkin, which kills 
them almost instantly — no blood flowing. In a very few 
minutes a whole pen-full of pigs can be stilettoed in this 
manner — indeed, for any one interested in farming matters, 
the slaughter of the Roman pigs is a sight worth seeing. 

We now enter upon the ugly dusty road which leads in a 
straight line to the Milvian Bridge. By this road the last 

* This picture is now called the Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona. 
VOL. II. 27 


triumphal procession entered Rome — that of the Emperor 
Honorius and Stilicho (described by the poet Claudian) in 
a.d. 403 — a whole century having then elapsed since the 
Romans had beheld their last triumph— that of Diocletian. 

Under the line of hills (Monte Parioli) on the right of the 
road are the Catacombs of St. Valentine. On the other side, 
the same hills are undermined by the Catacombs of SS. 
Gianutus and Basilla. 

Half a mile from the gate, rises conspicuously on the 
right of the road the Casino of Papa Giulio, with picturesque 
overhanging cornices and sculptured fountain. The court- 
yard has a quaint cloister. This is the " Villino," and, far 
behind, but formerly connected with it by a long corridor, is 
the Villa of Papa Giulio, containing several rooms with 
very richly decorated ceilings, painted by Taddco Zucchero. 
Michael Angelo was consulted by the pope as to the build- 
ing of this villa, and Vasari made drawings for it, but " the 
actual architect was Vignola, a modest genius, who had to 
suffer severely, together with all his fellow-workmen, from 
the tracasseries of the pope's favourite, the bishop Aliotti, 
whom the less-enduring Michael Angelo was wont to nick- 
name Monsignor Tante Cose." 

" The villa of Papa Giulio is still visited by the stranger. Restored to 
the presence of those times, he ascends the spacious steps to the gallery, 
whence he overlooks the whole extent of Rome, from Monte Mario, 
with all the windings of the Tiber. The building of this palace, the 
laying out of its gardens, were the daily occupation of Tope Julius III. 
The place was designed by himself, but was never completed : every 
day brought with it some new suggestion or caprice, which the archi- 
tects must at once set themselves to realize. This pontiff desired to 
forward the interests of his family ; but he was not inclined to involve 
himself in dangerous perplexities on their account. The pleasant 
blameless life of his villa was that which was best suited to him. lie 


gave entertainments, which he enlivened with proverbial and other modes 
of expression, that sometimes mingled blushes with the smiles of his 
guests. In the important affairs of the Church and State, he took no 
other share than was absolutely inevitable. This Pope Julius died 
March 23, 1555."— Ranke's Hist, of the Popes. 

" C'est uniquement comme protecteur des arts et comme prince magni- 
fique que nous pouvons envisager Jules III. Sa mauvaise sante lui faisait 
rechercher le repos et les douceurs d'une vie grande et libre. Aussi 
avait-il fait edifier avec une sorte de tendresse paternelle cette belle 
villa, qui est celebre, dans l'histoire de Fart, sous le nom de Vigne de 
pape J ules. Michel- Ange, Vasari, Vignole en avaient dessine les profils ; 
les nymphees et les fontaines etaient d'Ammanati ; les peintures de 
Taddeo Zuccari. Du haut d'une galerie elegante on decouvrait les sept 
collines, et d'ombreuses allees, tracees par Jules III., egaraient les pas 
du vieillard dans ce dedale de tertres et de vallees qui separe le pont ou 
perit Maxence de la ville eternelle."— Goumerie, Rome Chretien ne, ii. 

Pope Julius used to come hither, with all his court, from 
the Vatican by water. The richly-decorated barge, filled 
with venerable ecclesiastics, gliding between the osier-fringed 
banks of the yellow Tiber, with its distant line of churches 
and palaces, would make a fine subject for a picture. 

Nearly opposite the Casino Papa Giulio, on the further 
bank of the Tiber, is the picturesque classic Villa of Claude 
Lorraine, whither he was wont to retire during the summer 
months, residing in the winter in the Tempietto at the head 
of the Trinita steps. This villa is best seen from the walk 
by the river-side, which is reached by turning at once to 
the left on coming out of the Porta del Popolo. Hence it 
makes a good foreground to the view of the city and distant 
heights of the Janiculan. 

"This road is called 'Poussin's Walk,' because the great painter 
used to go along it from Rome to his villa near Ponte Molle. One 
sees here an horizon such as one often finds in Poussin's pictures." — 
Frederika Bremer. 


Close to the Villa Papa Giulio is the tunnel called Arco 
Oscuro, passing which, a steep lane with a beautiful view 
towards St. Peter's, ascends between the hillsides of the 
Monte Parione, and descends on the other side (following 
the turn to the right) to the Tiber bank, about two miles 
from Rome, where is situated the Aequo, Acetosa, a refreshing 
mineral spring like seltzer water, enclosed in a fountain 
erected by Bernini for Alexander VII. There is a lovely- 
view from hence across the Campagna in the direction of 
Fidenre (Castel Giubeleo) and the Tor di Quinto. 

"A green hill, one of those bare table-lands so common in the 
Campagna, rises on the right. Ascend it to where a broad furrow in 
the slope seems to mark the site of an ancient road. You are on 
a plateau, almost quadrangular in form, rising steeply to the height 
of nearly two hundred feet above the Tiber, and isolated, save at one 
angle, where it is united to other high ground by a narrow isthmus. 
Not a tree — not a shrub on its turf-grown surface — not a house — not a 
ruin — not one stone upon another, to tell you that the site had been in- 
habited. Yet here once stood Antemnae, the city of many towers,* one 
of the most ancient of Italy ! + Not a trace remains above ground. Even 
the broken pottery, that infallible indicator of bygone civilisation, which 
marks the site and determines the limits of habitation on many a now 
desolate spot of classic ground, is here so overgrown with herbage that 
the eye of an antiquary would alone detect it. It is a site strong by 
nature, and well adapted for a city, as cities then were ; for it is scarcely 
larger than the Palatine Hill, which, though at first it embraced the 
whole of Rome, was afterwards too small for a single palace. It has a 
peculiar interest as one of the three cities of Sabina, J whose daughters, 
ravished by the followers of Romulus, became the mothers of the 
Roman race. Antemnae was the nearest city to Rome — only three miles 
distant — and therefore must have suffered most from the inhospitable 
violence of the Romans." — Dennis Cities of Etruria, ch. iii. 

* Turrigera; Antemnae. — Virg. JEn. vii. 631. 

f Antemnaquc prisco 

Crustumio prior. 
X The other two were Caccina and Crustumium. 


There is a walk — rather dangerous for carriages — by the 
river, from hence, to the Ponte Molle. Here Miss Bathurst 
was drowned by being thrown from her horse into the 

The river bank presents a series of picturesque views, 
though the yellow Tiber in no way reminds us of Virgil's 
description : 

" Cseruleus Tybris ccelo gratissimus amnis." 

.En. viii. 64. 

Continuing to follow the main road, on the left is the 
round Church of St. Andrew, with a Doric portico, built by 
Vignola, in 1527, to commemorate the deliverance of 
Clement VII. from the Germans. 

Further, on the right, is another Chapel in honour of St. 
Andrew's Head. 

" One of the most curious instances of relique worship occurred here 
in the reign of /Eneas Sylvius, Pope Pius II. The head of St. Andrew 
was brought in stately procession from the fortress of Nami, whither, 
as the Turks invaded the Morea, it had been brought for safety from 
Patras. It was intended that the most glorious heads of St. Peter and 
St. Paul should go forth to meet that of their brother apostle. But the 
mass of gold which enshrined, the cumbrous iron which protected these 
reliques, was too heavy to be moved ; so, without them, the pope, the 
cardinals, the whole population of Rome, thronged forth to the meadows 
near the Milvian Bridge. The pope made an eloquent address to the 
head, a hymn was sung entreating the saint's aid in the discomfiture of 
the Turks. It rested that day on the altar of Santa Maria del Popolo, 
and was then conveyed through the city, decorated with all splendour, to 
St. Peter's. Cardinal Bessarion preached a sermon, and the head was 
deposited with those of his brother apostles under the high-altar." — 
Milman's Latin Christianity. 

A mile and a half from the gate, the Tiber is crossed 
by the Ponte Molle, built by Pius VII. in 1815, on the site 


and foundations of the Pons Milvius, which was erected 
B.C. 109 by the Censor M. ^Emilius Scaurus. It was here 
that, on the night of December 3, B.C. 63, Cicero captured 
the emissaries of the Allobrogi, who were engaged in the 
conspiracy of Catiline. Hence, on October 27, a.d. 312, 
Maxentius was thrown into the river and drowned after his 
defeat by Constantine at the Saxa Rubra. It was on this 
occasion that the seven-branched candlestick of Jerusalem 
was dropped into the river, where it has probably ever since 
been embedded. The statues of Our Saviour and John 
the Baptist, at the further entrance of the bridge, are by 

Here are a number of taverns and Trattorie, much fre- 
quented by the lower ranks of the Roman people, and for 
which especial open omnibuses run from the Porta del 
Popolo. Similar places of public amusement seem to have 
existed here from imperial times. Ovid describes the 
people coming out hither in troops by the Via Flaminia to 
celebrate the fete of Anna Perenna, an old woman who sup- 
plied the plebs with cakes during the retreat to the Mons 
Sacer, but who afterwards, from a similitude of names, was 
confounded with Anna, sister of Dido. 

"Idibus est Annse festum geniale Perennse, 

I laud procul a ripis, ad vena Tibri, tuis. 
Plebs venit, ac virides passim disjecta per herbas 

Potat ; et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
Sub Jove pars durat ; pauci tentoria pomint : 

Sunt, quibus e ramo frondea facta casa est: 
Pars, ubi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis, 

Desuper extentas imposuere togas. 
Sole tamen vinoque calent ; annosque prccantur, 

< hiot sumant cyathos, ad numerumque bibunt. 
Invenies ill ic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos: 

Quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suos. 


Illic et cantant, quidqnid didicere theatris, 

Et jactant faciles ad sua verba maims : 
Et ducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

Multaque diffusis saltat arnica comis. 
Quum redeunt, titubant, et sunt spectacula vulgo, 

Et fortunatos obvia turba vocat. 
Occurri nuper. Visa est mihi digna relatu 

Pompa : senem potum pota trahebat anus." 

East. iii. 523. 

Here three roads meet. That on the right is the old 
Via Flaminia, begun B.C. 220 by C. Flaminius the censor. 
This was the great northern road of Italy, which, issuing 
from the city by the Porta Ratumena, which was close to 
the tomb of Bibulus, followed a line a little east of the 
modern Corso, and passed the Aurelian wall by the Porta 
Flaminia, near the present Porta del Popolo. It extended 
to Ariminum (Rimini), a distance of 210 miles.* 

(Following this road for about 1^ mile, on the left are the 
ruins called Tor di Qirinto. A little further on the right of 
the road are some tufa-rocks, with an injured tomb of the 
Nasones. Following the valley under these rocks to the left 
we reach {\\ mile) the fine Castle of Crcsccnza, now a farm- 
house, picturesquely situated on a rocky knoll, — once in- 
habited by Poussin, and reproduced in the background of 
many of his pictures. In the interior are some remains of 
ancient frescoes. 

On this road, seven miles from Rome, is Prima Porta, 
where are the ruins of the Villa of Livia, wife of Augustus, and 
mother of Tiberius. When first opened, several small rooms 
in the villa, supposed to be baths, were covered with frescoes 
and arabesques in a state of the most marvellous beauty and 

* See Dyer's Hist, of the City of Rome. 


preservation, but they are now greatly injured by damp and 
exposure. From the character of the paintings, a trellis- 
work of fruit and flowers, amid which birds and insects are 
sporting, it is supposed that they are the work of Ludius, 
described in Pliny, who " divi Augusti getate primus insti- 
tuit amcenissimam parietum picturam, villas et porticus ac 

topiaria opera, lucos, nemora blandissimo as- 

pectu minimoque impendio." It was here that the mag- 
nificent statue of Augustus, now in the Braccio Nuovo of 
the Vatican, was discovered in 1863. 

"What Augustus's affection for Livia was, is well known. 'Pre- 
serve the remembrance of a husband who has loved you very tenderly,' 
were the last words of the emperor, as he lay on his death-bed. And 
when asked how she contrived to retain his affection, Dion Cassius tells 
us that she replied, 'My secret is very simple: I have made it the 
study of my life to please him, and I have never manifested any 
indiscreet curiosity with regard to his public or private affairs.'" — 

Just beyond this, the Tiber receives the little river Valca, 
considered to be identical with the Crimera. Hither the 
devoted clan of the Fabii, 4000 in number, retired from 
Rome, having offered to sustain, at their own cost and risk, 
the war which Rome was then carrying on against Veii. 
Here, because they felt a position within the city unten- 
able on account of the animosity of their fellow-patricians, 
which had been excited by their advocacy of the agra- 
rian law, and their popularity with the plebeians, they 
established themselves on a hillock overhanging the river, 
which they fortified, and where they dwelt for three years. 
At the end of that time the Veiientines, by letting loose 
herds of cattle like the Vaccine, which one .still sees 
wandering in that part of the Campagna, drew them into 


an ambuscade, and they were all cut off to a man. Ac- 
cording to Dionysius, a portion of the little army remained 
to guard the fort, and the rest fled to another hill, perhaps 
that now known as Vaccareccia. These were the last to 
be exterminated. 

" They fought from dawn to sunset. The enemy slain by their hand 
formed heaps of corpses which barred their passage." — They were sum- 
moned to surrender, but they preferred to die. — " The people of Veii 
showered arrows and stones upon them from a distance, not daring to 
approach them again. The arrows fell like thick snow. The Fabii, with 
swords blunted by force of striking, with bucklers broken, continued to 
fight, snatching fresh swords from the hands of the enemy, and rushing 
upon them with the ferocity of wild beasts." — Dionysius, ix. 21. 

A little beyond this, ten miles from Rome, is the stream 
Scannabecchi, which descends from the Crustuminian Hills, 
and is identical with the Allia, " infaustum Allia nomen," 
where the Romans were (b.c. 390) entirely defeated with 
great slaughter by the Gauls, before the capture of the city, 
in which the aged senators were massacred at the doors of 
their houses. 

It was in the lands lying between the villa of Livia and 
the Tiber that Saxa Rubra * was situated, where Constantine 
(a.d. 312) gained his decisive victory over Maxentius, who, 
while attempting to escape over the Milvian Bridge, was 
pushed by the throng of fugitives into the Tiber, and per- 
ished, engulfed in the mud. The scene is depicted in the 
famous fresco of Giulio Romano, in the stanze of the 

On the opposite side of the river, Castel Giubeleo, on 
the site of the Etruscan Fidenre, is a conspicuous object.) 

* Masses of reddish rock of volcanic tufa are still to be seen here, breaking through 
the soil of the Campagna. 


(The direct road from the Ponte Molle is the ancient 
Via Cassia, which must be followed for some distance by 
those who make the interesting excursions to Veii, Galera, 
and Bracciano, each easily within the compass of a day's 
expedition. On the left of this road, three miles from 
Rome, is the fine sarcophagus of Publius Vibius Maximus 
and his wife Regina Maxima, popularly known as " Nero's 

Following the road to the left of the Ponte Molle, we 
turn up a steep incline to the deserted Villa Madama, built 
by Giulio Romano, from designs of Raphael for Cardinal 
Giulio de' Medici, afterwards Clement VII. It derives its 
name from Margaret of Austria, daughter of Charles V., 
and wife, first of Alessandro de' Medici, and then of Ottavio 
Famese, duke of Parma ; from this second marriage, it 
descended through Elisabetta Farnese, to the Bourbon 
kings of Naples. The neglected halls contain some 
fresco decorations by Giulio Romano and Giovanni da 

" They consist of a series of beautiful little pictures, representing the 
sports of Satyrs and Loves ; Juno, attended by her peacocks ; Jupiter 
and Ganymede ; and various subjects of mythology and fable. The 
paintings in the portico have been of first-rate excellence ; and I cannot 
but regret, that designs so beautiful should not be engraved before their 
last traces disappear for ever. A deep fringe on one of the deserted 
chambers, representing angels, flowers, Caryatides, &c, by Giulio 
Romano ; and also a fine fresco on a ceiling, by Giovanni da Udine, of 
Phoebus driving his heavenly steeds, are in somewhat better preserv- 

" It was in the groves that surrounded Villa Madama, that the Pastor 
Fido of Guarini was represented for the first time before a brilliant circle 
of princes and nobles, such as these scenes will see no more, and Italy 
itself could not now produce." — Eaton's Nome. 

The frescoes and arabesques executed here by Giovanni 


da Udine were considered at the time as among the most 
successful of his works. Vasari says that in these he 
" wished to be supreme, and to excel himself." Cardinal 
de' Medici was so delighted with them that he not only 
heaped benefits on all the relations of the painter, but 
rewarded him with a rich canonry, which he was allowed to 
transfer to his brother. 

One can scarcely doubt from the description of Martial 
that this villa occupies the site of that in which the poet 
came to visit his friend and namesake. 

"Juli jugera pauca Martialis, 
Hortis Hesperidum beatiora, 
Longo Janiculi jugo recumbunt. 
Lati collibus imminent recessus ; 
Et planus modico tumore vertex 
Coelo perfruitur sereniore : 
Et, curvas nebula tegente valles, 
Solus luce nitet peculiari : 
Puris leniter admoventur astris 
Celsa; culmina delicata villas. 
Hinc septem dominos videre montes, 
Et totam licet rcstimare Romam." 

The Villa Madama is situated on one of the slopes of 
Monte Mario, which is ascended by a winding carriage- 
road from near the Porta Angelica. This hill, in ancient 
times called Clivus Cinnae, was in the middle ages Monte 
Malo, and is thus spoken of by Dante (Paradiso, xv. 
109). Its name changed to Mario, through Mario Mellini, 
its possessor in the time of Sixtus V. Passing the two 
churches of Sta. Maria del Rosario and Sta. Croce di 
Monte Mario,* we reach a gate with an old pine-tree. 
This is the Villa Mellini (for which an order is supposed to 

* Built by Mario Mellini in the fifteenth century. 


be necessary, though a franc will usually cause the gates to 
fly open), which possesses a magnificent view over Rome, 
from its terraces, lined with ilexes and cypresses. 

" The Monte Mario, like Cooper's Hill, is the highest, boldest, and 
most prominent part of the line ; it is about the height and steepness 
too of Cooper's Hill, and has the Tiber at the foot of it, like the Thames 
at Anchorwick. To keep up the resemblance, there is a sort of terrace 
at the top of the Monte Mario, planted with cypresses, and a villa, 
though dilapidated, crowns the summit, as well as at our old friend 
above Egham. Here we stood, on a most delicious evening, the ilex 
and the gum-cistus in great profusion about us, the slope below full of 
vines and olives, the cypresses above our heads, and before our eyes 
all that one has read of in Roman History — the course of the Tiber 
between the hills that bound it, coming down from Fidense and receiving 
the Allia and the Anio ; beyond, the Apennines, the distant and higher 
summits still quite white with snow ; in front, the Alban Hills ; on the 
right, the Campagna to the sea ; and just beneath us the whole length 
of Rome, ancient and modern — St. Peter's and the Coliseum, rising as 
the representatives of each — the Pantheon, the Aventine, the Quirinal, 
all the well-known objects distinctly laid before us. One may safely say 
that the world cannot contain many views of such mingled beauty and 
interest as this." — Dr. Arnold. 

"Les maisonsde campagne des grands seigneurs donnent l'idee decette 
solitude, de cette indifference des possesseurs au milieu des plus admira- 
bles sejours du monde. On se promene dans ces immenses jardins, sans 
se douter qu'ils aient un maitre. L'herbe croit au milieu des allees ; et, 
dans ces memes allees abandonnees, les arbres sont tailles artistement, 
selon l'ancien gout qui regnait en France ; singuliere bizarrerie que 
cette negligence du necessaire, et cette affectation de l'inutile ! " — Mad. 
de Stail. 

(Behind the Monte Mario, about four miles from Rome, 
is the church of S. Onofrio in Campagna, with a curious 

Just outside the Porta Angelica was the vineyard in 
which Alexander VI. died. 

"This is the manner in which Tope Alexander VI. came to his 



" The cardinal datery, Arian de Cometo, having received a gracious 
intimation that the pontiff, together with the Duke Yalentinos, designed 
to come and sup with him at his vineyard, and that his Holiness would 
bring the supper with him, the cardinal suspected that this determina- 
tion had been taken for the purpose of destroying his life by poison, to 
the end that the duke might have his riches and appointments, the 
rather as he knew that the pope had resolved to put him to death by 
some means, with a view to seizing his property as I have said, — which 
was very great. Considering of the means by which he might save 
himself, he could see but one hope of safety — he sent in good time to the 
pope's carver, with whom he had a certain intimacy, desiring that he 
would come to speak with him ; who, when he had come to the said 
cardinal, was taken by him into a secret place, where, they two being 
retired, the cardinal showed the carver a sum, prepared beforehand, of 
10,000 ducats, in gold, which the said cardinal persuaded the carver to 
accept as a gift and to keep for love of him, and after many words, 
they were at length accepted, the cardinal offering, moreover, all the 
rest of his wealth at his command — for he was a very rich cardinal, 
for he said that he could not keep the said riches by any other means 
than through the said carver's aid, and declared to him, ' You know 
of a certainty what the nature of the pope is, and I know that he 
has resolved, with the Duke Yalentinos, to procure my life by poison^ 
through your hand,' — wherefore he besought the carver to take pity 
on him, and to give him his life. And having said this, the carver 
declared to him the manner in which it was ordered that the poison 
should be given to him at the supper, but being moved to compassion 
he promised to preserve his life. Now the orders were that the carver 
should present three boxes of sweetmeats, in tablets or lozenges, after the 
supper, one to the pope, one to the said cardinal, and another to the duke, 
and in that for the cardinal there was poison : and thus being told, the 
said cardinal gave directions to the aforesaid carver in what manner he 
should serve them, so as to cause that the box of poisoned confect 
which was to be for the cardinal, should be placed before the pope, 
so that he might eat thereof, and so poison himself, and die. And 
the pope being come accordingly with the duke to supper on the day 
appointed, the cardinal threw himself at his feet, kissing them and 
embracing them closely ; then he entreated his Holiness with most 
affectionate words, saying, he would never rise from those feet until his 
Holiness had granted him a favour. Being questioned by the pontiff 
what this favour was, and requested to rise up, he would first have the 
grace he demanded, and the promise of his Holiness to grant it. Now 
after much persuasion, the pope remained sufficiently astonished, seeing 


the perseverance of the cardinal, and that he would not rise, and pro- 
mised to grant the favour. Then the cardinal rose up and said, ' Holy 
Father, it is not fitting that when the master conies to the house of his 
servant, the servant should eat with his master like an equal (confrezer 
parimente),' and therefore the grace he demanded was the just and 
honest one, that he, the servant, should wait at the table of his master ; 
and this favour the pope granted him. Then having come to supper, 
and the time for serving the confectionery having arrived, the carver 
put the poisoned sweetmeats into the box, according to the first order 
given to him by the pope, and the cardinal being well informed as to 
which box had no poison, tasted of that one, and put the poisoned 
confect before the pope. Then his Holiness, trusting to his carver, and 
seeing the cardinal tasting, judged that no poison was there, and ate of 
it heartily ; while of the other, which the pope thought was poisoned, 
but which was not, the cardinal ate. Now at the hour accustomed, 
according to the quality of that poison, his Holiness began to feel its 
effect, and so died thereof ; but the cardinal, who was yet much afraid, 
having physicked himself and vomited, took no harm and escaped, 
though not without difficulty." — Sanuto, iv., Translation in Ranke's 
Hist, of the Popes. 

The wine of the Vatican hill has had a bad reputa- 
tion even from classical times. " If you like vinegar," 
wrote Martial, "drink the wine of the Vatican!"* and 
again, " To drink the wine of the Vatican is to drink 
poison." t 

(Here, also, is the entrance of the Vol d' Inferno, a 
pleasant winter walk, where, near the beginning of the 
Cork Woods, are some picturesque remains of an ancient 

The Porta Angelica, built by Pius IV. (1559 — 1566), leads 
into the Borgo, beneath the walls of the Vatican. 

Those who return from hence to the English quarter in 
the evening, will realize the vividness of Miss Thackeray's 
description : — 

* Martial, Ep. x. 45, 5. \ Martial, Ep. vi. 92, 3. 


".They passed groups standing round their doorways ; a blacksmith 
hammering with great straight blows at a copper pot, shouting to a 
friend, a young baker, naked almost, except for a great sheet flung over 
his shoulders, and leaning against the door of his shop. The horses 
tramp on. Listen to the flow of fountains gleaming white against the 
dark marbles, — to the murmur of voices. An old lady, who has apparently 
hung all her wardrobe out of window, in petticoats and silk hankerchiefs, 
is looking out from beneath these banners at the passers in the streets. 
Little babies, tied up tight in swaddling-clothes, are being poised against 
their mother's hips ; a child is trying to raise the great knocker of some 
feudal-looking arch, hidden in the corner of the street. Then they cross 
the bridge, and see the last sun's rays flaming from the angel's sacred 
sword. Driving on through the tranquil streets, populous and thronged 
with citizens, they see brown-faced, bronze-headed Torsos in balconies 
and window-frames ; citizens sitting tranquilly, resting on the kerb- 
stones, with their feet in the gutters ; grand-looking women resting 
against their doorways. Sibyls out of the Sistine were sitting on the 
steps of the churches. In one stone archway sat the Fates spinning 
their web. There was a holy family by a lemonade-shop, and a whole 
heaven of little Coreggio angels perching dark-eyed along the road. Then 
comes a fountain falling into a marble basin, at either end of which two 
little girls are clinging and climbing. Here is a little lighted May-altar 
to the Virgin, which the children have put up under the shrine by the 
street-corner. They don't beg clamorously, but stand leaning against 
the wall, waiting for a chance miraculous baioch ? " — Bluebeard's Keys. 



Gate of Sto. Spirito — Church, Convent, and Garden of S. Onofrio — 
The Lungara — Palazzo Salviati and the Botanic-Garden — S. Gio- 
vanni alia Lungara — Palazzo Corsini — The Farnesina — Porta Set- 
timiaiia — S. Pietro in Montorio — Fontana Paolina — Villa Lante — 
Porta and Church of S. Pancrazio — Villa Doria-Pamfili — Chapel of 
St. Andrew's Head. 

r I "HE Janiculan is a • steep crest of hill which rises 

abruptly on the west bank of the Tiber, and breaks 

imperceptibly away on the other side into the Campagna 

towards Civita Vecchia. Its lower formation is a marine clay 

abounding in fossils, but its upper surface is formed of the 

yellow sand which gave it the ancient name of Mons Aureus, 

— still commemorated in Montorio — S. Pietro in Montorio. 

A tradition universally received in ancient times, and 

adopted by Virgil, derives the name of Janiculum from Janus, 

who was the sun-god, as Jana,or Diana, was the moon-goddess. 

On this hill Janus is believed to have founded a city, which 

is mentioned by Pliny under the name of Antinopolis. Ovid 

makes Janus speak for himself as to his property : 

" Arx mca collis erat, quern cultrix nomine nostro 
Nuncupat haec a'tas, Janiculumque vocat." * 

Fons, the supposed son of Janus, is known to have had 
an altar here in very early times.t Janus Quirinus was a 

* Fast. i. 246. t Ampere, Hist. Rom. i. 227. 


war-god, " the sun armed with a lance." Thus, in time of 
peace, the gates of this temple were closed, both because 
his worship was then unnecessary, and from an idea of pre- 
venting war from going forth. It was probably in this 
diameter that he was honoured on a site which the Romans 
looked upon as " the key of Etruria," while other nations 
naturally regarded it as " the key of Rome." 

Janus was represented as having a key in his hand. 

" Ille tenens dextra baculum, clavemque sinistra." 

" Parun hasard singulier, Janus, qu'on representait une clef a la main, 
etait le dieu du Janicule, voisin du Vatican, ou est le tombeau de Saint 
Pierre, que Ton represente aussi tenant une clef. Janus, comme Saint 
Pierre, son futur voisin, etait le portier celeste." — Amph-e, Hist. Rom. 
i. 229, 

When the first Sabine king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, 
"like the darlings of the gods in the golden age, fell 
asleep, full of days,"* he was buried upon the sacred hill of 
his own people, and the books of his sacred laws and ordi- 
nances were buried near him in a separate tomb.f In the 
sixth century of the republic, a monument was discovered 
on the Janiculan, which was believed to be that of Numa, 
and certain books were dug up near it which were destroyed 
by the senate in the fear that they might give a too free- 
thinking explanation of the Roman mythology. J 

Ancus Martius, the fourth king of Rome, connected the 
Janiculan with the rest of the city by building the Pons 
Sublicius, the first bridge over the Tiber ; and erected a 
citadel on the crest of the hill as a bulwark against Etruria, 
with which he was constantly at war.§ Some escarpments, 
supposed to belong to the fortifications of Ancus, have 

* Niebuhr, i. 240. t Arnold, Hist. vol. i. 

X Ampere, Hist. Rom. i. 389. § Niebuhr, i. 353. 

VOL. II. 28 


lately been found behind the Fontana Paolina. It was 
from this same ridge that his Etruscan successor, Tarqui- 
nius PriscuS; coming from Tarquinii (Corneto), had his first 
view of the city over which he came to reign, and here the 
eagle, henceforth to be the emblem of Roman power, 
replaced upon his head the cap which it had snatched away 
as he was riding in his chariot. Hence, also, Lars Porsena, 
king of Etruria, looked upon Rome, when he came to the 
assistance of Tarquinius Superbus, and retired in fear of his 
life after he had seen specimens of Roman endurance, in 
Horatius Codes, who kept the falling bridge ; in Mutius, 
who burnt his hand in the charcoal ; and in the hostage, 
Clcelia, who swam home across the Tiber, — all anecdotes 
connected with the Janiculan. 

After the time of the kings this hill appears less fre- 
quently in history. But it was here that the consul Octavius, 
the friend of Sylla, was murdered by the partisans of 
Marius, while seated in his curule chair, — near the foot of 
the hill Julius Caesar had his famous gardens, and on its 
summit the Emperor Galba was buried. The Christian 
associations of the hill will be noticed at the different 
points to which they belong. 

From the Borgo (Chap. XV.) the unfinished gate called 
Porta Sto. Spirito, built by Antonio da San Gallo, leads 
into the Via Lungara, a street three-quarters of a mile long, 
formed by Sixtus V, and occupying the whole length of the 
valley between the Tiber and the Janiculan. 

Immediately on the right, the steep "Salita di S. Ono- 
frio" leads up the hillside to the Church of S. Onofrio, built 
in 1439 by Nicolo da Forca Palena, in honour of the Egyp- 
tian hermit, Honophrius. 

S. 0X0 FRIO. 435 

" St. Onofrius was a monk of Thebes, who retired to the desert, far 
from the sight of men, and dwelt there in a cave for sixty years, and 
during all that time never beheld one human being, or uttered one word 
of his mother-tongue except in prayer. He was unclothed, except by 
some leaves twisted round his body, and his beard and hair had become 
like the face of a wild beast. In this state he was discovered by a holy 
man whose name was Paphnutius, who, seeing him crawling on the ground, 
knew not at first what live thing it might be." — Jamesoiis Sacred Art. 

From the little platform in front of the convent is one 
of the loveliest views over the city. The church is ap- 
proached by a portico, decorated with glazed frescoes by 
Domenichino. Those on either side of the door represent the 
saints of the Hieronomyte Order (the adjoining convent 
belongs to Hieronomytes), viz. : S. Jerome, Sta. Paula, St. 
Eustochium, S. Pietro Gambacorta of Pisa, St. Augustine the 
hermit, S. Nicolo di Forca Palena, S. Onofrio and the 
Blessed Benedict of Sicily, Philip of St. Agatha, Paul of 
Venice, Bartholomew of Cesarea, Mark of Manuta, Philip of 
Fulgaria, and John of Catalonia. Over the door is a 
Madonna and Child. In the side arcade are three scenes 
in the life of St. Jerome. i. Represents his baptism as a 
young man at Rome. 2. Refers to his vision of the Judg- 
ment (described in his letter to Eustochium), in which he 
heard the Judge of the World ask what he was, and he 
answered, " I am a Christian." But the Judge replied, 
" No, you lie, for you are a Ciceronian," and he was con- 
demned to be scourged, but continued to protest that he 
was a Christian between every lash. 3. Is a scene alluded 
to in another letter to Eustochium, in which Jerome says, 
" O how often when alone in the desert with the wild 
beasts and scorpions, half dead with fasting and penance, 
have I fancied myself a spectator of the sins of Rome, and 
of the dances of its young women." 


The church has a solemn and picturesque interior. It 
ends in a tribune richly adorned with frescoes, those of the 
upper part (the Coronation of the Virgin, and eight groups 
of saints and angels) being by Pinturicchio, those of the 
lower (the Virgin and Saints, Nativity, and Flight into 
Egypt) by Baldassare Peruzzi. 

On the left of the entrance is the original monument of 
Tasso (with a portrait), erected after his death by Cardinal 
Bevilacqua. Greatly inferior in interest is a monument 
recently placed to his memory in the adjoining chapel, by 
subscription, the work of De Fabi-is, Near this is the 
grave of the poet, Alessandro Guicli, ob. 1712. In the third 
chapel on the left is the grave of the learned Cardinal 
Mezzofanti, born at Bologna, 1774, died at Rome, 1849. 

The first chapel on the right, which is low and vaulted, with 
stumpy pillars, is covered with frescoes relating to S. Onofrio. 

The second chapel on the right, which is very richly 
decorated, contains a Madonna crowned by Angels, by 
Annibale Caracri. Beyond this is the fine tomb of Arch- 
bishop Sacchi, ob. 1502. The beautiful lunette, of the 
Madonna teaching the Holy Child to read, is by Piutu- 
ricchio. The tomb is inscribed : 

" Labor et gloria vita fuit, 
Mors requies." 

Ladies are never admitted to visit the convent, except on 
April 25th, the anniversary of the death of Tasso. It is 
approached by a cloister, decorated with frescoes from the 
life of S. Onofrio. 

" S. Onofrio is represented as a meagre old man, with long hair and 
beard, grey and matted, a leafy branch twisted round his loins, a stick 
in his hand. The artist generally tries to make him look as haggard and 
inhuman as possible." — Mrs. Jameson. 

S. 0N0FR10. 437 

In a passage on the first floor is a beautiful fresco of 
the Virgin and Child with the donor, by Leonardo da Vinci. 

"To 15 13 belongs a Madonna, painted on the wall of the upper cor- 
ridor of the convent of S. Onofrio. It is on a gold ground : the action 
of the Madonna is beautiful, displaying the noblest form, and the 
expression of the countenance is peculiarly sweet ; but the Child, not- 
withstanding his graceful action, is somewhat hard and heavy, so as 
almost to warrant the conclusion that this picture belongs to an earlier 
period, which would suppose a previous visit to Rome." — Kitglcr. 

Torquato Tasso came to Rome in 1594, on the invita- 
tion of Clement VIII., that he might be crowned on the 
Capitol, but as he arrived in the month of November, and 
the weather was then very bad, it was decided to postpone 
the ceremony till late in the following spring. This delay 
was a source of trouble to Tasso, who was in feeble health, 
and had a presentiment that his death was near. Before 
the time for his crowning arrived he had removed to S. 
Onofrio, saying to the monks who received him at the 
entrance, " My fathers, I have come to die amongst you !" 
and he wrote to one of his friends, " I am come to begin 
my conversation in heaven in this elevated place, and in 
the society of these holy fathers." During the fourteen days 
of his illness, he became perfectly absorbed in the con- 
templation of divine subjects, and upon the last day of his 
life, when he* received the papal absolution, exclaimed, 
" I believe that the crown which I looked for upon the 
Capitol is to be changed for a better crown in heaven." 
Throughout the last night a monk prayed by his side till 
the morning, when Tasso was heard to murmur, " In manus 
tuas, Domine," and then he died. The room in which he 
expired, April 25, 1595, contains his bust, crucifix, ink- 
stand, autograph, a mask taken from his face after death, and 
other relics. The archives of S. Onofrio have this entry : 


"Torquato Tasso, illustrious from his genius, died thus in our monas- 
tery of S. Onofrio. In April, 1595, he caused himself to be brought 
here that he might prepare for death with greater devotion and security, 
as he felt his end approaching. He was received courteously by our 
fathers, and conducted to chambers in the loggia, where everything was 
ready for him. Soon afterwards he became dangerously ill, and desired 
to confess and receive the most Holy Sacrament from the prior. Being 
asked to write his will, he said that he wished to be buried at S. 
Onofrio, and he left to the convent his crucifix and fifty scudi for alms, 
that so many masses might be said for his soul, in the manner that is read 
in the book of legacies in our archives. Pope Clement VIII. was re- 
quested for his benediction, which he gave amply for the remission of 
sins. In his last days he received extreme unction, and then, with the 
crucifix in his hand, contemplating and kissing the sacred image, with 
Christian contrition and devotion, being surrounded by our fathers, he 
gave up his spirit to the Creator, on April 25, 1595, between the eleventh 
and twelfth hours (i.e., between 7 and 8 A.M.), in the fiftieth year of his 
age. In the evening his body was interred with universal concourse 
in our church, near the steps of the high altar, the Cardinal Giulio. 
Aldobrandini, under whose protection he had lived during the last 
years, being minded to erect to him, as soon as possible, a sumptuous 
sepulchre, which, however, was never carried into effect ; but after the 
death of the latter, the Signor Cardinal Bevilacqua raised to his memory 
the monument which is seen on entering the church on the left side." 

Ladies are admitted to the beautiful garden of the con- 
vent on ringing at the first large gate on the left below the 

This lovely plot of ground, fresh with running streams, 
possesses a glorious view over the city, and the Campagna 
beyond S. Paolo. At the further extremity, near a pic- 
turesque group of cypresses, are remains of the oak planted 
by Tasso, the greater part of which was blown down in 1S42. 
A young sapling is shooting up beside it. Beyond this is the 
little amphitheatre, overgrown with grass and flowers, where 
S. Filippo Neri used to teach children, and assemble them 
" for the half-dramatic musical performances which were an 
original form of his oratorios. Here every 25th of April a 

S. OXOFRIO. 439 

musical entertainment of the Accademia is held in memory of 
Tasso, — his bust, crowned with laurel wreaths, and taken 
from the cast after death, being placed in the centre of the 
amphitheatre." * 

Returning to the Lungara, on the left is a Lunatic Asylum, 
founded by Pius IX., with a pompous inscription, and 
beyond it, a chain bridge to S. Giovanni dei Fiorentini. On 
the right is the handsome Palazzo Salviati, which formerly 
contained a fine collection of pictures, removed to the Bor- 
ghese Palace, when, upon the property falling into the hands 
of Prince Borghese, he sold the palace to the govern- 
ment, who now use it as a repository for the civil archives. 
The adjoining garden now belongs to the Sapienza, and 
has been turned into a Botanic Garden. The modernized 
church of S. Giovanni alia Lungara dates from the time 
of Leo IV. (845 — 857), and is now attached to a reformatory. 
On the right is a large Convent of the Bnon Pa store. 

We now reach, on the right, the magnificent Palazzo 
Corsini, built originally by the Riario family, from whom it 
was bought by Clement XII. in 1729, for his nephew Car- 
dinal Neri Corsini, for whom it was altered to its present 
form by Fuga. 

This palace was in turn the resort of Caterina Sforza, the 
brave duchess of Imola ; of the learned Poet Cardinal di 
S. Giorgio ; of Michael Angelo, who remained here more 
than a year on a visit to the cardinal, " who," says Vasari, 
" being of small understanding in art, gave him no commis- 
sion " ; and of Erasmus, who always remembered the plea- 
sant conversations (confabulationes melliflua;) of the " Riario 
Palace," as it was then called. In the seventeenth century 

* Hemans. 


the palace became the residence of Queen Christina of 
Sweden, who died here on April 19, 1689, in a room which 
is distinguished by two columns of painted wood. 

"With her residence in Rome, the habits of Christina became more 
tranquil and better regulated. She obtained some mastery over her- 
self, suffered certain considerations of what was due to others to prevail, 
and consented to acknowledge the necessities incident to the peculiari- 
ties of her chosen residence. She took a constantly increasing part in 
the splendour, the life, and the business of the Curia, becoming indeed 
eventually altogether identified with its interests. The collections she 
had brought with her from Sweden, she now enlarged by so liberal an 
expenditure, and with so much taste, judgment, and success, that she 
surpassed even the native families, and elevated the pursuit from a mere 
gratification of curiosity, to a higher and more significant importance 
both for learning and art. Men such as Spanheim and Havercamp 
thought the illustration of her coins and medals an object not unworthy 
of their labours, and Sante Bartolo devoted his practised hand to her 
cameos. The Coreggios of Christina's collection have always been the 
richest ornament of every gallery into which the changes of time have 
carried them. The MSS. of her choice have contributed in no small 
degree to maintain the reputation of the Vatican library, into which they 
were subsequently incorporated. Acquisitions and possessions of this 
kind filled up the hours of her daily life, with an enjoyment that was at 
least harmless. She also took interest and an active part in scientific 
pursuits ; and it is much to her credit that she received the poor exiled 
Borelli, who was compelled to resort in his old age to teaching as a 
means of subsistence. The queen supported him with her utmost power, 
and caused his renowned and still unsurpassed work, on the mechanics 
of animal motion, by which physiological science has been so import- 
antly influenced and advanced, to be printed at her own cost. Nay, I 
think we may even venture to affirm, that she herself, when her cha- 
racter and intellect had been improved and matured, exerted a power- 
fully efficient and enduring influence on the period, more particularly 
on Italian literature. In the year 16S0, she founded an academy in her 
own residence for the discussion of literary ami political subjects ; and 
the first rule of this institution was, that its members should carefully 
abstain from the turgid style, overloaded with false ornament, which 
prevailed at the time, ami be guided only 1>_\ sound sense and the models 
Of the Augustan and Medicean ages. From the queen's academy pro- 
ceeded such men as Alessandro Guidi, who had previously been addicted 


to the style then used, but after sometime passed in the society of Chris- 
tina, he not only resolved to abandon it, but even formed a League with 
some of his friends for the purpose of labouring to abolish it altogether. 
The Arcadia, an academy to which the merit of completing this good 
work is attributed, arose out of the society which assembled around the 
Swedish queen. On the whole, it must needs be admitted, that in the 
midst of the various inlluences pressing around her, Christina preserved 
a noble independence of mind. To the necessity for evincing that os- 
tentatious piety usually expected from converts, or which they impose 
on themselves, she would by no means subject herself. Entirely Catholic 
as she was, and though continually repeating her conviction of the 
pope's infallibility, and of the necessity for believing all doctrines en- 
joined either by himself or the Church, she had nevertheless an extreme 
detestation of bigots, and utterly abhorred the direction of father con- 
fessors, who were at that time the exclusive rulers of all social and 
domestic life. She would not be prevented from enjoying the amuse- 
ments of the carnival, concerts, dramatic entertainments, or whatever 
else might be offered by the habits of life at Rome ; above all, she 
refused to be withheld from the internal movement of an intellectual 
and animated society. She acknowledged a love of satires, and took 
pleasure in Pasquin. "We find her constantly mingled in the intrigues 
of the court, the dissensions of the papal houses, and the factions otthe 
cardinals. . . . She attached herself to the mode of life presented 
to her with a passionate love, and even thought it impossible to live if she 
did not breathe the atmosphere of Rome." — Rankc s Hist, of the Popes. 

In 1797 this palace was used as the French embassy, and 
on the 28th of December was the scene of a terrible skir- 
mish, when Joseph Buonaparte, then ambassador, attempted 
to interfere between the French democratic party and the 
papal dragoons, and when young General Duphot, who was 
about to be married to Buonaparte's sister-in-law, was shot 
by his side in a balcony. These events, after which Joseph 
Buonaparte immediately demanded his passports and de- 
parted, were among the chief causes which led to the invasion 
of Rome by Berthier, and the imprisonment of Pius VII.* 

The collections now in the palace have all been formed 

* See Thiers' History of (he French Revolution. 


since the death of Queen Christina. The Picture Gallery is 
open to the public from nine to twelve, every day except 
Sundays and holidays. 

The following criticism, applicable to all the private 
galleries in Rome, is perhaps especially so to this : 

"You may generally form a tolerably correct conjecture of what a 
gallery will contain, as to subject, before you enter it, — a certain quan- 
tity of Landscapes, a great many Holy Families, a few Crucifixions, two 
or three Pietas, a reasonable proportion of St. Jeromes, a mixture of 
other Saints and Martyrdoms, and a large assortment of Madonnas and 
Magdalenes, make up the principal part of all the collections in Rome ; 
which are generally comprised of quite as many bad as good paintings." 
— Eaton's Rome. 

The 1st room is chiefly occupied by pretty but unimportant land- 
scapes by Orizzonti and Vanvitelli, and figure pieces by Locatelli. 
We may notice (the best pictures being marked with an asterisk) : 

ist Room. — 

24, 26. Canaletti. 

2nd Room. — ■ 

12. Madonna and Child in glory : Eliz. Sirani. 
II, 27. Fruit: Mario di Eiori. 

15. Landscape : G. Poussiii. 

17, 19. Landscapes with Cattle : Bergkem. 

20. Pieta : Lod. Canned. 

41. S. Andrea Corsini : Fr. Gessi. 

■$rd Room. — 

I. Ecce Homo : Guercino* 

9. Madonna and Child : A. del Sarto. 

13. Holy Family: Barocci. 

16. 20. Rock Scenes : Salvator Rosa. 

17. Madonna and Child : Caravaggio. 
23. Sunset : Both* 

26. Holy Family: Fra Bartolomeo. 

43. Two Martyrdoms : Carlo Saraceni. 

44. Julius II. : after Raphael. 

The portrait of Julius II. (della Rovere) is a replica or copy 
of that at the 1'itti Palace. There are other duplicates in 


the Borghese Gallery, at the National Galleiy in England, 
and at Leigh Court in Somersetshire. Julius II. ob. 1513. 

49. St. Appollonia : Carlo Dolce. 

50. Philip II. of Spain : Titian. 
52. Vanity : Carlo Saraceui* 
88. Ecce Homo : Carlo Dolce. 

\th Room. — 

1. Clement XII. (Lorenzo Corsini, 1730 — 40) : Benedetto Luti. 
4. Cupid asleep : Guido Rcni. 

11. Daughter of Herodias : Guido Rcni* 
16. Madonna : Guido Rcni. 

22. Christ and the Magdalen : Barocci. 

27. Two Heads : Lod. Caracci. 

28. St. Jerome : Titian. 

40. Faustina Maratta — his daughter : Carlo Maratta. 

41 . Fornarina: Gin Ho Romano, after Raphael, — replica of thepicture 

at Florence. 

42. Old Man : Guido. 

44. A Hare : Albert Durer* 

55. Death of Adonis : Sfiagnoletto. 

In this room is an ancient marble chair, found near theLateran — and 
on a table " the Corsini Vase," in silver, with reliefs representing the 
judgment of Areopagus upon the matricide of Orestes. 

$th Room. — (In which Christina died, with a ceiling by 
the Zuccari.) 

2. Holy Family : Fieri no del Vaga. 

12. .St. Agnes: Carlo Dolce.* 

14. Madonna reading : Sassoferrato. 

20. Ulysses and Polyphemus : Lanfranco. 

23. Madonna and Child : Albani. 

26. Madonna and Child : Sassoferrato. 

37. Addolorata : Guido Reni. 

38. Ecce Homo : Guido Reni. 

39. St. John : Guido Reni. 

6th Room. — 

19. Portrait : Holbein. 

20. Mgr. Ghiberti : Titian. 

21. Children of Charles V. : Titian.* 


22. Old Woman : Rembrandt.* 

23. Male Portrait : Giorgione. 

31. Caterina Bora, Wife of Luther : Holbein* 

32. Male Portrait : Vandyke. 

34. Nativity of the Virgin. Miniature from Dnrer. 
40. Cardinal Divitius de Bibbiena : Bronzino. 

47. Portrait of Himself : Rubens* 

48. A Doge of Venice : Tintoret. 

54. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese : Titian* 
68. Cardinal Neri Corsini : Baciccio. 

1th R ' 007)7. — 

1. Madonna and Child : Murillo.* 
13. Landscape : G. Poussin. 
15. St. Sebastian : Rubens. 
18. Christ bearing the Cross : Garofalo. 

21. Christ among the Doctors : Luca Giordano. 

22. Descent of the Holy Spirit : Fra Angelico. 

23. Last Judgment : Fra Angelico. 

24. Ascension : Fra Angelico. 

"A Last Judgment by Angelico da Fiesole, with wings containing 
the Ascension and the Descent of the Holy Ghost, is in the Corsini 
Gallery. Here we perceive a great richness of expression and beauty of 
drapery ; the rapture of the blessed is told, chiefly by their embraces 
and by their attitudes of prayer and praise. It is a remarkable feature, 
and one indicative of the master, that the ranks of the condemned are 
entirely filled by monks." — Kugler. 

26. Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew : Lod. Caracci. 

30. Woman taken in Adultery : Titian. * 

35. Gonfaloniere of the Church : Domenichino. 

8th Room. — 

8. Christ before Pilate : Vandyke. 

12. St. George : Ercolc Grandi. 

13. Contemplation : Guido Reni. 
15. Landscape: G. Poussin. 

17. Judith and Head of Holofernes : Gerard de la Nuit. 

24. St. Jerome: Guercino. 

25. St. Jerome : Spagnoletto. 

43. Mosaic portrait of Clement XII. and his nephew Cardinal 

Neri Corsini. 
In this room are two modern family busts with touching inscriptions. 


Cabinet : 

26. Madonna and Child : Spagna* 

gl/t Room. — 

2. Village Interior : Tenters. 

9. Innocent X. : Velasquez (a replica of the Doria portrait). 
26. Female Portrait : Bronzino. 
28, 29. Battle-pieces : Salvator Rosa. 
30. Two Heads : Giorgione. 
40. Madonna Addolorata : Cignani. 
49. Madonna and Child : Gherardesco da Siena. 

One of the gems of the collection, a highly finished 
Madonna and Child of Carlo Dolce, is usually shown in a 
glass case in the first room. 

The Corsini Library (open every day except Wednesdays) 
contains a magnificent collection of MSS. and engravings, 
founded by Cardinal Neri Corsini. It has also some beau- 
tiful original drawings by the old masters. Behind the 
palace, on the slope of the Janiculan, are large and beautiful 
Gardens adorned with fountains, cypresses, and some grand 
old plane-trees. There is a fine view from the Casino on 
the summit of the hill. 

" A magnificent porter in cocked hat and grand livery conducted the 
visitors across the quadrangle, unlocked the ponderous iron gates of the 
gardens, and let them through, leaving them to their own devices, and 
closing and locking the gates with a crash. They now stood in a wide 
avenue of ilex, whose gloomy boughs, interlacing overhead, effectually 
excluded the sunlight ; nearly a quarter of a mile further on, the ilexes 
were replaced by box and bay trees, beneath which the sun and shade 
divided the path between them, trembling and flickering on the ground 
and invading each other's dominions with every breath of wind. The 
strangers heard the splash of fountains as they walked onwards by banks 
precipitous as a hill-side, and covered with wild rank herbage and tall 
trees. Stooping to gather a flower, they almost started, as looking up, 
they saw, rising against a sky fabulously blue, the unfamiliar green ilex 
and dark cypress spire." — Mademoiselle Mori. 

Opposite the Corsini Palace is the beautiful villa of the 


Farncsina (open on Sundays from 10 to 3), built in 1506 
by Baldassare Peruzzi for the famous banker Agostino Chigi, 
who here gave his sumptuous and extravagant entertainments 
to Leo X. and his court — banquets at which three fish cost 
as much as 230 crowns, and after which the plate that had 
been used, was all thrown into the Tiber.* This same 
Agostino Chigi was one of the greatest of art patrons, and 
has handed down to us not only the decorations of the Far- 
nesina, but the Sibyls of Sta. Maria della Pace, which he 
also ordered from Raphael. 

" Le jour 011 Leon X. alia prendre possession de la basilique de 
Latran, 1' opulent Chigi se distingua. Le theatre qui s'elevait devant 
son palais etait rempli des envoyes de tous les peuples, blancs, cuivres, 
et noirs ; au milieu d'eux on distinguait les images de Venus, de Mars, 
de Minerve, allusion singuliere aux trois pontificats d' Alexander VI., 
de Jules II., et de Leon X. Venus a en son temps: disait l'inscription ; 
Mars a eic le sien; c 'est aujourd'hui le regne de Minerve. Antoine de 
San-Marino, qui demeurait pres de Chigi, repondit aussitot en placant 
sur sa boutique la statue isolee de Venus, avec ce peu de mots : Mars a 
regne, Minerve regne, Venus regnera toujours." — Gournerie, Rome 
Chretienne, ii. 109. 

The Farnesina contains some of the most beautiful existing 

frescoes of Raphael and his school. The principal hall was 

once open, but has now been closed in to preserve the 

paintings. Its ceiling was designed by Raphael (1518 — 20), 

and painted by Giulio Romano and Francesco Penni, with 

twelve scenes from the story of Psyche as narrated by 

Apuleius : 

A king had three daughters. The youngest was named Psyche, and 
was more lovely than the sunshine. Venus, the queen of beauty, was 
herself jealous of her, and bade her son Cupid to destroy her charms 
by inspiring her with an unworthy love (1). But Cupid, when he beheld 

* It has been supposed that the beautiful silver vase which is shown in the Corsiui 
Palace, and which was picked up in the Tiber, belonged to this plate. 


Psyche, loved her himself, showed her to the Graces (2), and carried 
her off. He only visited her in the darkness of night, and bade her 
always to repress her curiosity as to his appearance. But while Cupid 
was sleeping, Psyche lighted a lamp, and looked upon him, — and a 
drop of the hot oil fell upon him and he awoke. Then he left her 
alone in grief and solitude. Venus in the mean time learnt that Cupid 
was faithless to her, and imprisoned him, and sought assistance from 
Juno and Ceres that she might find Psyche, but they refused to aid her 
(3). Then she drove to seek Jupiter in her chariot drawn by doves (4), 
and implored him to send Mercury to her assistance (5). Jupiter listened 
to her prayer, and Mercury was sent forth to seek for Psyche (6). Venus 
then showed her spite against Psyche, and imposed harsh tasks upon her 
which she was nevertheless enabled to perform. At length she was 
ordered to bring a casket from the infernal regions (7), and even this, to 
the amazement of Venus, she succeeded in effecting (8). Cupid, escaped 
from captivity, then implored Jupiter to restore Psyche to him. Jupiter 
embraced him (9), and bade Mercury summon the gods to a council on 
the subject (see the ceiling on the right). Psyche was then brought to 
Olympus (10), and became immortal, and the gods celebrated her nup- 
tial banquet (ceiling painting on left). 

" On the flat of the ceiling are two large compositions, with numerous 
figures, — the Judgment of the Gods, who decide the dispute between 
Venus and Cupid, and the Marriage of Cupid and Psyche in the 
festal assembly of the gods. In the lunettes of the ceiling are amorini, 
with the attributes of those gods who have done homage to the power 
of Love. In the triangular compartments between the lunettes are dif- 
ferent groups, illustrative of the incidents in the fable. They are of 
great beauty, and are examples of the most tasteful disposition in a given 
space. The picture of the three Graces, that in which Cupid stands in 
an imploring attitude before Jupiter ; a third, where Psyche is borne 
away by Loves, are extremely graceful. Peevish critics have designated 
these representations as common and sensual, but the noble spirit visible 
in all Raphael's works prevails also in these : religious feeling could 
naturally find no place in them ; but they are conceived in a spirit of 
the purest artlessness, always a proof of true moral feeling, and to which 
a narrow taste alone could object. In the execution, indeed, we recog- 
nise little of Raphael's fine feeling ; the greatest part is by his scholars, 
after his cartoons, especially by G. Romano. The nearest of the three 
Graces, in the group before alluded to, appears to be by Raphael's own 
hand." — Kugler. 

The paintings were injuriously retouched by Carlo Ma- 


ratta. The garlands round them are by Giovanni da Udine. 
The second room contains the beautiful fresco of Galatea 
floating in a shell drawn by dolphins, by Raphael himself. 

" Raphael not only designed, but executed this fresco ; and faded as 
is its colouring, the mind must be dead to the highest beauties of paint- 
ing, that can contemplate it without admiration. The spirit and beauty 
of the composition, the pure and perfect design, the flowing outline, 
the soft and graceful contours, and the sentiment and sweetness of the 
expression, all remain unchanged; for time, till it totally obliterates, 
has no power to injure them. . . The figures of the attendant 
Nereid, and of the triumphant Triton who embraces her, are beautiful 
beyond description." — Eaton 's Rome. 

" The fresco of Galatea was painted in 1514. The greater part of 
this is Raphael's own work, and the execution is consequently much 
superior to that of the others. It represents the goddess of the sea borne 
over the waves in her shell ; tritons and sea-nymphs sport joyously 
around her ; amorini, discharging their arrows, appear in the air like 
an angel-glory. The utmost sweetness, the most ardent sense of 
pleasure, breathe from this work ; everything lives, feels, vibrates with 
enjoyment. " — Ktigler. 

The frescoes of the ceiling, representing Diana in her Car, 
and the story of Medusa, are by Baldassare Peruzzi; the 
lunettes are by Sebastian del Piombo and Daniele da Volterra. 
Michael Angelo came one day to visit the latter, and not 
finding him at his work, left the colossal head, which re- 
mains in a lunette of the left wall, as a sign of his visit. 

In the upper story are two rooms ; the first, adorned with 
a frieze of subjects from Ovid's Metamorphoses, contains 
large architectural paintings by Baldassare Pcruzzi ; the 
second has the Marriage of Alexander and Roxana, and the 
family of Darius in the presence of Alexander, by Sodoma. 

The Porta Settimiana at the end of the Lungara preserves 
in its name a recollection of the gardens of Septimius 
Severus, which existed in this quarter. From hence the 
Via delle Fomaci ascends the hill, and leads to the broad 

S. riETRO IN MO N TO RIO. 449 

new carriage-road, formed in 1867 under die superintendence 
of the Cav. Trochi. A Via-Crucis with a staircase will con- 
duct the pedestrian by a shorter way to the platform on 
the hill-top. 

The succession of beggars who infest this hill and stretch 
out their maimed limbs or kiss their hands to the passers-by 
will call to mind the lines of Juvenal : 

" Ccecus adulator, dirusque a ponte satelles, 
Dignus Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes, 
Blandaque devexse jactaret basia rhedrc." 

Sat. iv. 116. 

The Church of S. Pietro in Montorio was built by Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella of Spain, from designs of Baccio Pintelli, 
on the site of an oratory founded by Constantine upon the 
supposed spot of St. Peter's crucifixion. 

The first chapel on the right belongs to the Barberini, and 
contains pictures by Sebastian del Piombo, (painted in oil 
upon stone, a process which has caused them to be much 
blackened by time,) from drawings of Michael Angelo. The 
central picture represents the Scourging of Christ, a subject 
of which Sebastian was especially fond, as it gave the oppor- 
tunity of displaying his great anatomical power. On the left 
is St. Peter, on the right St. Francis, — on the ceiling is the 
Transfiguration, — outside the arch are a Prophet and a Sibyl. 
The second chapel on the right has paintings by pupils of 
Perugino ; the fifth contains St. Paul healed by Ananias, by 

The fourth chapel on the right is of some interest in the 
history of art. Julius III. had it greatly at heart to build 
and beautify this chapel as a memorial to his family, to 
contain the tombs of his uncle Cardinal Antonio di Monti, and 
of Fabiano, who first founded the splendours of his house. 
vol. 11. 29 


The work was entrusted to Michael Angelo and Vasari, who 
were at that time on terms of intimate friendship. They 
disputed about their subordinates. Vasari wished to employ 
Simone Mosca for the ornaments, and Raffaello da Monta- 
lupo for the statues ; Michael Angelo objected to having 
any ornamental work at all, saying that where there were to 
be marble figures, there ought to be nothing else, and he 
would have nothing to do with Montalupo because his 
figures for the tomb of Julius II. had turned out so ill. 
When the chapel was finished Michael Angelo confessed 
himself in the wrong for not having allowed more ornament. 
The statues were entrusted to Bartolomeo Ammanati. 

The first chapel on the left has St. Francis receiving the 
stigmata attributed to Giovanni de Vecchi. 

" A barber of the Cardinal S. Giorgio was an artist, who painted very- 
well in tempera, but had no idea of design. He made friends with 
Michael-Angelo, who made him a cartoon of a St. Francis receiving the 
stigmata, which the barber carefully carried out in colour, and his pic- 
ture is now placed in the first chapel on the left of the entrance of S. 
l'ietro in Montorio." — Vasari, vi. 

The third chapel on the left contains a Virgin and Child 
with St. Anne, of the school of Perugino ; the fourth, a fine 
Entombment, by an unknown hand ; the fifth, the Baptism of 
Christ, said to be by Danicle da Voltcrra. 

The Transfiguration of Raphael was painted for this 
church, and remained here till the French invasion. When 
it was returned from the Louvre it was kept at the Vatican. 
Had it been restored to this church, it would have been de- 
stroyed in the siege of 1849, when the tribune and bell-tower 
were thrown down. Here, in front of the high altar, the un- 
happy Beatrice Cenci was buried without any monument. 

Irish travellers may be interested in the gravestones in 


tne nave, of Hugh O'Neil of Tyrone, Baron Dungannon, 
and O'Donnell of Tyrconnell (1608). Near the door is the 
fine tomb, with the beautiful sleeping figure of Julian, Arch- 
bishop of Ragusa, ob. 15 10, inscribed "Bonis et Mors et 
Vita dulcis est." An inscription below the steps in front of 
the church commemorates the translation of a miraculous 
image of the Virgin hither in 17 14. 

In the cloister is the Tempietto, a small domed building 
resting on sixteen Doric columns, built by Bramante in 1502, 
on the spot where St. Peter's cross is said to have stood. 
A few grains of the sacred sand from the hole in the centre 
of the chapel are given to visitors by the monks as a relic. 

"St. Peter, when he was come to the place of execution, requested of 
the officers that he might be crucified with his head downwards, alleging 
that he was not worthy to suffer in the same manner his divine Master 
had died before him. He had preached the cross of Christ, had borne 
it in his heart, and its marks in his body, by sufferings and mortification, 
and he had the happiness to end his life on the cross. The Lord was 
pleased not only that he should die for his love, but in the same manner 
himself had died for us, by expiring on the cross, which was the throne 
of his love. Only the apostle's humility made a difference, in desiring 
to be crucified with his head downward. His Master looked toward 
heaven, which by his death he opened to men ; but he judged that a 
sinner formed from dust, and going to return to dust, ought rather in 
confusion to look on the earth, as unworthy to raise his eyes to heaven. 
St. Ambrose, St. Austin, and St. Prudentius ascribe this his petition 
partly to his humility, and partly to his desire of suffering more for 
Christ. Seneca mentions that the Romans sometimes crucified men with 
their heads downward ; and Eusebius testifies that several martyrs were 
put to that cruel death. Accordingly, the executioners easily granted 
the apostle his extraordinary request. St. Chrysostom, St. Austin, and 
St. Austerius say that he was nailed to the cross ; Tertullian mentions 
that he was tied with cords. Pie was probably both nailed and bound 
with ropes." — Alban Butler. 

The view from the front of the church is almost unrivalled. 
Behind it is the famous Fo?itana Paolina, whose name, by a 


curious coincidence, combines those of its architect, Fontana, 
and its originator, Paul V. It was erected in 1611, and is 
supplied with water from the Lake of Bracciano, by the aque- 
duct of the Aqua Trajana, thirty-five miles in length. The 
red granite columns, which divide the fountain, were brought 
from the temple of Minerva in the Forum Transitorium. 

"The pleasant, natural sound of falling water, not unlike that of a 
distant cascade in the forest, may be heard in many of the Roman streets 
and piazzas, when the tumult of the city is hushed ; for consuls, empe- 
rors, and popes, the great men of every age, have found no better way 
of immortalising their memories, than by the shifting, indestructible, 
ever new, yet unchanging, up-gush and do\vn-fall of water. They have 
written their names in that unstable element, and proved it a more 
durable record than brass or marble." — Hawthorne. 

" II n'y a rien encore, dans quelque etat que ce soit, a opposer aux 
magnifiques fontaines qu'on voit a Rome dans les places et les carrefours, 
ni a l'abondance des eaux qui ne cessent jamais de couler; magnificence 
d'autant plus louable que l'utilite publique y est jointe." — Dnclos. 

A little beyond this fountain is the modern Porta S. Pan- 
crazio, near the site of the ancient Porta Aurelia, built by 
Pius IX. in 1857, to replace a gate destroyed by the French 
under Oudinot in 1849. Many buildings outside the gate, 
injured at the same time, still remain in ruins. 

The lane on the right, inside the gate, leads to the Villa 
Lante, built in 1524 by Giulio Romano, for Bartolomeo da 
Pescia, secretary of Clement VII. It still contains some 
frescoes of Giulio Romano, though they are only lately un- 
covered, as the house was used, until the last two years, as 
a succursale to the Convent of the Sacrd Coeur at the 
Trinita de' Monti. 

Not far outside the gate are the Church and Convent of S. 
Pancrazio, founded in the sixth century by Pope Symmachus, 
but modernized in 1609 by Cardinal Torres. Here Cres- 
cenzio Nomentano, the famous consul of Rome in the tenth 


century, is buried ; here Narses, after the defeat of Totila, 
was met by the pope and cardinals, and conducted in 
triumph to St. Peter's to return thanks for his victory ; here, 
also, Peter II. of Arragon was crowned by Innocent III., 
and Louis of Naples was received by John XII. 

A flight of steps leads from the church to the Catacomb of 
Calcpodius, where many of the early popes and martyrs 
were buried. It has no especial characteristic to make 
it worth visiting. Anodier flight of steps leads to the spot 
where S. Pancrazio was martyred. His body rests with 
that of St. Victor beneath the altar. A parish church in 
London is dedicated to St. Pancras, in whose name kings 
of France used to confirm their treaties. 

" In the persecution under Diocletian, this young saint, who was 
only fourteen years of age, offered himself voluntarily as a martyr, 
defending boldly before the emperor the cause of the Christians. He 
was therefore beheaded by the sword, and his body was honourably 
buried by Christian women. His church, near the gate of S. Pancrazio, 
has existed since the year 500. St. Pancras was in the middle ages 
regarded as the protector against false oaths, and the avenger of perjury. 
It was believed that those who swore falsely by St. Pancras were imme- 
diately and visibly punished ; hence his popularity." — Jameson's Sacred 

(Turning to the left from the gate, on the side of the hill 
between this and the Porta Portese, is the Catacomb of S. 

" Here is the only perfect specimen still extant of a primitive subter- 
ranean baptistery. A small stream of water runs through this cemetery, 
and at this one place the channel has been deepened so as to form a 
kind of reservoir, in which a certain quantity of water is retained. We 
descend into it by a flight of steps, and the depth of water it contains 
varies with the height of the Tiber. When that river is swollen so as to 
block up the exit by which this stream usually empties itself, the waters 
are sometimes so dammed back as to inundate the adjacent galleries of 
the catacomb ; at other times there are not above three or four feet of 


water. At the back of the font, and springing out of the water, is 
painted a beautiful Latin cross, from whose sides leaves and flowers are 
budding forth, and on the two arms rest ten candlesticks, with the 
letters Alpha and Omega suspended by a little chain below them. On 
the front of the arch over the font is the Baptism of our Lord in the 
river Jordan by St. John, whilst St. Abdon, St. Sennen, St. Miles, and 
other saints of the Oriental Church occupy the sides. These paintings 
are all of late date, perhaps of the seventh or eighth century: but 
there is no reason to doubt but that the baptistery had been so used 
from the earliest times. We have distinct evidence in the Acts of the 
Martyrs that the sacrament was not unfrequently administered in the 
cemeteries." — The Roman Catacombs — Northcote. 

In this catacomb is an early Portrait of Christ, much 

resembling that at SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. 

" The figure is, however, draped, and the whole work has certain 
peculiarities which appear to mark a later period of art. Both these 
portraits agree, if not strictly, yet in general features, with the descrip- 
tion in Lentulus's letter (to the Roman senate), and portraits and 
descriptions together serve to prove that the earliest Christian deline- 
ators of the person of the Saviour followed no arbitrary conception of 
their own, but were guided rather by a particular traditional type, 
differing materially from the Grecian ideal, and which they transmitted 
in a great measure to future ages." — Kuglcr, i. 16. 

In this vicinity are the Catacombs of SS. Abdon and 
Sennen, of St. Julius, and of Sta. Generosa.) 

Opposite the Porta S. Pancrazio is the entrance of the 
beautiful Villa Pamfili Doria (open to pedestrians and to 
two-horse carnages after 1 2 o'clock on Mondays and Fridays), 
called by the Italians " Belrespiro." The Casino con- 
tains a few (not first-rate) ancient statues, and some 
views of Venice in the seventeenth century by Heintius. 
The garden, for which especial permission must be obtained, 
is full of beautiful azaleas and camellias. 

From the ilex-fringed terrace in front of the casino is one 
of the best views of St. Peter's, which is here seen without 
the town, — backed by the Campagna, the Sabine Moun- 


tains, and the blue peak of Soracte. The road to the left 
leads through pine-shaded lawns and woods, and by some 
modern ruins, to the lake, above which is a graceful fountain. 
A small temple raised in 1S51 commemorates the French 
who fell here during the siege of Rome in 1849. The 
word " Mary " in large letters of clipped box on the other 
side of the grounds is a memorial of the late beloved Prin- 
cess Doria (Lady Mary Talbot). Not far from this is a 

The site of the Villa Doria was once occupied by the 
gardens of Galba, and here the murdered emperor is believed 
to have been buried. 

" Un certain Argius, autrefois esclave cle Galba, ramassa son corps, 
qui avait siibi mille outrages, et alia lui creuser une humble sepulture 
dans les jardins de son ancien maitre ; mais il fallut retrouver la tete : 
elle avait ete mutilee et promenee par les goujats de l'armee. Enfin 
Argius la trouva le lendemain, et la reunit au corps deja brule. Les 
jardins de Galba etaient sur le Janicule, pres de la voie Aurelienne, et 
on croit que le lieu qui vit le dernier denouement de cette affreuse tra- 
gedie est celui qu'occupe aujourd'hui la plus charmante promenade de 
Rome, la ou inclinent avec tant de gi _ ace sur les pentes semees d'ane- 
mones et ou dessinent si delicatement sur l'azur du ciel et des montagnes 
leurs parasols elegants les pins de la villa Pamphili." — Ampere, Emp. 
ii. 80. 

The foundation of the Villa Pamfili Doria is due to the 
wealth extorted by Olympia Maldacchini during the reign of 
h^r brother-in-law, Innocent X. 

" Innocent X. hit, pour ainsi dire, contraint de fonder la maison 
Pamphili. Les casuistes et les jurisconsultes leverent ses scrupules, car il 
en avait. lis lui prouverent que le pape etait en droit d'e'eonomiser sur 
les revenus du saint-siege pour assurer l'avenir de sa famille. Us fixerent, 
avec une moderation qui nous fait dresser les cheveux sur la tete, le 
chiffre des liberalites permises a chaque pape. Suivant eux, le souverain 
pontife pouvait, sans abuser, etablir un majorat de quatre mille francs 
de rente nette, fonder une seconde geniture en faveur de quelque parent 
moins avantage, et donner neuf cent mille francs de dot a chacune'de 
ses nieces. Le general des jesuites, R. P. Yitelleschi, approuva cette 


decision. La-dessus, Innocent X. se mit a fonder la maison Pamphili, a 
construire le palais Pamphili, a creer la villa Pamphili, et a pamphiliser, 
tant qu'il put, les finances de l'eglise et de l'etat." — About, Rome Con- 

There are two ways of returning to Rome from the Villa 
Doria— one, which descends straight into the valley to the 
Porta Cavalleggieri, passing on the left the Church of Sta. 
Maria delle Fornaci ; the other, skirting the walls of the 
city beneath the Villa Lante, which passes a Chapel, where 
St. Andrew's head, lost one day by the canons of St. Peter's, 
was miraculously re-discovered ! 

" On ne voit pas que de nouveaux monuments religieux se rapportent 
aux deux apparitions de Pyrrhus en Italie ; seulement les augures firent 
retablir le temple du dieu des foudres nocturnes, le dieu etrusco-sabin 
Summanus, en expiation sans doute de ce que la tete de la statue de 
Summanus, placee sur le temple de Jupiter Capitolin, avait ete detachee 
par la foudre, et, apres qu'on l'eut cherchee en vain, retrouvee dans le 

" Je ne compare pas, mais j'ai vu le long des murs de Rome, entre la 
porte Cavalleggieri et la porte Saint Pancrace, une petite chapelle elevee 
au lieu oil l'on a retrouve la tete de Saint Andre apportee solennellement 
de Constantinople a Rome au quinzieme siecle, et qui s'etait perdue.' 
— Ampere, Hist. Rom. iii. 55. 

•Therefore farewell, ye hills, and ye, ye envineyarded ruins ! 

Therefore farewell, ye walls, palaces, pillars, and domes ! 
Therefore farewell, far seen, ye peaks of the mythic Albano, 

Seen from Montorio's height, Tibur and ^Esula's hills ! 
Ah, could we once ere we go, could we stand, while, to ocean descending, 

Sinks o'er the yellow dark plain slowly the yellow broad sun, 
Stand from the forest emerging at sunset, at once in the champaign, 

Open, but studded with trees, chestnuts umbrageous and old, 
E'en in those fair open fields that incurve to thy beautiful hollow, 

Nemi imbedded in wood, Nemi inurn'd in the hill ! — ■ 
Therefore farewell, ye plains, and ye hills, and the City Eternal! 

Therefore farewell ! we depart, but to behold you again ! " 

A. II. Clougli, Amours de Voyage. 


EHCLISHi -lO'^o"* 4 *! 
I CHURCH %« t^V-jOr ^^** 

Coolts Court 



Academy for French Art-students, i. 

49 ; costume described, 55 ; of St. 

Luke, 59, 167 
Aecademia, annual entertainment in 

honour of Tasso at, ii. 437 
^Esculapius, temple of, ii. 364 
Agger of Servius Tullius, remains of, 

ii. 38 
Agnese, St., martyrdom of, ii. 193, 

Agrippa, baths of, ii. 211 

Alban Hills, i. 36S, 373 

Albani, Fra, i. 69, 141, 267, 268, 455 ; 

»'• 443 
Alberteschi family, Castle of the, ii. 

Albertinelli, Mariotto, i. 459 
Aldobrandini family, burial-place of, 

ii. 214 
Alexis, St., legend of, i. 362 
Algardi, ii. 167, 265 
Allegrani, i. 461 

Almo, the, i. 373, 375, 413 ; ii. 408 
Altieri family, burial-place of, ii. 216 
Alunno, Niccolo, ii. 357 
Amici, ii. 260 
Ammanati, i. 72 ; ii. 450 
Amphitheatrum Castrense, ii. 131 
Angelico, Fra, ii. 216, 324, 348, 444 
Angelo, St., Castle of, i. 37 ; view of, 
43 ; its original use, 227 ; its archi- 
tecture, 228 ; its history, as a fort- 
ress, 229 — 232 ; alterations in it, 
caused by popes, 232 ; interior, 
233 ; prisons, 234 ; sculptures, 234 ; 
passage intended for the escape of 
popes to the Castle, 234 ; Ponte, 
ii. 225, 226 

Anicii, Castle built by the family of 

the, ii. 362 
Anio, river, ii. 31 ; Castle of Rustica 

on banks of, 135 
Antemnse, site of, ii. 420 
Antinous, the, most beautiful statue 

in the world, ii. 308 
Antiquities, shops at which to buy, i. 
29 ; in Kircherian Museum, 88 ; in 
Palazzo Torlonia, 104 ; in Museum 
of Guidi, 379 ; principal receptacle 
in Rome for, ii. 114 ; in Palazzo 
Vidoni, 185 ; collection of, in the 
Vatican, 300 ; chair used at the in- 
stallation of mediaeval popes, 316 ; 
in the Vatican library, 324 ; in the 
Egyptian Museum, 333 
Apollo, Temple of, i. 296 ; ii. 134 

Belvedere, ii. 311 
Appia, Via, i. 372 ; beginning of 

beauty of, 424 
Aqua Acetosa, ii. 420 

Alexandrina, ii. 133 
Argentina, used by Castor and 

Pollux, i. 229 
Bollicante, ii. 133 
Claudia, ii. 113 
Felice, ii. 124 
Marcia, remains of, ii. 95 
Aqueduct, Claudian, ii. 125. 
Arches — 

of Ancient Basilica, ii. 405 
of Aqua Claudia, ii. 123 
lArco dell' Annunziata, ii. 380 
Arco di S. Lazzaro, ii. 393 
Arco Oscuro, ii. 420 
Arco dei Pantani, i. 165 
of Cloaca Maxima, i. 229 
of Constantine, i. 206, 319, 375 
of Dolabelia, i. 330 



Arches — continued. 

of Dnisus, i. 376, 387 

of Gallienus, ii. 71 

of Janus, i. 229 

of Septimius Severus, i. 170, 173 ; 

miniature, 232 
three gigantic, i. 1S4 
of Tiberius, i. 173 
in Palace of Tiberius, i. 291 
of Titus, i. 200 

Architecture, Museum of antiqui- 
ties of, i. 122, 170, 311 ; decadence 
of, 232 ; primitive ecclesiastical, 
343 ; specimens of pagan, 405 ; 
of street, ii. 63 ; of tenth century, 
remains of, in the Lateran, 102 ; 
relics of, 104 ; of St. Peter's, 244 ; 
of the interior of Sistine Chapel, 
288 ; remnants of mediaeval, 379 ; 
remains of ancient, in cloister of 
Basilica, 405 

Arnolphus, ii. 373 

Arpino, Cav. d', i. 267, 459 ; ii. 43, 
88 ; tomb of, 105 ; works of, 119, 
252, 3 81 

Art, Museum of, i. 39 ; specimen of, 
of the Middle Ages, 193 ; de- 
cadence of, 232 ; influence of By- 
zantine upon Roman, 34r ; earliest 
instance of the Transfiguration 
treated in, 380 ; catacomb, 402 ; 
encouragement of, by Herodes, 
414 ; criticisms, showing the differ- 
ence of French and English taste 
in, ii. 43 ; remains of ancient pic- 
torial, 53 ; relics of, 212 ; finest 
specimen in Rome of ancient pic- 
torial, 326 

Artists, studios of, i. 30 ; lists of sub- 
jects for, 34 ; frescoes by modern 
German, 54 ; models for, 56 ; view 
familiar to, ii. 62 ; casino decorated 
by modern German, 122 ; pic- 
turesque subjects for, 124, 134 ; 
Festa degli Artiste, 135 ; points in 
Sta. Maria in Trastevere interesting 
to, 387 

Arx, i. 115 

Aniens, Herodes, romantic story of, 
i. 414, 415 

Augustine, St., place of departure 
1 1 Rome of, i. 319 

Augu itus, Palace of, i. 279 ; Crypto- 
Porticus, 281 ; Tablinum, 285 ; 
I .iinniuin, 285 ; I Vi i ,i\ le, 285 ; 
Triclinium, 286 ; Nymphseum, 

287 ; Bibliotheca, Theatre, Sacri- 
ficial Altar, 288 

Aurelian, Wall of, i. 385 ; Temple of 
the Sun, 436 ; favourite residence 
of, ii. 12 

Ave-Maria bell, i. 44, 57 

Aventine, the, i. 348 ; origin of name, 
and story of, 349 ; temples on, 
351 — 353 ; reason of decline of its 
popularity, 354 ; best approach to, 
355 ! Jewish burial-ground, 355 ; 
Convent and Church of Sta. Sa- 
bina, 356 ; Church and Convent of 
S. Alessio, 362; view of St. Peter's 
from, 365 ; legend of Cacus, 366 ; 
Church of S. Sabba, 369 


Babuino, the, i. 36 

Baciccio, i. 444 ; ii. 213, 379, 443 

Badalocchi, i. 323 

Baglioni, ii. 41 

Balconies, in Corso, i. 61 ; of house 
of Lucrezia Borgia, ii. 62 ; in 
vestibule of the Torso, 307 

Bambino, II Santissimo, story of, i. 

Bandinelli, Baccio, ii. 219 
Baptistery of the Lateran, ii. 96 
Barberini, Piazza, i. 436 ; Palazzo, 
436 ; library, 437 ; bees of the, 
438, ii. 262 ; collection of pictures, 
i. 439; pine, celebrated, 443 ; Car- 
dinal, ii. 9 ; casino of the, 12 ; 
castle, 34 ; garden, 45 ; tomb of 
Urban VIII., 261 
Barcaccia, the, i. 57 
Barigione, Filippo, ii. 266 
Baroccio [Barocci], i. 70, 97, 454, 
455 ; ii. 167, 214, 221, 335, 358, 
442. 443 
Bartolomeo, Fra, i. 68, 82, 140, 455 ; 

ii. 442 
Basaiti, i. 94 
Basilicas {[>agaii) — 

of /Emilius Paulus, i. 181 
Constantine, remains of, i. 184 ; 

ii. 80 
Julia, i. 175 
Palace of the Cccsars, in the, i. 

Porcia, i. 182 
Se isorian, ii. 131 
Basilicas [Christian) 

St' Agnese fuori le Mura, ii. 26 



Basilicas {Christian) — continued. 

S. Alessandro, if. 32 

Sta. Croce, ii. 128 

Eudoxian, ii. 54 

St. John Lateran, ii. 98 

S. Lorenzo, ii. 136 

Sta. Maria Maggiore, ii. 81 

Original building on site of St. 
Peter's, story of the, ii. 242 

S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 402 

S. Sebastiano, i. 416 

S. Stefano, ii. 124 
Bassano, Giac, i. 70 ; ii. 201 

of Agrippa, only remaining frag- 
ment, ii. 211 

of Caracalla, i. 376 

of Constantine, i. 436 

of Diocletian, ii. 36, 38 

discoveries amongst ruins of, i. 

enervating influence of, i. 377 
of Nero, ii. 202 
of Titus, ii. 52 
Battoni, i, 456 ; ii. 41 
Befana, festival of the, ii. 202 
Bellini, Giov., i. 71, 94, 140, 141, 439 
Belvidere, view from, i. 50 
Benedict, St., house inhabited by, ii. 

Benvenuti, Gio. Batt., i. 96 
Benzoni, i. 225 
Berghem, i. 72 ; ii. 442 
Bernini, i. 41, 57, 76, 78, 98, 137, 
139; ii. 14, 43, 69, 75, 89, 103, 
157, 196, 206, 211, 238, 246, 251, 
252, 257, 261, 264, 283, 298, 379, 
Bianchi, P., ii. 41 
Bivium, i. 390 
Bocca della Verita, in Sta. Maria in 

Cosmedin, i. 233 
Bologna, Pellegrino da, ii. 200 
Bonifazio, i. 71, 99; ii. 348 
Borghese, Camillo, tomb of, ii. 87 
Cervaletto, property of the, ii. 87 
Chapel, legend commemorated 
in, ii. 81 ; picture attributed to 
St. Luke in, 85 
Inscriptions, in possession of the 

family, i. 414 
Palazzo, i. 65 
Piazza, i. 66 
Picture Gallery, i. 66 •■ 
Princess, funeral of, ii. 88 
Villa, unhealthiness of, i. 21 ; 

Borghese — continued. 

entrance and gardens of, ii. 
411, 412 ; casino in, 413 
Borgia, burial-place of family, ii. 98 
Caesar, ii. 325 
Lucrezia, ii. 62 

Rodrigo, Pope Alexander VI., 
grave of, ii. 170 ; empty tomb 
of, 269 ; representations of the 
life of, 325 
Borgo, the, or Leonine City, ii. 235 
Borgognone, i. 444 
Borromeo, S. Carlo, ii. 63 
Borromini, ii. 99, 175, 178 
Boschetto, the, i. 50 
Both, ii. 442 
Botticelli Sandro, i. 67, 99, 140, 440 ; 

ii. 287 
Bracci, Pietro, ii. 259 
Bramante, ii. 244, 284, 298, 308 
Brandini, i. 444 
Brescia, Moretto da, ii. 358 
Bresciano, Prospero, ii. 42 
Breughel, i. 96 
Brill, Paul, i. 457 ; ii. 41, 298 
Bronzes, i. 29 ; in Kircherian Mu- 
seum, 88 
Bronzino, i. 67, 69, 83, 96, 97, 99, 

439 : »■ 444i 445 
Burial-ground, New, Prati del Popolo 

Romano, ii. 397 
Burial-place of Sta. Domitilla, i. 411 


Caesars, Palace of the, i. 250 ; found- 
ation of, 274 ; its ruins, 275 ; ex- 
cavations and discoveries in, 276, 

( affe, Xuovo, i. 72 
Cagnacci, Guido, i. 167 
Caius Gracchus, spot where he was 

killed, ii. 377 
Calendar, Paschal, ii. 11S ; New, in- 
vented in reign of Gregory XIII., 

Caligula, Palace of, i. 292 ; bridge 

of, 299 ; obelisk brought to Rome 

by, ii. 238 ; circus of, 283 
Camassei, ii. 96 
Cambiaso, Luc, i. 71 
Cameos, i. 29 
Camosci, Pietra, ii. 62 
Campagna, i. 43, 51 ; view of, 378 ; 

ruins of tombs in, 424 ; infection 

by malaria of, 403, -\oo 



266, 308, 
a Roman 

Campaniles of— 

Sta. Cecilia, ii. 372 

S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, i. 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina, i. 73 
S. Lorenzo Pane e Perna, i. 468 
Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 234 
Sta. Maria in Monticelli, ii. 182 
S. Sisto, i. 382 
Campo, Militare, ii. 34 ; di Fiore, 

the scene of Autos da F6, 176 
Campus Esquilinus, ii. 36 
Campus Martius, situation, extent, 
and origin of, ii. 148 — 150 ; earliest 
buildings of, 150 — 155 ; remains of 
buildings of, 155 ; its interest and 
condition, 155 
Camuccini, ii. 119, 407 
Canaletti, ii. 442 
Canova, i. 101 ; ii. 251 

347. 4i5 
Cantharus, specimen of 

vase, ii. 372 
Capena, Porta, site of, i. 373 ; his- 
torical interest of, 432 
Capitol, the, i. 36 ; story of the Hill, 
109 ; temples on, in — 115 ; Piazza 
del Campidoglio, 119 ; Tower of, 
121 ; Tabularium, 122 ; Museo 
Capitolino, 122 ; Gallery of Sculp- 
ture, 125 ; Picture-Gallery, 140 ; 
Tarpeian Rock, 143 ; Church of 
Ara-Cosli, 144 — 152 ; Mamertine 
Prisons, 153 
Cappuccini, Piazza, ii. 7; Cemetery, 10 
Caravaggio, i. 83, 140, 141, 439, 459; 

ii. 120, 121, 201, 345, 356, 442 
Carinas, ii. 47 
Caritas Romana, i. 241 
Carracci, Agostino, i. 83, 100 
Carracci, Ann., i. 41, 69, 95 — 97, 99, 
139, 324, 325 ; ii. 174 ; tomb of, 
in the Pantheon, 210 ; 

by, 379. 43 6 
Carracci, Lud., i. 141, 458 


Casale dei Pazzi, ii. 32 

Casino — 

in Villa Albani, ii. 17 
in Villa Borghese, ii. 413 
del Papa, ii. 335 
of Papa < riulio, ii. 418 
in Qui] inal Palace, i. 456 
in Palazzo Rospigliosi, i. 456 
of Sculpture, ii. 14 
I » Hubeleo, ii. 425 

Castelli, Bernardo, ii. 221 


11. 442- 

Castles of — 

St. Angelo, i. 37, 43 ; ii. 227 — 

the Alberteschi family, ii. 368 
the Anicii family, ii. 368 
the Anquillara, ii. 379 
Crescenza, ii. 423 
Rustica, ii. 135 
Catacombs — - 

ad Nymphas, ii. 33 
of St' Agnese, ii. 29 
of Calepodius, ii. 453 
of St. Calixtus, origin and cha- 
racter of, i. 390—399 ; paint- 
ings in, 401 — 405 
of Sta. Ciriaca, destruction of, ii. 

142. 145 
of S. Felicitas, ii. 20 
of SS. Gianutus and Basilla. ii. 

of St. Hippolytus, ii. 147 
Jewish, i. 407 

of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, i. 408 
of SS. Pietro e Marcellino, ii. 133 
of St. Pretextatus, i. 405 
of S. Ponziano, ii. 453 
of Sta. Priscilla, graves of mar- 
tyrs in, ii. 20 — 24 
of the Santi Quattro, ii. 125 
of S. Sebastiano, i. 417 
of St. Valentin, ii. 418 
Cathedra Petri, in St. Peter's, ii. 261 
Catherine, St., of Siena, life of, ii. 217 
Cavallini, Pietro, ii. 246, 256, 384, 

386, 406 
Cavaluccio, ii. 63 

Cecilia, Sta., account of, ii. 371 ; re- 
lics and tomb of, 373 ; house of, 
375 ; Festa of, 375 
Ceiling of Sistine Chapel, painting 

of, ii. 288 — 292 
Cemeteries — 

oldest Christian, i. 409 

ruins of early Christian, ii. 29 

of S. Lorenzo, ii. 144 

old Protestant, graves of Keats 

and Hare in, ii. 395, 396 
of S. Zeno, site of, ii. 399 
Ccnci, tragedies in the family of the, 
i. 260 — 267 ; portraits of Lucrezia 
and Beatrice, 440 ; grave of Bea- 
trice, ii. 450 
( lentocellse, ii. 133 
Chapels — 

of Saul' Agnese, ii. 195 
of St. Andrew, i. 325; in honour 
of St. Andrew's head, ii. 421 



Chapels — contin ued. 

in Ara-Coeli, i. 148 

of St. Barbara, i. 326 

in Baths of Titus, ii. 53 

Borghese, ii. 85 

of Caetani family, i. 470 

Cappella Borgia, ii. 98 

of S. Carlo Boi romeo, ii . 69 

in Catacomb of 5. Agnese, ii. 30 

Corsini, ii. 103 

of S. Cosimato, ii. 388 

of Santa Croce, i. 444 ; ii. 89 

of S. Filippo Xeri, ii. 166 

of Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 196 

of S. Giovanni in Oleo, i. 384 

of Sta. Helena, ii. 130 

of the Holy Sacrament, ii. 89 

of St. John the Baptist, ii. 96 

of St. John the Evangelist, ii. 96 

of San Luigi Gonzaga, i. 86 

in which St. Luke wrote, i. 89 

of the Madonna di Strada Cupa, 

«• 385 
of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 41 
of Sta. Maria in Campitelli, i. 269 
of Sta. Maria in Cappella, ii. 370 
of Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, ii. 

213 — 221 
in Sta. Maria del Popolo, i. 39 — 

of Sta. Martina, i. 189 
Orto del Paradiso, ii. 66 
in Palazzo Altemps, ii. 160 
of the Passion, i. 343 
commemorating the parting of 

St. Peter and St. Paul, ii. 398 
of the Patrizi family, ii. 88 
containing St. Peter'schains, ii. 61 
of S. Pietro in Montorio, ii. 449 
of the Popes, i. 395 
of the Presepio, i. 149 
Private, of the Pope, i. 455 
Protestant, i. 37 
of the Rosary, i. 358 
Salviati, i. 324 
series of small, remains of ancient 

basilica, ii. 405 ; in modern 

basilica, 407 
Sistine, i. 58 

of S. Stanislas Kostka, i. 445 
Subterranean, i. 188 
of S. Sylvestro, i. 341 
of the Virgin, i. 445 
In St. Peter's — 
Baptistery, ii. 267 
dei Canonici, ii. 276 
Cappella Clementine, ii. 264 

Chapels — continued. 

Cappella della Colonna, ii. 263 
Capella della Colonna Santa, ii. 

del Coro, ii. 265 
of the Madonna, ii. 259 
Sta. Maria in Portico, Sta. Maria 

delle Partoriente, and Cappella 

del Salvatore, ii. 268 
Pieta of Michael Angelo, ii. 256 
della Presentazione, ii. 266 
of the Santissimo Sacramento, 

ii. 258 
In the Vatican — 
Cappella di San Lorenzo, ii. 346 
Pauline, ii. 285 
of St. Pius V., ii. 324 
Sistine, ii. 286 
Chapter House, of Convent of S. 

Sisto, i. 382 ; of Lateran, ii. 99 
Chigi, Agostini, great art patron in 

the reign of Leo X., ii. 446 
Churches of— 

S. Adriano, i. 190 

Sta. Agata dei Goti, i. 461 

St' Agnese, ii. 193 

St' Agnese fuori le Mura, ii. 26 

S. Agostino, ii. 157 

S. Alessio, i. 362 

Sta. Anastasia, i. 224 

S. Andrea a Monte Cavallo, i. 444 

S. Andrea delle Fratte, i. 75 

S. Andrea della Valle, ii. 184 

St. Andrew, ii. 421 

S. Angelo in Pescheria, i. 248 

S. Antonio Abbate, ii. 78 

S. Apollinare, ii. 159 

SS. Apostoli, i. 100 

Ara-Cceli, i. 117, 144 

Sta. Balbina, i. 370 

S. Bartolomeo, ii. 363 

S. Benedetto a Piscinuola, ii. 368 

S. Bernardo, ii. 39, 45 

Sta. Bibiana, ii. 74 

Sta. Brigitta, ii. 173 

S. Buonaventura, i. 204 

S. Caio, i. 443 ; ii. 45 

S. Calisto, ii. 387 

S. Cappuccini, ii. 7 

La Caravita, i. 85 

S. Carlo a Catinari, ii. 183 

S. Carlo in Corso, National 

Church of the Lombards, i. 64 
S. Carlo a Quattro Fontane, i. 43 
Sta. Caterina de' Funari, i. 268 , 
Sta Caterina di Siena, i. 459 ; ii. 




Churches of — continued. 
Sta. Cecilia, ii. 370 
San Celso in Banchi, ii. 224 
S. Cesareo, i. 382 
S. Claudio, i. 76 
S. Clemente, i. 342 ; ii. 95 
S. Cosimato, ii. 388 
SS. Cosmo e Damiano, i. 183, 

Sta. Costanza, ii. 28 
S. Crisogono, ii. 381 
S. Crispino al Ponte, ii. 369 
Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, i. 
54 : "• 127 

I Crociferi, i. 81 

SS. Domenico e Sisto, i. 461 
S. Dionisio, i. 474 
Domine Quo Vadis, i. 389 
Sta. Dorotea, ii. 388 
English and American, ii. 410 
S. Eusebio, ii. 77 
S. Eustachio, ii. 203 
S. Francesco di Paola, ii. 62 
a Ripa, ii. 379 
Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 195 
Gesu e Maria, i. 61 
S. Giacomo degli Incurabili, i.61 
S. Giacomo Scossa Cavalli, ii. 

S. Giorgio in Velabro, i. 231 
S. Giovanni Decollato, i. 239 
S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini, Na- 
tional Church of the Tuscans, 
ii. 225 
S. Giovanni alia Lungara, ii. 439 
SS. Giovanni e Paolo, i. 321, 327 
S. Giovanni della Pigna, ii. 209 
S. Giovanni a Porta Latina, i. 

S. Girolamo della Caritu, ii. 172 
S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, i. 60 
S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, i. 157 
Gothic, of the Caetani, i. 424 
Greek, i. 54 
S. Gregorio, i. 319, 322 
important to sight-seers, i. 32 
S. Ignazio, i. 85 

II Gesu, i. 106 
S. Isidoro, ii. n 

S. Ivo of Brittany, ii. 155 
SS. Lorenzo c Damaso, ii. 178 
S. Lorenzo in Fonte, i. 468 
in Lucina, i. 73 
fuori le Mura, ii. 136 
Pane e I'cnia, i. 400 
S. 1 ,ni"i dei I i.mcesi, ii. 200 
s. Marcello, i. 87 

Churches of — co?itinued. 
S. Marco, i. 105 
Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 40 
dell' Anima, ii. 160 
in Aquiro, i. 79 
Aventina, i. 365 
in Campitelli, i. 269 
in Cappella, ii. 370 
della Concezione, ii. 7 
in Cosmedin, i. 232 
in Domenico, i. 332 
delle Fornaci, ii. 456 
Liberatrice, i. 190 
di Loreto, i. 162 
Maggiore, i. 54 
sopra Minerva, ii. 212 
di Monserrato, ii. 170 
in Montecelli, ii. 182 
in Monti, i. 464 
del Orto, ii. 378 
della Pace, ii. 163 
della Pieta in Campo Santo, 

ii. 278 
del Popolo, i. 39 
Scala Cceli, ii. 399 
Traspontina, ii. 236 
in Trastevere, ii. 382 
in Trivia, i. 81 
in Valicella, ii. 166 
in Via Lata, i. 89 
di Vienna, i. 162 
della Vittoria, ii. 43 
Sta. Marta, ii. 278 
Sta. Martina, i. 188 
S. Martino al Monte, ii. 63 
S. Michaele in Sassia, ii. 280 
SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, i. 379 
S. Nicolo in Carcere, i. 240 

in Tolentino, ii. 12 
S. Onofrio, ii. 434 
S. Onofrio in Campagna, ii. 428 
dell' Orazione, ii. 175 
S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 
S. Pantaieone, ii. 188 
S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 403 
Primo Eremita, i. 473 
alle Tre Fontane, ii. 401 
the Perpetua Adoratrice del Di- 
vin Sacramento del Altare, i. 
S. Pietro in Carcere, ii 153 
SS. Pietro e Marcellino, ii. 122 
S. Pietro in Montorio, ii. 449 

in Vincoli, ii. 34 
Sta. Prassede, ii. 65 
Sta. 1 '1 isca, i. 367 
Sta. Prudenziana, i. 469 



Churches of — continued. 

SS. Quattro Incoronati, i. 340 

SS. Rocco Martino, i. 60 

S. Sabba, i. 369 

Sta. Sabina, i. 356 

S. Salvatore in Lauro, ii. 224 

S. Salvatore in Torrione, ii. 280 

II Santissimo Redentore, ii. 71 

S. Sebastiano, i. 203 

S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, i. 

S. Sisto, i. 381 
S. Stefano, ii. 278 
S. Stefano Rotondo, i. 333 
Sta. Susanna, ii. 44 
on the site of Sylla's tomb, i. 37 
S. Sylvestro in Capite, i. 74 
S. Teodoro, i. 223 
Sta. Teresa, ii. 45 
S. Tommaso dei Cenci, i. 260 
S. Tommaso degli Inglesi, ii. 170 
the Trinita de' Monti, i. 52 
Trinita dei Pellegrini, ii. 181 
S. Urbano, i. 413 
SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, ii. 400 
S. Vitale, i. 474 
S. Vito, ii. 71 

Ciampelli, Agostino, ii. 75 

Cicero, House of, i, 301 ; place of 
reception on return from banish- 
ment, 375 

Cignani, ii. 445 

Cigoli, i. 69 ; ii. 88, 225 

Cimeterio dei Tedeschi, oldest Chris- 
tian burial-ground, ii. 278 

Circus of — 

Caligula, ii. 283 
Flaminius, site of, i. 268 
Maxentius, i. 422 
Nero, ii. 283 

Claude, i. 40 

Clement, St., Church of, i. 342 ; 
house of, 347 ; exile of, 347 

Clivus Capitolinus, i. 170, 172 
Martis, i. 388 
Victoria;, i. 292 

Cloaca Maxima, celebrated drain, i. 

Cloisters — 

of the Convent, ii. 165 
of the Monaster)', ii. 105, 144 
of the twelfth century, ii. 405 
Villino, Casino of Papa Giulio, 
ii. 418 

Clovis, G., Tomb of, ii. 56 

Club, French Military, i. 77 

Ccelian Hill, its extent, and origin of 

name, i. 316 ; Parco di San Gre- 
gorio, 319 ; world-famous inscrip- 
tions, 319 ; Church of St. Gregory, 
322 ; Church of SS. Giovanni e 
Paolo, 329 ; the Navicella, 330 ; S. 
Stefano Rotondo, 333 ; frescoes re- 
cording martyrdoms, 334 ; SS. 
Quattro Incoronati, 340 ; S. Cle- 
mente, 342 
Coliseum, building of, i. 207, 208 ; 
architect unknown, dedication, 209 ; 
gladiatorial combats in arena of, 

210 ; death of Christian martyrs in, 

211 ; its size, grandeur, and ex- 
tensive view, 215 ; history of its 
destruction and present preserva- 
tion, 217, 218 ; ecclesiastical le- 
gends connected with it, 219 ; 
origin of name, 220 

Collatia, ruins of the, ii. 135 

Colle, Raffaello da, ii. 337, 339, 340 

College for English missionaries, ii. 

Collegio di Propaganda Fede, object 

of, i. 58 
Collegio Romano, i. 87 
Colonna, Agnese Gaetani, funeral urn 
of, ii. 273 
Gardens, i. 458 
Lorenzo, murder of, ii. 224 
Oddone, tomb of, ii. 100 
Palazzo, i. 98 ; Picture Gal- 
lery in, 99 
Piazza, i. 77 

Princess, tomb of, ii. 2r3 
Vittoria, death of, ii. 387 
Colonnades, of St. Peter's, ii. 238 
Columbaria, i. 385, 386, 390 

of the Arruntia family, ii. 77 
of the Freedmen of Octavia, i. 385 
Columna Lactaria, i. 242 
Columns — ■ 

Colonna delle Virgine, ii. 80 
Corinthian, sixteen, from Ha- 
drian's Villa, ii. 317 
Corinthian, sixteen, of the Pan- 
theon, ii. 206 
Corinthian, twenty-four marble, 

i-.357 I "• 63 
Ionic, in S. Lorenzo, ii. 141 
Ionic, of Temple of Saturn, i. 172 
Ionic, twenty-two ancient, ii. 384 
marble, twelve ancient, i. 233 
in front of Palazzo di Spagna, i. 

from Palestrina, twenty ancient, 
ii. 319 



Columns — continued. 
Pavonazzetto, ii. 118 
of Phocas, i. 179 
in Piazza Colonna, i. 77 
relics, to which Peter and Paul 

were bound, ii. 236 
relic, to which our Saviour is 

reputed to have been bound, 

ii. 68 
of Temple of Castor and Pollux, 

i- i75 

of Temple of Minerva, i. 165 
of Temple of Vespasian, i. 171 
in Theatre of Marcellus, i. 244 
of Trajan, i. 160 
Connell, Daniel O', monument of, i. 

Constantine, statue of, i. 118 ; ba- 
silica of, 184; arch of, 206 ; fres- 
coes representing the conversion of, 
341 ; baths of, 458 ; last remaining 
column of basilica of, ii. 80 ; fres- 
coes of legendary history of, 99 ; 
erection of a basilica on the site of 
St. Peter's, by, 242 ; Cimeterio dei 
Tedeschi, set apart by, 278 ; Saxe 
Rubra, site of decisive victory by, 

Contadino, i. 386 
Conte, Giacomo del, ii. 200 
Conti, extinction of the family of the, 

ii- 54 
Convents of — 

Sta. Agate in Suburra, i. 461 

S. Alessio, i. 362 

Ara-Coeli, i. 153 

Augustine, temporary residence 

of Luther, i. 42 
S. Bartolomeo, ii. 363 
S. Bernardo, ii. 45 
the Buon Pastore, ii. 439 
S. Buonaventura, i. 204 
Camaldolese monks, i. 326 
Carthusian, ii. 42 
Sta. Caterina, i. 460 
Sta. Cecilia, ii. 370 
Cloister of the, ii. 165 

the Minerva, ii. 122 
S. Euscbio, ii. 77 
Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 198 
S. Francesco a Ripa, ii. 379 
the Gcsu, i. 107 
Group of, ii. 65 
Maronites monks, ii. 62 
Monache Polacche, ii. 72 
the Noviciate of the order of 

Jesus, i. 445 

Convents of— continued. 
S. Onofrio, ii. 435 
the Oratorians, ii. 166 
S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 
S. Paolo, ii. 387 
S. Pietro in Vincoli, ii. 53 
Poor Clares, ii. 388 
the Pregatrici, ii. 12 
Sta. Sabina, i. 355 
Sacre Cceur, i. 53 
Santi Quattro Incoronati, i. 340, 

Sepolte Vive, of the Farnesiani 

nuns, i. 465 
S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, i. 

S. Sisto, i. 381 

S. Tommaso in Formis, i. 331 
Tor de' Specchi, i. 270 
Ursuline, i. 64 
Visitandine nuns, i. 304 
Coppi, Jacopo, ii. 56 
Cordieri, Niccolo, i. 325, 326 ; ii.99, 

Cordonnata, La, i. 118 
Cornacchini, ii. 246 
Correggio, i. 68, 96 ; ii. 359 
Corsini, Palazzo, the residence of 

distinguished personages, ii. 439 
Corso, the, i. 36, 58, 60, 105 ; ii. 222 
Cortile del Belvidere, ii. 308 

S. Damaso, 337, 347, 359 
Cortona, Pietro da, i. 69, 188, 268, 
438 ; ii. 8, 75, 163, 166, 167, 183, 
196, 224, 258 
Cosmati, Deodatus, ii. 113 
Giovanni, ii. 216 
Costanzi, P., ii. 41, 261 
Cranach, Lucas, i. 72, 82 
Credi, Lorenzo di, i. 67 
Crivelli, Carlo, i. 67, 105 ; ii. 120, 348 
Cross, formed by cannon reversed, 
ii. 78 ; in form of Corsini Chapel 
Crypts — 

of S. Alessio, i. 364 

in catacomb of St. Pretextatus, 

i. 405 
only remains of the basilica on 

tin' site of St. Peter's, ii. 243 
of St. Peter's, ii. 267 
Crypto-Portieus, i. 281 
Cubiculum ot M.i. ( Viilia, i. 397 

ofPopeSt. Eusebius, i.398 
Cybele, Temple of, i. 294; Sacred 
Stone, 294 ; place of washing of 
the statue of, ii. 408 


4 65 


Dalmatica di Papa San Leone, in 
Treasury of St. Peter's, ii. 276 

Damasus, Pope St., inscriptions of, 
i. 396, 407, 418 

David, i. 445 

Diana, Temple of, i. 353 

Diavolo, Casa del, ii. 124 

Diocletian, Baths of, ii. 36, 38 

Doctors in Rome, i. 28 

Dolce, Carlo, i. 69 ; ii. 443 

Domenichino, i. 69, 140, 203, 267, 
268, 325, 439, 455, 458, 459 ; ii. 8, 
IS. 4i. 43. 57. 61, 120, 174, 183, 
200, 349, 384, 385, 435, 444 

Dominic, St., Convent of, i. 355 ; 
orange-tree of, 356 ; vision of, 358 ; 
legends of, 359, 360 ; first residence 
of, 381 ; Divine mission of, 382 ; 
place of first meeting with St. 
Francis, ii. 105 

Domitian, Palace of, i. 312 ; tyran- 
nical vagaries of, 312 ; murder of, 
313 ; martyrs under, 334 

Doria, Palazzo, i. 93 ; Picture-Gallery 
in, 93 — 98 ; memorial of Princess, 

Dorotea, Sta., legend of, ii. 390 
Drawing, materials, shops for, i. 29 ; 

list of subjects for, for artists, 34 ; 

best months for, in Rome, 35 
Dossi Dossi, i. 68 
Durante, Alberti, ii. 167 
Diirer, Albert, works of, i. 72, 84, 

439 : »• 443 


Easter benediction, ceremony of the, 
ii. 240, 241 

Egeria, Fountain of, i. 375 ; Grotto 
and grove of, 413 

Emelingk, i. 97 

Esquiline Hill, derivation of name, 
situation of, ii. 46 ; Cispius, and 
Oppius, 47 ; Carinas, 47, 49 ; Sub- 
urra, 49 ; Tigellum Sororis, 49 ; 
residences of poets on the, 50 ; 
Septimius, 51 ; Nero's Golden 
House, 52; S. Pietro in Vincoli, 
54 ; S. Martino al Monte, 63 ; Sta. 
Prassede, 65 ; Arch of Gallienus, 
71 ; residence of Madre Makrena, 
73 ; Sta. Bibiana, 74 ; Temple of 
Minerva Medica, 77 ; S. Antonio 

Abbate, 78 ; Sta. Maria Maggiorc, 
81 — 92 ; Obelisk, 93 
Eustace, St., legend of the conversion 
of, ii. 204 

Fabii, site of the destruction of the, 
ii. 424 

Fabris, de, ii. 246, 257, 436 

Faenza, Marco da, ii. 337 

Farnese, Palazzo, paintings and fres- 
coes of, ii. 174 ; Palazzetto, 178 

Faustulus and the Sacred Figtree, 
Hut of, legend of, i. 288 

Ferrari, Gaudenzio, i. 82 

Ferrata, Ercole, ii. 194, 261 

Festa, i. /\\\ 

Festa degli Artisti, ii. 135 

Fiamingo, Arrigo, ii. 40, 287 

Fiesole, Fra Angelico da, ii. 348 

Mino da, ii. 221, 273, 384 

Filarete, Antonio, ii. 100 

Filomena, Sta., popular saint, ii. 22 

Fiori, Mario di, ii. 442 

Fontana, ii. 89, 93, 96, 114, 238, 257, 

Fontana Paolina, ii. 451 
Footprint of our Saviour, i. 389, 417 
Forums — 

of Augustus, i. 164 
Boarium, i. 227 
of Nerva, i. 165 

Romanum, origin and formation 
of, i. 168, 169 ; historical sites 
and remains of, 170 — 185 ; 
modern name of, 185 
of Trajan, origin and construc- 
tion of, i. 159, 160 
Fountains — ■ 

antique, 388 

in Carthusian Convent, ii. 41 

of Egeria, i. 375 

Lacus Orphei, ii. 51 

near Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 

of the Mascherone, ii. 175 
of Palazzo Aldobrandini, i. 461 
in Palace of the Senator, i. 120 
in Piazza Navona, ii. 196 
in Piazza Pia, ii. 236 
in Piazza delle Tartarughe, i. 267 
of the Ponte Sisto, ii. 391 
attributed to the prayers of Peter 

and Paul in prison, i. 156 
of the Termini, ii. 42 
of Trevi, i. 79 



Fracassini, ii. 141, 345 

Francia, Francesco, i. 67, 68, 82, 94, 
96, 140, 439 ; ii. 348 

Francis, St., relics of, ii. 379 ; cele- 
bration of Christmas by, 380 

Frangipani family, castle of the, i. 
217 ; fortress of the, ii. 62 

Frescoes, i. 39, 53, 54, 86, 99, 137, 
139, 149, 153, 203, 231, 268, 270, 
276, 286, 292, 325, 326, 329, 334, 

34L 342, 343. 346, 3 82 . 3 8 4. 412- 
438, 446, 453, 455, 456, 457, 459, 
462, 466, 474 ; ii. 8, 15, 19, 26, 30, 
43. 44. 53. 56, 62, 63, 65, 68, 75, 
78, 88, 96, 99, 100, 104, in, 118, 
124, 128, 138, 141, 158, 160, 163, 
183, 200, 204, 215, 220, 232, 276, 
285, 286, 313, 324, 326, 337, 340— 

34 6 . 374. 3 8 4- 3 88 - 400. 407. 4 l6 > 
423, 426, 435, 436, 446, 452 

Friezes, i. 139, 165, 172, 201, 257, 
259. 33 2 > 35 8 . 379. 3 8 4. 422, 424, 
455. 457. 4 6 o ; n- 9 8 > 99. 104. I 37< 
224. 372. 3 8 3. 44 8 

Fuga, ii. 439 

Funeral, Roman, ii. 145 

Furino, i. 69 

Gaetani, Scipione, i. 440, 459 ; ii. 

102, 166, 323 
Gagliardi, ii. 224 
Galiardi, ii. 407 
Galileo, place of trial of, ii. 222 
Galleria — 

degli Arazzi, ii. 321 

dei Candelabri, ii. 320 

Lapidaria, ii. 300 

delle Statue, ii. 313, 315 
Gallery. See Picture. 
Garbo, Raffaelino del, ii. 215 
Gardens — 

of Adonis, i. 203 

of Barberini Palace, i. 443 

Botanic, ii. 439 

Colonna, i. 458 

containing Columbaria, i. 386 

Government, i. 379 

Hill of, i. 38 

on the Janiculan, ii. 445 

Monastery, i. 329 

of the Pincio, i. 46 

Priorato, i. 365 

of the Quirinal, i. 455 

of Servilia, i. 353 

of Sta. Silvia, i. 324 

Gardens — contin ued. 
of Sallust, ii. 12 
of Villa Medici, i. 49 
of Villa Wolkonski, ii. 123 

Garofalo, i. 67, 68, 82, 95, 96, 140 ; 
ii. 444 

Genga, Girolamo, ii. 224 

Germale, the, i. 279 

Gesu Narazeno, miracle-working pic- 
ture, ii. 182 

Ghetto, the, i. 250 ; first used as place 
of captivity, 252 ; limits of, re- 
moved, 254 ; population and mor- 
tality of, 255 ; merchandise in, 
256 ; division of parishes, 256 ; 
chief synagogue, 257 ; sketch of 
life in, 257 ; burial-ground for, 355 

Giacometti, ii. no 

Giardino della Pigna, ii. 305, 333 ; 
relics preserved in, 333 ; celebrated 
Pigna, 334 

Gimignano, ii. 96 

Giordano, Luca, i. 269, 474 ; ii. 444 

Giorgione, i. 70, 96, 97, 100 ; ii. 444, 

Giotto, ii. 104, 215, 246, 277, 324 
Giovanni di San Giovanni, i. 341 
Gobelin tapestries, i. 454 
Gozzoli, Benozzi, ii. 120, 213, 348 
Grascostasis, i. 171 
Grandi, •Ercole, ii. \\\ 
Gregory, St., legend of, i. 322 ; 

Church of, 322 ; monastic cell of, 

324 ; statue of, 326 ; family to 

which he belonged, 363 
Gros, Le, i. 86, 446 
Grottoes of Cerbara, ii. 135 
Guercino, i. 69, 83, 94, 95, 140, 141, 

267, 455 ; ii. 15, 43, 57, 157, 168, 

34 8 - 355. 356, 442, 444 
Guidi, antiquity vendor, i. 379 
Guido, i. 140, 167, 325, 455, 456 ; ii. 

7, 43, 62, 88, 103, 166, 174, 181, 

183, 200, 359, 374, 443 



in Barberini Palace, i. 438 
discovered in ruins of Baths of 

Caracalla, i. 377 
of Busts, in the Vatican, ii. 315 
in Casino of Villa Borghese, ii. 

4 T 3 
of the Conservators, i. 137 
.ii Mi.- Dying Gladiator, 1. 133 
of the Emperors, i. 126 



Halls — continued. 

of the Faun, i. 133 
of Illustrious Men, i. 131 
in Library of Vatican, ii. 323 
Heads of Lions, on bank of Traste- 

vere, i. 239 
Heintius, ii. 454 
Hermitage, i. 330 
Holbein, i. 72 ; ji. 443, 444 
Horti Lamiana, ii. 76 
Hospitals — 

for aged women, i. 64 
Foundling, ii. 237 
Sta. Galla, i. 239 
S. Gallicano, ii. 382 
German, ii. 161 

of S. Giovanni Calabita, ii. 365 
for incurable diseases, ii. 370 
S. Michaele, ii. 376 
for receiving and nourishing Pil- 
grims, ii. 181 
of San Rocco, i. 60 
of Santo Spirito, ii. 237 
Surgical, i. 61 
for Women, ii. 95 
Hotels, i. 27 

Costanzi, ii. 12 
del Globo, ii. 12 
Houses — 

of Aquila and Pi iscilla, i. 368 
Cicero, i. 301 
Claude Lorraine, i. 54 
S. Clement, i. 347 
Dnisus and Antonia, i. 292 
the Fomarina, ii. 368 
Hortensius, i. 304 
Lucrezia Borgia, ii. 62 
Marchese Campana, ii. 95 
Mark Antony, i. 303 
Nero's Golden, ii. 52 
of Nicholas Poussin, i. 54 
Octavius and Afra, i. 277 
Palestrina, i. 339 
Patrician families, i. 299 
Poets, ii. 50 
Pompey, ii. 48 
Pomponius Atticus, i. 435 
Raphael, ii. 225 
Rienzi, formerly of Pilate, i. 

Sta. Silvia, i. 321 
Spurius Maelius, i. 272 
the " Violinista," ii. 225 


Ignatius, St., rooms in which he 
lived, i. 107; his martyrdom, 211 

Imola, Innocenza da, i. 82, 99 
Inquisition, Palace of the, Inquisition 
established at, ii. 278 ; abolished 
and re-established, 279 
Inscriptions — 

ancient, in S. Alessandro, ii. 33 
in Catacomb of S. Sebastian, i. 

ancient, in Crypt of St. Peter's, 

ii. 268 
in Cloister of the Monastery, ii. 


Early Christian and Pagan, ii. 

121, 300, 384 

in Garden of Barberini Palace, i. 


in Jewish Catacomb, i. 408 

in. St John Lateran, ii. 99 

on Lunatic Asylum, ii. 439 

on Pantheon, ii. 204 

in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 405 

St. Peter and St. Paul, com- 
memorating the farewell of, ii. 

on Ponte S. Bartolomeo, ii. 367 

on Ponte Sisto, ii. 399 

of Pope St. Damasus, i. 396, 
407, 418 

on Porta Maggiore, ii. 132 

on remains of Pons Fabricius, ii . 

remarkable, in Portico of St. Pe- 
ter's, ii. 247 

in S. Sisto, i. 382 

on Tomb of Baker Eurysace, ii. 

World-famous, i. 319 
Intermontium, the, i. 116 
Island in the Tiber, the, tradition of 
its formation, its ancient name, ii. 
361 ; temples on, 362 ; use of, in 
early and middle ages, ii. 362 


Janiculan, the, situation, formation, 
and early history of, ii. 432 — 434 ; 
S. Onofrio, 434 ; Palazzo Corsini, 
439 ; Farnesina Villa, 445 

Jesuits, Order of the, established, ii. 
262 ; re-established, 264 

Jews, quarter of the, i. 250 ; history 
of, in Rome, from early times, 250 ; 
persecution of, 251, 252 ; terms of 
occupation of houses by, 253 ; re- 
vocation of laws against, 234 ; their 
population, government, and mor- 

4 68 


tality, 255 ; Synagogue of, 256 ; 
burial-ground of, 355 ; cupidity 
°f> 355 '• catacomb of, 407 ; cus- 
tom of, on the election of a pope, 
Jupiter, Capitolinus, temples of, i. 
in ; ii. 366 ; — Tonans, — Fere- 
trius, — Pistor, temples of, i. 115 ; 
Statue of, 115 ; — Stator, temple 
of, 247, 278 ; — Redux, temple of, 
330 ; — Inventor, temple of, ii. 392 


Kircherian Museum, i. 88 


La Madonna Consolatrice degli af- 

flitti, miraculous picture, ii. 221 
Lace-shop, well-known, i. 267 
Lake of Juturna, i. 176 
Servilius, i. 174 
Landini, ii. 97 

Lanfranco, i. 267, 268 ; ii. 88, 183, 
225 ; tomb of, 385 ; works of, 443 
Laocoon, the, in the Vatican, ii. 309 
Lares, Shrine of the, i. 382 
Lateran, the, i. 207 ; obelisk of, ii. 
95 ; baptistery of, 96 ; oratory, 
97 ; basilica, 98 ; derivation of 
name of, 98 ; coronation of popes 
in, 99 ; tabernacle, 100 ; Tabula 
Magna Lateranensis, 102 ; Cappella 
del Coro, 102 ; Corsini Chapel, 
103 ; cloisters of, 104 ; five Ge- 
neral Councils held at, 105 ; an- 
cient Palace of, 108 ; Santa Scala, 
no ; modern Palace of, 114 ; ob- 
jects of interest in, 114 — 117 ; 
Christian Museum, 117 ; Picture 
Gallery, 118 ; School of Music, 121 
Lcyden, Lucas van, i. 72, 97 
Library, i. 29 

Barberini, i. 413, 437 
Bibliotheca Casanatensis, ii. 222 
of Cistercian Monastery, ii. 131 
in Collegio Romano, i. 88 
Corsini, ii. 445 
in Monastery of the Chicsa 

Nuova, ii. 167 
in Palazzo Chip, i. 76 
I 'apal, ii. 322 

in the Vatican, ii. 300 ; entrance 
of, 322 
1 igoi i". lino, ii. 335 
Lippi, Fil., i. 94, 99 ; ii. 120, 215 

Locanda dell' Orso, ii. 223 
Loggie of Raphael, ii. 337 
Lorenzetto, i. 41 ; ii. 354 
Lorenzo, St., sketch of life of, ii. 137 ; 

and St. Stephen, burial-place of, 

143 ; cemetery of, 144 
Lorraine, Claude, works of, i. 82, 95 

—97. 439. 440 
Lottery, Roman, weekly drawing of 

the, ii. 198, 199 
Lotto, Lorenzo, i. 71, 100 
Loyola, Ignatius, residence of, i. 107 ; 

picture of, 445 ; church where he 

was wont to preach, ii. 170 
Lucenti, ii. 82 
Lunatic Asylum, ii. 439 
Lunghezza, ii. 135 
Lunghi, i. 64, 72 ; ii. 160, 378 
Lupercal, the, i. 290 
Luther, residence of, in Rome, i. 42 
Luti, Benedetto, ii. 443 


Macellum Magnum, i. 334 
Maderno, Carlo, i. 436, 455 ; ii. 43, 

44, 225, 244, 407 
Maderno, Stefano, ii. 373 
Maini, ii. 194 
Malaria, parts infected by, i. 21, 354, 

381 ; ii. 387, 399, 408, 413 
Maldacchini, Olympia, influence of, 

over Innocent X., ii. 197 ; villa 

built by, 455 
Mamertine Prisons, i. 153 ; account 

of prisoners in, 155, 156 
Mantegna Andrea, ii. 348 
Scuola di, i. 94 
Manufactory, Papal, of Mosaics, ii. 

Maranna, i. 375 

Maratta, Carlo, i. 95, 99, 106, 445 ; 
monument of, ii. 40 ; works of, 41, 
216, 267, 443 
Marmorata, the ancient, ii. 393 
Mars, temples of, i. 164, 373, 388 
Martyrdoms — 

best authenticated, i. 334 — 338 
of Christians, place of, ii. 390 
graves "f Martyrs, i. 396, 420 
paintings representing, i. 474 ; 

ii. 141, 201, 225 
of St. Paul, scene of the, ii. 395, 

399, 402 
Pietra di Paragone, used in the, 
ii. 278 
Marucelli, ii. 167 



Masaccio, i. 343, 439 

Massei, ii. 201 

Matsys, Quentin, i. 94 

Mausoleum of Augustus, i. 62 ; Sta- 
tues at entrance of, 447 
of Hadrian, ii. 334 

Mazzolino, i. 67, 68, 95, 97 

Medici, Villa, i. 49 ; view from, i. 51 
Leo X. Giovanni de, and Cle- 
ment VII., Giulio de, tombs 
of, ii. 218, 219 

Melozzo da Forli, i. 453 ; ii. 276, 357 

Memento Mori, tomb awaiting the 
living Pope, ii. 266 

Mengs, i. 439 ; ii. 77, 324 

Mentana, ii. 33 

Meta Sudans, i. 206 

Michael Angelo, i. 117, 119, 332, 
334, 389 ; ii. 42, 58, 60, 163, 174, 
210, 218 ; design of, for St. Peter's, 
244 ; statue by, in St. Peter's, 256 ; 
frescoes by, 285 ; his most perfect 
work, 288 ; drawing of, 449 

Milliarium Aureum, i. 173 

Mills, floating, ii. 366 

Miserere, of Passion Week, ii. 296 

Modena, Pellegrino da, ii. 337, 338, 

Monastery — 

of St. Andrew, i. 321 

of St. Anna, ii. 387 

of the Chiesa Nuova, ii. 167 

Cistercian, ii. 131 

Cloister of the, ii. 105, 144 

of S. Eusebio, ii. 77 

of the Order of Passionists, i. 329 
Monot, Etienne, ii. 265 
Mons Sacer, ii. 32 
Monte Caprino, i. 117 

Cavallo, ii. 34 

Giordano, ii. 166 

del Grano, ii. 124 

Mario, ii. 427 

Parione di Pieta, ii. 181 

Rotondo, ii. 19, 34 

Sacro (Mons Sacer), ii. 32 

Testaccio, view from, ii. 397 
Morra, national game of the Traste- 

verini, ii. 367 
Mosaics — ■ 

best of ancient Christian, i. 471 

in Sta. Cecilia, i. 374 

in S. Cesareo, i. 407 

in Chapel of Sant' Agnese, ii. 165 
S. Antonio, ii. 79 
Caetani family, i. 470 
Sta. Helena, ii. 130 

M osai cs — con tin 11 cd. 

in S. Clemente, i. 345 

in Convent of Redemptorists, i. 

of SS. Cosmo and Damian, i. 192 
in Crypt of St. Peter's, ii. 268, 273 
fragments of ancient, ii. 405 
in Sta. Francesca Romana, i. 198 
in Gabinetto delle Maschere, ii. 

316 _ 
in Jewish Catacomb, i. 407 
in Lateran, ii. 100 
in S. Lorenzo, ii. 138 
in Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, i. 233 
in Domenico, i. 333 
Maggiore, ii. 82, 83 
Scala Cceli, ii. 400 
in Trastevere, 383, 

in S. Martino al Monte, ii. 64 
of the Navicella, ii. 24.6 
in SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, i. 380 
in Oratory of S. Venanzio, ii. 97 
in the Orto del Paradiso, ii. 67 
in S. Paolo fuori le Mura, ii. 

405, 406 
Papal Manufactory of, ii. 359 
in St. Peter's, ii. 252, 256, 259, 

260, 261, 263, 264 
in S. Pietro in Vincoli, ii. 57 
in Sta. Prassede, ii. 70 
in Quirinal Palace, i. 454 
in Sta. Sabina, i. 357 
in Sala Rotonda, ii. 313 
in Sancta Sanctorum, ii. 113 
in S. Stefano Rotondo, i. 339 
in S. Teodoro, i. 223 
at Torre Nuova, ii. 414 
in Triclinium of Palace of La- 
teran, ii. 109 
Mosca, Simone, ii. 62 
Murano, Antonio da, ii. 121 
Murillo, ii. 348, 444 
Muro-Torto, description of, i. 46 
Museo, Chiaramonte, ii. 300, 305, 


Pio-Clementino, ii. 305, 331 
Museums — 

Christian, ii. 117 

of Christian Antiquities, ii. 324 

Egyptian, ii. 305, 332 

Etruscan, ii. 327 — 331 

Kircherian, i. 88 

of Relics of art and history, ii. 212 

of Statues, ii. 300 
Muziano, ii. 41, 213, 276 




Navicella, i. 330 ; Mosaic of, ii. 246 ; 
Terrace of the, 334 

Navona, Piazza, used as a market, ii. 
197 ; custom of occasionally con- 
verting it into a lake, 198 ; tourna- 
ment held in, 198 

Naumachia, remnant of the pleasures 
of the, ii. 198 

Nebbia, Cesare, ii. 89, 167, 323 

Neri, S. Filippo, chapel of, ii. 166 ; 
library founded by, 167 ; founda- 
tion of Oratorians laid by, 169 ; 
hospital founded by, 181 ; portrait 
of, 181 ; resuscitation to life by, 

Nero, Tomb of, i. 38 ; Statue of, 200 ; 
Palace of, 311 ; Aqueduct of, 330 ; 
Martyrs under, 335 ; Tower of, 
459 ; house in which he died, ii. 
20 ; Golden House of, 52 ; site of 
Baths of, 202 

Nocchi, Pietro, ii. 120 

Notte Vaticane, ii. 336 

Nuit, Gerard de la, i. 445 ; ii. 444 

Nymphaeum, i. 413 ; remains of an- 
cient, ii. 430 


Obeliscus Solaris, i. 78 

of the Esquiline, ii. 93 

in the Garden of the Redemptor- 

ists, i. 332 
of the Latcran, ii. 95 
of the Monte Cavallo, i. 446 

Citorio, i. 78 
of the Pantheon, ii. 211 
of St. Peter's, ii. 238, 239 
in the Piazza della Minerva, ii. 

of the Piazza Navona, ii. 196 
of the Pincio, i. 46 
of the Piazza del Popopolo, i. 37 
della Rotonda, ii. 
of the Trinit'i de' Monti, i. 51 
Observatory, celebrated, i. 88 
Olivieri, Paolo, i. 470 
Oratory, dedicated by Pius I., i. 472 
of Ma. Galla, i. 269 
of s. Venanzio, ii. 97 

< mi Farm iani, i. 276 

< ii tolano, i- 67, 68 
Osa, Castello del, ii. 135 

Osteria delle Frattocchie, i. 429 ; of 
Tavolato, ii. 125 

Ostia, ii. 394 ; past and present con- 
dition of, 409 

Ostian Gate, ii. 394^ 399 

Overbeck, i. 454 ; Studio of, ii. 45 


Paintings — 

in S. Angelo in Pescheria, i. 248 
in Appartamenti Borgia, ii. 324 

in Ara-Coeli, i. 149 
Architectural, ii. 448 
in Barberini Palace, i. 439 
in Baths of Titus, ii. 53 
in Borghese Picture Gallery, i. 

67 — 72 
in Capitoline Gallery, i. 140 
in Catacombs, i. 401, 410 ; ii. 21 
in Catacomb of S. Ponziano, ii. 

of Sta. Cecilia, i. 398 
in Chapel of S. Sylvestro, i. 341 
in the Chiesa Nuova, ii. 167 
Communion of St. Jerome, ii. 349 
in Crypt of St. Peter's, ii. 274, 276 
in S. Francesco a Ripa, ii. 379 
in S. Giovanni Decollato, i. 239 
La Madonna del Rosario, i. 358 
Last Judgment, the, ii. 293 
in Loggie of Raphael, ii. 337 — 

in S. Lorenzo in Lucina, i. 73 
in S. Luigi dei Francesi, ii. 200 
Madonna di Foligno, the, ii. 350 
Madonna and Saints, ii. 355 
in Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, ii. 

213 — 222 
in Sta. Maria del Popolo, i. 39 

in Trastevere, ii. 384 
Miracle-working, ii. 221 
Miraculous, of the Crucifixion, 

ii. 122 
in Palace of the Lateran, ii. 118 
in Palazzo Albani, i. 443 
Colonna, i. 99 
Corsini, ii. 442 
Doria, i. 94 
della Regina di Po- 

lonia, i. 54 
Sciarra, i. 82 
S] iada, ii. 180 
in Picture Gallery of the Vatican, 

ii- 347—359 
in S. Pietro in Yincoli, ii. 57 



Paintings — continued. 

in S. Prassede, ii. 69 

Prophets and Sibyls, ii. 290 — 292 

Raphael's best work, ii. 164 

in S. Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, 
i. 4S9 

in Sistine Chapel, ii. 287 

Transfiguration, the, ii. 351 — 354 

in Trinita de' Monti, i. 52 

in Vatican Library, ii. 324 

in Villa Albani, ii. 19 
Palaces — 

of Augustus, i. 280 

Barberini, i. 436 

of the Caesars, i. 250 

of Caligula, i. 292 

of the Cancelleria, ii. 177 

of the Conservators, i. 135 

of the Consulta, i. 448 

Corsini, i. 388 

of Count Trapani, i. 459 

of Domitian, i. 312 

Farnese, i. 377 

Farnesina, ii. 388 

Giustiniani, ii. 202 

important to sight-seers, i. 32 

ancient, of the Lateran, ii. 108 

modern, of the Lateran, ii. 114 

of Nero, i. 311 

Orsini, ii. 360 

Papal, i. 435 

Patrizi, ii. 202 

of the Ponziani family, ii. 369 

of Pope Honorius III., i. 361 

of the Quirinal, i. 449 

of the Republic of Venice, i. 103 

of the Senator, i. 120 

of Tiberius, i. 291 

Venetian, i. 105 

of Vespasian, i. 281 
Palatine, the, story of the Hill, i. 
273 ; Palace of the Caesars, 274 ; 
Orti Farnesiani, 276 ; guide in ex- 
ploring, 276 ; the Velia, 277 ; Pa- 
lace of Augustus, 280 ; Hut of 
Faustulus and the Sacred Fig-tree, 
288 ; Cavern of Lupercal, 290 ; 
Palaces of Tiberius and Caligula, 
291, 292 ; Temple of Cybele, 294 ; 
other temples, 298 ; site of houses 
of great patrician families on, 299 — 
303 ; Convent, 304 ; Walls of Ro- 
mulus, 305 ; Via Nova, 307 ; 
chambers once occupied by Prce- 
torian Guard, 309 
Palazzetto, Farnese, sometimes called 
Linote, ii. 178 


Albani, i. 443 

Aldobrandini, i. 461 
Altemps, ii. 160 
Altieri, i. 107 

Bernini, i. 73 

Borghese, i. 65 ; gallery in, 66 

Braschi, ii. 188 

Buonaparte, i. 103 

Caetani, i. 268 

Caffarelli, i. 142 

Cardelli, ii. 155 

Cenci, i. 259 

Chigi, i. 76 

Colonna, gallery in, i. 98 

Corsini, ii. 439 

Costaguti, i. 267 

Doria, i. 93 ; gallery in, 94 

Falconieri, ii. 175 

Farnese, ii. 174 

Gabrielli, ii. 166 

Galitzin, ii. 155 

Giraud, ii. 236 

del Governo Vecchio, ii. 165 

Lancellotti, ii. 197 

Madama, ii. 198 

Margana, i. 270 

Massimo alle Colonne, ii. 186 

Mattei, i. 268 

Moroni, ii. 387 

Muto-Savorelli, i. 103 

Odescalchi, legend relating to, i. 

Pamfili, ii. 196 

Parisani, i. 76 

Poli, famous jeweller's shop in, 
i. 81 

Pio, ii. 184 

della Regina di Polonia, i. 54 

Rospigliosi, i. 434, 456 

Ruspoli, i. 72 

Sacchetti, ii. 176 

Salviati, ii. 439 

Santa Croce, ii. 182 

Sciarra, gallery in, i. 82 

Spada alia Regola, the porter at, 
ii. 178, 179 

di Spagna, i. 57 

Torlonia, i. 104 

del Santo Uffizio, ii. 278 

Valentini, i. 98 

Vidoni, ii. 185 
Pantheon, the, ii. 204 ; its early his- 
tory, 205 ; its present state, 206 ; 
its interior, 206 ; burial-place of 
painters in, 209 ; service held in, 
on day cf Pentecost, 210 



Paolo, ii. 385 

Parco di San Gregorio, i. 319 

Parmigianino, i. 68 

Pasquinades, ii. 188 — 192 

Pasquino, ii. 188 

Passignano, i. 367 

Paul, St., house in which he lodged, 
i. 89 ; trial of, in Basilica, 284 ; 
chambers in which he was con- 
fined, 309 ; burial-place of, 419 ; 
the aspect of Rome to his eye, 
430, 431 ; picture of, 455 ; relic of, 
ii. 100 ; statue of, 226 ; shrine of, 
273 ; only existing witness of the 
martyrdom of, 395 ; parting of, 
with St. Peter, 398 ; martyrdom 
of, 399, 402 ; authenticated, i. 335 ; 
pillars to which he was bound, ii. 
40 1 ; festivals of, 408 

Penni, Francesco, ii. 276, 337, 338, 
340, 356, 446 

Perretti, Cardinal, relic of residence 
of, ii. 35 

Perugino, i. 53, 67, 83, 196 ; ii. 
19, 159, 286, 287, 345, 348, 356, 


Peruzzi, Baldassare, ii. 160, 162, 165, 
178, 186 ; tomb of, in the Pan- 
theon, 209 ; design of, for St. Pe- 
ter's, 244 ; frescoes by, 448 

Pescheria, the, i. 249 

Pesellino, i. 94 

Peter, St., dungeon occupied by, in 
Mamertine Prisons, i. 153 ; legend 
relating to, concerning Simon Ma- 
gus, 197 ; martyrdom of, authen- 
ticated, 335 ; tradition of, 379 ; 
legend relating to persecution of, 
389 ; burial-place of, 419, ii. 242 ; 
picture of, i. 455 ; preservation of 
his chains, ii. 54, 61 ; bas-relief of, 
57 ; relics of, 61, 100 ; fresco of, 
204 ; statues of, 226, 254 ; epis- 
copal chair of, 261 ; shrine and 
sarcophagus of, 273 ; parting of, 
with St. Paul, 398 ; crucifixion of, 

Pettrich, ii. 40 
Phidias, i. 447 
Photographers, i. 29 
Pianta Capitolina, i. 123 
Piazzas — 

Barberini, i. 436 

of S. Benedetto a Piscinuola, ii. 
368 • 

P.* >. 1 ;i della Verita, ii. 392 

Borghese, i. 66 ; ii. 223 

Piazzas — con tin tied. 

del Campidoglio, i. 119 
di Campitelli, i. 269 
Campo di Fiore, ii. 176 
Capitoline, i. 135 
Capo di Ferro, ii. 178 
of the Cappuccini, ii. 7 
Colonna, i. 76 
di S. Eustachio, ii. 202 
del Gesu, legend of, i. 10 
di S. Giovanni, ii. 95 
della Guidecca, i. 259 
of Sta. Maria Maggiore, ii. 80 
in Monti, i. 464 
della Minerva, ii. 211 
Montanara, i. 242 
of the Monte Cavallo, i. 446 
Monte Citorio, i. 78 
of the Navicella, i. 330 
Navona, ii. 187, 196, 198 
del Orologio, ii. 166 
of St. Peter's, ii. 225, 240 
Pia, ii. 236 

del Popolo, i. 36 ; obelisk of, 37 
della Rotonda, ii. 211 
Rusticucci, ii. 225, 238 
Scossa Cavalli, ii. 236 
della Scuola, i. 256 
di Spagna, i. 56, 58 
delle Tartarughe, i. 267 
del Tritone, i. 436 
Picture Galleries — 

in Barberini Palace, i. 439 
Borghese, i. 66 
Capitoline, i. 140 
in Sta. Maria degli Angeli, ii. 40 
Palace of the Lateran, ii. 118 
Quirinal, i. 455 
Palazzo Colonna, i. 99 
Corsini, ii. 442 
Doria, i. 94 
Mattei, i. 268 
the Vatican, ii. 347—359 
Pierleoni, fortress of the, i. 245 
Pieta, in Sta. Croce, ii. 130 
in Lateran, ii. 103, 104 
in Sta. Maria dell' Anima, 163 
Pietra di Paragone, ii. 278 
Pietro in Montorio, St., hill of, ii. 388 
Pig-Market, Roman mode of killing 

pigs, ii. 417 
Pigna, in garden of the Vatican, 11. 

334 , • , , ■ 

l'inrio, description of, 1. 43 ; fashion- 
able resort, 44 
Pinturicchio, i. 39, 67, 139, 149; ii. 
i 128, 313, 325, 356, 436 



Piombo, Sebastian del, i. 41, 69, 97 ; 

ii. 102, 293, 355, 448, 449 
Pisanello Vittore, i. 94 
Piscina Publica, i. 383 
Plautilia, legend of, ii. 398, 399 
Podesti, ii. 407 
Pollajuolo, Antonio, i. 67 ; ii. 61, 

Pomarancio, i. 69, 268, 329, 334 ; ii. 

Pompey, statue of, ii. 179 ; theatre 

of, 184 
Ponte — 

S. Angelo, ii. 225, 226 

S. Bartolomeo, ii. 366 

Molle, ii. 421, 424 

Nomentana, ii. 31 

di Nono, ii. 134 

Quattro Capi, ii. 360 

Rotto, i. 237 ; ii. 369 

Salara, i. 19 

Sisto, ii. 390 

Sublicius, i. 238 
Pontecello, stream of, i. 429 
Popes, eight, educated at Collegio 
Romana, i. 88 ; latest miracle of 
the Romish Church, 98 ; desecra- 
tion and restoration of the Coli- 
seum by, 218 ; Chapel of the, 395 ; 
graves of early, 396 ; election of, 
451 ; Private Chapel of the, 455 ; 
Pallium of the, ii. 28 ; place of 
coronation of, 99 ; favourite walk 
of mediasval, 107 ; the residence 
of, at Palace of the Lateran, 108 ; 
Sancta Sanctorum of, in ; monu- 
ment of Papal history of the tenth 
century, 129; custom of newly- 
elected, in relation to Jews, i. 203, 
ii. 166 ; passage intended for the 
escape to St. Angelo of the, 234 ; 
the Borgo, or sanctuary of the Pa- 
pacy, 235 ; the Easter benediction, 
240 ; additions to the building of 
St. Peter's by, 244 ; ceremony of 
destruction of the Wall of Porta 
Santa, 248 ; Memento Mori, 266 ; 
Sarcophagi of, 270 — 274 ; the 
Vatican, built by successive, 283, 
284 ; Papal residence at the Va- 
tican, 283, 298 ; prophecy respect- 
ing the line of, 299 ; daily walk or 
ride of the, 335 ; inscription com- 
memorating the pope who defended 
Rome against Attila, 406 ; tolera- 
tion of the Papal government in re- 
ligion, 411 

Popes — 

Adrian VI., tomb of, ii. i<5i 

Alexander VI., Rodrigo Borgia, 
grave of, ii. 170 ; paintings repre- 
senting the life of, 325 ; pasquinade 
against, 189 ; empty tomb of, 269 ; 
death of, 428, 429 

AlexanderVIL, his humility, i. 77 

Boniface VIII., life and charac- 
ter of, ii. 269, 270 ; double crown 
first worn by, 270 

Clement, St., exile and death 
of, i. 347 

Clement VII , pasquinades 
against, ii. 190; " the Transfigura- 
ation " painted by order of, 351 

Clement VIII., torturer and exe- 
cutioner of the Cenci family, i. 
260, ii. 87 ; builder of the new pa- 
lace of the Vatican, 87 ; punish- 
ment of parricides by, 183 

Clement XII., founder of Cor- 
sini Chapel, ii. 103 

Clement XIII., Order of the Je- 
suits attacked in the reign of, ii. 260 

Cornelius, St., tomb of, i. 399 

Damasus, St., inscriptions of, i. 
396, 399, 407, 418, 419 ; ii. 2i 

Gregory I. (the Great), founder 
of Church music, ii. 122 

Gregory XL, restoration of the 
Papal Court to Rome by, i. 196 

Gregory XIII., New Calendar 
invented in the reign of, ii. 258 

Gregory XVI., frescoes repre- 
senting the life of, ii. 326 ; statue 
of, 405 

Hilary, Chapels built by, ii. 9.6 

Hiklebrand, seizure of, ii. 92 

Innocent X., pasquinade against, 
ii. 191, desertion of, at his death, 
194 ; sale of bishoprics and bene- 
fices in the reign of, 197 

Innocent XL, pasquinade against, 
ii. 191 

Innocent XII., last pope who 
wore beard and moustache, tomb 
of, ii. 257 

Joan, life, and legend of, ii. 94 

Julius II., magnificent tomb of, 
ii. 59 ; introduction of the beard 
by, 60 ; destruction of the Old Ba- 
silica, and commencement of the 
building of St, Peter's, by, 244 ; 
grave of, 258 

Julius III., Villa of Papa Giulio, 
designed and built by, ii. 418 



Popes — con tin tied. 

Leo X., pasquinades against, ii. 
190 ; early destination to the Pa- 
pacy of, 218 ; tomb of, 218 ; his 
share in the building of St. Peter's, 
244; St. Peter's statue cast by, 
254 ; brilliant reign of, 336 

Leo XL, short reign of, ii. 265 

Leo XII., Vatican Picture Gal- 
lery built by, ii. 284 

Martin V., tomb of, ii. 100 

Nicholas V., Vatican Library 
founded by, ii. 271, 322 

Paschal I., his account of his 
finding the burial-place of Sta. 
Cecilia, ii. 373 

Paul II., remarkable beauty of, 
ii. 271 ; remains of his tomb, 271, 

Paul III., Order of Jesuits found- 
ed in the reign of ; his character, 
ii. 262 ; Inquisition established by, 
278 ; Sala Regia of the Vatican 
built in the reign of, 285 

Paul IV., imprisonment of the 
Jews by, i. 252 ; his aspect and 
character, ii. 215 

Pelagius II., Basilica of, ii. 142 ; 
his munificence, 143 

Pius II., tomb and epitaph of, 
ii. 185 ; instance of relique-worship 
in the reign of, 421 

Pius IV., his retiring nature ; 
Villa Pia built by, ii. 335 

Pius V. , eventful reign of, ii. 89 

Pius VI., pasquinades against, 
ii. 191, 192 

Pius VII., exile of, i. 449 ; re- 
turn of, to the Quirinal ; re-estab- 
lishment of the Order of Jesuits by, 
ii. 264; collection of pictures in 
the Vatican formed by, 347 

Pius VIII., tomb of, the, last 
erected in St. Peter's, ii. 264 

Pius IX., escape of, in the revo- 
lution of 1848, i. 450 ; preparation 
of his own monument, ii. 84 

Sixtus IV., political reign of, ii. 
258 ; Sistine Chapel built by, 284 ; 
Vatican Library increased by, 322 

Sixtus V., eventful life of, ii. 90 ; 
tlir enemy of antiquities, 108 ; 
completion of the building of St. 
I''! er's in the reign of, 244; Va- 
tican I .ibrary increased by, 322 

Sylvester II., memorial slab of, 
ii. 103 

Popes — con tin ued. 

Urban II., refuge of, i. 201 ; ii. 


Urban VI. ,hiscruelty, and death, 
ii. 272 

Urban VIII., ambition and mag- 
nificence of, i. 437 ; curious Will 
of, 438 ; pasquinade against, ii. 
190 ; his passion for building, and 
his tomb, 261 
Popolo, Piazza del, starting-point for 
exploring Rome, i. 36 

Porta del, i. 37 ; ii. 422 

Church of Sta. Maria del, i. 39 
Pordenone, i. 70, 71, 96, 454 
Porta, Giacomo della, ii. 174, 244, 
251, 400, 401 
Giuseppe, ii. 285 
Guglielmo della, ii. 262 

Angelica, ii. 427, 430 

Asinaria, ii. 107 

Capena, i. 373 

Carmentalis, i. 239 

Cavalleggieri, ii. 280, 456 

Collina, ii. 16 

Furba, ii. 124 

S. Giovanni, ii. 107 

Latina, i. 384 

S. Lorenzo, ii. 35 

Maggiore, ii. 132 

S. Marta, ii. 264, 278 

Mugonia, i. 274 

Nomentana, ii. 24 

Ostiensis, Ancient, ii. 394 

Palatii, i. 279 

S. Pancrazio, ii. 452 

S. Paolo, i. 368 ; ii. 393 

Pia, ii. 24 

Pinciana, ii. r6 

Portese, ii. 377 

Romana, i. 274 

Salara, ii. 16 

Salutaria, i. 435 

Santa, ii. 83 ; ceremony of the 
destruction of the wall of, 248 

S. Sebastiano, i. 387 

Settimiana, ii. 388, 448 

Sto. Spirito, ii. 434 

Trigemina, ii. 392 
Porticos — 

of Baths of Constantine, i. 458 

Doric, ii. 421 

of St. John Lateran, ii. 99 

Leonino, ii. 102 

of Livia, i. 198 

of S. Lorenzo, ii. 138 



Porticos— continued. 
of Octavia, i. 247 
of Pallas Minerva, i. 165 
of the Pantheon, ii. 206 
of S. Sabba, i. 369 
of Temple of Mars, i. 388 

to Romulus, i. 435 
in Theatre of Pompey, ii. 184 

Post-office, General, ii. 199 

Potter, Paul, i. 72 

Poussin, Caspar, ii. 63, 442, \\ \ 

Poussin, Niccolas, i. 52 ; house of, 
54 ; tomb of, 73 ; works of, 95, 
167, 440 ; ii. 63, 326, 358 

Pozzi, Giobattista, ii. 89 
Padre, i. .86 

Prata Quinctia, i. 59 

Praxiteles, i. 447 

Presepio, origin of the, ii. 380 

Pretoria n Camp, remains of, ii. 34 

Prima Porta, ii. 423 

Prisons — 

Carceri Nuove, ii. 176 

in Castle of St. Angelo, ii. 234 

the Island in the Tiber used as, 

in imperial times, ii. 362 
for Women, ii. 42 

Promenade, ancient Papal, ii. 127 

Propaganda, the, i. 59 

Protestant Cemetery, ii. 395 
Churches, ii. 410 

Protomoteca, i. 136 

Pseudo-Aventine, i. 368 

Pyramid, site of, ii. 236 

of Caius Cestius, ii. 394 

Quattro Fontane, ii. 34, 45 

Quirinal, parish church of, i. 81 ; 
hill, limit of, 433 ; origin of name, 
temple to Romulus, 434 ; houses 
of great families on, 436 ; Palace, 
■111 ; residence of popes, 449 ; 
Gardens of the, 455 


Raggi, Antonio, ii. 194 

Railway Station, ii. 35 

Raphael, painter, sculptor, and ar- 
chitect, i. 41 ; Works of, 67, 83, 
96, 167, 305, 439 ; ii. 102, 158, 
164, 185 ; tomb of, in the Pan- 
theon, 209 ; house of, 225 ; design 
of, foi St. Peter's, 244 ; cartoons 
of, 321 ; Loggie of, 337 ; frescoes 

b y. 338, 340—343. 345. 446, 448 ; 

pictures by, 348, 350, 356; his 
last, 351 ; Villa of, 416 
Regia, site of, i. 78 
Relics — 

of St' Agnese, ii. 31 

of Ancient Basilica, ii. 407 

of Ancient Basilica of Lateran, 

ii. 102 
Architectural and traditional, ii. 

Arm of St. Thomas a Becket, ii. 

of Art and History, ii. 212 
of the Barberini family, i. 437 
Brains of St. Thomas a Becket, 

ii. 92 
Body of St. Bartholomew, ii. 364 
in Catacomb of Sta. Priscilla, 

ii. 23 
Chains of St. Peter, ii. 61 
ancient Chair of St. Peter, ii. 261 
Column to which our Saviour is 

reputed to have been bound, 

ii. 68 
Earliest architectural, i. 170 
of S. Francesca Romana, i. 270 
of St. Francis, ii. 379 
in Giardino della Pigna, ii. 333 
of Ignatius Loyola, i. 107 
list of, in Lateran, ii. 102 
in S. Martino al Monte, ii. 64 
in Monastery of the Chiesa 

Nuova, ii. 167 
in Sta. Prassede, ii. 71 
Pedestal of the Column of An- 
toninus Pius, ii. 334 
of St. Peter's, exhibition of, ii. 

253. 2 54 
of Republican times, i. 105, 307 
•in Sancta Sanctorum, ii. 112, 113 
Sancta Culla, ii. 91 
Santa Scala, ii. no 
of Tasso, ii. 437 

Title of the True Cross, exhibi- 
tion of, ii. 129 
in Treasury of St. Peter's, ii. 276 
of works of Art from the Ba- 
silica on the site of St. Peter's, 
ii. 243 
Rembrandt, ii. \<\/\ 
Remus, temple of, i. 191 ; and 

Romulus, legend of, 288 
Reni, Guido, i. 69, 73, 83, 84, 95, 

140, 141, 440 ; ii. 358, 443, 444 
Ribera, i. 70 
Ricciolini, ii. 40 
Rinaldi, ii. 407 



Ripetta, the, i. 37 ; Quay of the, 59 

Ripresa dei Barberi, i. 105 

Roman Pearls, i. 29 

Romana, Sta. Francesca, favourite 
saint of the Romans, i. 148 ; ii. 
136 ; her death, i. 195 ; ii. 370 ; 
miracle attributed to, 378 ; vine- 
yard of, 398 

Romanelli, i. 139, 267 ; ii. 41, 266 

Romano, Guilo, i. 67, 68, 82, 305, 
332; ii. 19, 71, 118, 161, 244, 276, 
337—340, 345, 354, 356, 378, 425, 
426, 443, 446, 452 .- 

Rome, statue called by that name, ii. 

Rome — ■ 

Description of neighbourhood, i. 
17 ; first view of city, 17 ; Ma- 
dame de StaeTs impression con- 
cerning, 18 ; climate, 20 ; life 
agreeable in, 21 ; Museums, 22 ; 
scarcity of Pagan ruins, 23 ; 
Mai's monumental record of, A.D. 
540, 24 ; facilities afforded to 
strangers, 24 ; objects of attraction 
in the neighbourhood of, 26 ; Ho- 
tels, Pensions, Apartments, 27 ; 
Trattorie (Restaurants), English 
Church, Post-office, Telegraph- 
office, Bankers, Conveyance of | 
goods to England, Doctors, Eng- 
lish and Homoeopathic, Dentist, 
Sick - Nurses, Chemists, English 
House -Agent, English Livery- 
Stables, 28 ; Library, Booksellers, 
Italian Masters, Photographers, 
Drawing Materials, Engravings, 
Antiquities, Bronzes, Cameos, Mo- 
saics, Jewellers, Roman Pearls, 29 ; 
Bookbinder, Engraver, Tailors, 
Shoemakers, Dressmaker, Shops 
for Ladies' Dresses, Roman Rib- 
bons and Shawls, Gloves, Carpets, 
and small Household Articles, 
German Baker, English Grocer, 
Italian Grocer and Wine-Merchant, 
Oil, Candles, and Wood, &c, Eng- 
lish Dairy, 30 ; Artists' Studios, 30, 
31; Sculptors' Studios, 31, 32; 
Churches, I'.ilaces, Villas, Ruins, 
Sights fur each day in tin; week, 
32, 33 ; Guide for travellers in, 36 ; 
favourite resort for Models, 56 ; 
English colony, 58 ; fust English 

set vice in, 64 ; pious whip] ; >, 

85 ; ci 1' brated < >bservatory, 88 ; 
Jesuit College, eight Popes cdu- 

Rome — co7itinued. 
cated at, 88 ; Church in which St. 
Paul lodged, 89 ; Capitoline Hill, 
109 ; Forum Romanum, great his- 
torical interest attached to, 168 ; 
interesting sites and classical re- 
mains, 170 — 185 ; description of 
Mosaics, 192 ; decadence of Art 
in, 232 ; Mediaeval gem of, 234 ; 
sketch of Jewish history in, 250 — 

255 ; rich merchandise in Ghetto, 

256 ; Palatine Hill, 273 ; recent 
discoveries among the ruins of the 
Palace of the Caesars, 276 ; St. 
Paul's trial in Basilica, 283 ; Seven 
Hills of, 298 ; houses of great pa- 
tricians of, 299 ; earliest pagan 
caricature of our Saviour's death, 
308 ; Ccelian Hill, 316 ; place of 
departure of St. Augustine from, 
319 ; grand view of Palatine, 324 ; 
ideal garden, 332 ; frescoes repre- 
senting best authenticated martyr- 
doms in, 334 — 338 ; influence of 
Byzantine upon Roman Art, 341 ; 
ancient ecclesiastical architecture, 
343 ; the Aventine, 348 ; Malaria, 
2I > 3S4> 356 I Appian Way, course 
of, 372, 430 ; Baths of Caracalla, 
largest mass of ruins in, 376 ; 
Columbaria, 385 ; rare parisitical 
plants, 390; Catacombs, 390 — 411, 
ii. 20; paintings in Catacombs, sym- 
bolical, allegorical, and liturgical, 
i. 401 ; oldest Christian cemetery, 
409 ; graves of Christian martyrs, 
420 ; extensive view, 424 ; the ap- 
pearance of, to St. Paul, 430, 431 ; 
the Quirinal and Viminal, 433 ; 
Saint most reverenced by people 
of, 463 ; spot of historical interest, 
468 ; most ancient church in, 460 ; 
loveliest view in, ii. 17 ; Railway 
Station, 35 ; Esquiline Hill, 46 ; 
St. Peter's chains, 61 ; tallest palm- 
tree in, 62 ; one of the principal 
objects of pilgrimage in, 68 ; me- 
morials of middle-age warfare, 72 ; 
unique doorway, 78; consecration 
of animals after the feast of St. 
Anthony, 79 ; Obelisk, oldest ob- 
ject in, 95 ; beautiful view, io5 ; 
principal receptacle for antiquities 
in, 114; fine specimen of Roman 
scenery, 127 ; residence assigned 
to Patriarchs of Jerusalem visiting, 
144 ; modern burial-ground of, 



Rome — continued. 

144 ; Roman funeral, 145 ; Roman 
Catholic Meeting-house for the 
lower orders, 158 ; Government 
establishment for the lending of 
money, 181 ; haunted house, 183 ; 
first printing-office in, 187; finest 
staircase in, 188 ; unique window, 
197 ; most perfect pagan building 
in, 204 ; resort of bird-fanciers, 
211 ; largest library in, 222; relic 
of siege of, 226 ; effect produced 
by the entrance of St. Peter's, 249 ; 
one of the few examples of Gothic 
architecture in, 280 ; view of, from 
balcony in the Vatican, 307 ; re- 
sults of excavations, 327, 393 ; pe- 
culiar beauty of the Vatican Gar- 
den, 335 ; supply of water during 
the siege, 366 ; character of Tras- 
teverini in contrast to the other 
Romans, 367 ; house of temporary 
retirement for young men, 369 ; 
principal remains of mediaeval ar- 
chitecture, 379 ; first Church dedi- 
cated to the Virgin, 382 ; fine views 
from Ponte Sisto, 390 ; interest at- 
tached to the Pyramid of Caius 
Cestius, 39S ; facilities afforded for 
Protestant worship in, 410 ; view 
across the Campagna, 420 ; mag- 
nificent view of, 428 ; evening scene 
in the streets, 431 ; unrivalled view, 
451 ; only perfect extant specimen 
of primitive subterranean baptistery, 

Romulus and Remus, legend of, i. 
288 ; walls of, 305 ; connection with 
Aventine, 349 ; temple to, 434 
Rosa, Salvator, i. 94, 95 ; monument 
of, ii. 40 ; works of, 225, 442, 445 
Rospigliosi, Palace of, i. 456; col- 
lection of pictures in, 457 
Rosselli, Cosimo, ii. 287 
Rossi, ii. 261, 263, 413 
Rubens, i. 96, 140 ; ii. 167, 444 
Ruins — 

of Agger of Servius Tullius, ii. 38 
Aqua Marcia, ii. 95 
Arco di Ciambella, ii. 21 r 
Basilica of Constantine, i. 184 
Basilica of S. Stefano, ii. 124 
Bath built by Augustus, ii. 77 
Baths of Caracalla, i. 375 
Baths of Constantine, i. 436, 

Baths of Diocletian, ii. 3S 

Ruins — continue,!. 

of Baths of S. Helena, ii. 132 
Baths of Titus, ii. 52 
Campus Martius, ii. 155 
early Christian cemetery, ii. 

Circus of Maxentius, i. 422 
Circus Maximus, i. 225 
Coliseum, i. 213 
Colonnace, i. 165 
Emporium, ii. 393 
Forum Boarium, i. 227 
Forum of Trajan, i. 161 
Gabii, ii. 134 
S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, 

ii. 197 
house of Mother of St. Gre- 
gory, i. 321 
Mausoleum of Augustus, i. 62 
Meta Sudans, i. 206 
Milliarium Aureum, i. 173 
Modern Capitol, i. 170 
Nero's Golden House, i. 52 
Palace of the Caesars, "i. 274 
Domitian, i. 312 
Lateran, ii. 109 
Nero, i. 311 
Palaces of Augustus and Ves- 
pasian, i. 280, 281 
Palazzo Cenci, i. 259 
Palazzo Margana, i. 270 
Pescheria, i. 249 
Pons ^Emilius, i. 237 
Pons Fabricius, ii. 360 
Pons Sublicius, i. 238 
Ponte Salaria, ii. 19 
Porticus Octaviae, i. 246 
Pretorian Camp, ii. 34 
Principal, in Rome, i. 32 
in Priorato Garden, i. 365 
of Regia of Julius Csesar, i. 305 
Roma Vecchia, i. 427 
Sette Bassi, ii. 124 
Sette Sale, ii. 53 
Studio of Canova, i. 61 
Tabularium, i. 122 
Temple of Antoninus and 

Faustina, i. 182 
Temple of Concord, i. 171 

Mars Ultor, i. 163 
Neptune, i. 79 
Saturn, i. 172 
the Sun, i. 436 
Venus and Rome, 

i. 198 
Vesta, i. 176 
Temples on the Aventine, i. 351 



Ruins — continued. 

of Temples of Castor and Pollux, 

i- 175 
Theatre of Balbus, i. 259 
Tomb of the Cascilii, i. 395 
Tor di Quinto, ii. 423 
Torre dei Schiavi, ii. 133 
Villa of Emperor Commodus, 

i. 427 
Villa of Flavia Domitilla, i. 408 
Villa of Livia, ii. 423 
Walls of Romulus, i. 305 
Walls of Servius Tullius, i. 368 

Russe Tarpeia, i. 142 

Rusconi, Camillo, ii. 259 

Sabbatini, ii. 337 

Sacchi, Andrea, i. 439 ; ii. 12, 96 ; 
tomb of, 104 ; works of, 183, 358, 

Sacer, Mons, ii. 32 
Sala clegli Animali, ii. 313 
della Riga, ii. 319 
di Constantino, ii. 340 
a Croce Greca, ii. 319 
Ducale, ii. 398 
delle Muse, ii. 317 
Regia, ii. 285 
Rotonda, ii. 318 
Salita di S. Onofrio, ii. 434 
Salviati, ii 163, 224, 287 
Sancta Sanctorum, in Palace of La- 

teran, ii. in 
Sangallo, Antonio di, ii. 174, 244, 285 
Sansovino, Andrea, ii. 158 
Santa Scala, ii. 95, no ; picturesque 

scene on, in 
Santi, Tito, ii. 225 
Sanzio, Giovanni, i. 99 ; ii. 121 
Saraceni Carlo, ii. 162, 442, 443 
Sarcophagi, i. 458, 471 ; ii. 18, 68, 
103, 114, 118, 141, 174, 257, 263, 
269, 270 — 273, 300, 405, 426 
Sarto, Andrea del, i. 67 — 69, 82, 95, 

440 ; ii. 120, 442 
Sarzana, Ixonarda da, ii. 84 
Sassoferato, i. 69, 70, 95 ; ii. 120, 

35°. 443 
Scannabecchi, ii. 425 
Scarsellino, Ippolito, i. 94 
Schiavone, -And., i. 71 
Schnorr, Paul, ii. 337 

S( I l'K lis — 

1.1 ti.1_rli.1na, i. 256 

< .nil. hi. 1, i. 256 

Schools — con tin ucJ. 

for Music, in the Middle Ages, 
ii. 121 

Scuola Nuova, i. 256 

Siciliana, i. 256 

del Tempio, i. 256 
Sciarra, Palazzo, Picture Gallery in, 

i. 82 
Scipios, Tomb of the, i. 385 
Sculptors, studios of, i. 31 
Sculpture — 

Arch of Septimus Severus, on, i. 

Capitol, on the steps of the, i. 117 

Casino of Villa Borghese, in, ii. 

Castle of St. Angelo, in, ii. 234 
S. Cesareo, in, i. 383 
Collection of, ii. 14, 18 
Crypt of St. Peter's, in, ii. 273 
Gallery of, in the Capitol, i. 123 

Jewish Synagogue, in, i. 257 
Madonna and Child, ii. 158 
Sta. Maria sopra Minerva, in, ii. 

Sta. Maria del Popolo, in, i. 39 
Michael Angelo, by, ii. 59 
Palazzo Mattei, in, i. 268 
Palazzo Spada, in, ii. 180 
Santa Scala, on, ii. no 
Tomb of Adrian VI., on, ii. 162 
Tor di Babele, of, i. 460 
Trastevere, fragments of, in the, 

ii. 367 
Vatican Galleries, in the, ii. 300 

— 322 
Via Appia, among ruins of, i. 424 
Sebastian, St., place of martyrdom 
of, i. 203 ; fresco, relating to legend 
of, ii. 56 ; statue of, 194 
Seminario Romana, ii. 159 
Septizonium of Severus, i. 312 
Sermoneta, ii. 104, 165, 337 
Sesto, Cesare, ii. 359 
Seven Hills of Rome, i. 298 
Shops — 

for Antiquities, i. 29 
Arvotti's, the famous Roman- 
scarf shop, ii. 198 
Bookbinder's, i. 30 
Booksellers', i. 29 
for Bronzes, i. 29 
for Cameos, i. 29 
for Carpets and small house 

articles, i. 30 
for Drawing materials, i. 29 



Shops — continued. 

English Grocer's, i. 30 

Engraver's, i. 30 

for Engravings, i. 29 

German Baker's, i. 30 

for Gloves, i. 30 

Italian Grocer and Wine-Mer- 
chant's, i. 30 

Jewellers', i. 29 

for Lace, well-known, i. 267 

for Ladies' dresses, i. 30 

for Mosaics, i. 29 

for Oil, Candles, and Wood, 
&c, i. 30 

for Roman Ribbons and Shawls, 
i. 30 

for Roman Pearls, i. 29 

Shoemakers', i. 30 

Tailors', i. 30 
Sicciolante, Girolanio, ii. 200 
Siena, Berni da, ii. 100 
Siena, Gherardesco da, ii. 445 
Signorelli, Luca, ii. 19, 120,. 287 
Simone, i. 345 
Sirani, Eliz., ii. 442 
Sodoma, i. 68, 203, 439 ; ii. 342, 448 
Solario, i. 68 

Spagna, i. 99 ; ii. 356, 443 
Spagnoletto, i. 455 ; ii. 90, 356, 443, 


Spoleto, Guido da, ii. 324 

St. Peter's, first sight of, i. 17 ; view 
of, from the Pincio, 44 ; distant 
view of, from Villa Medici, 51 ; 
" View of, through the Keyhole," 
365 ; the approach to, ii. 238 ; 
early history of buildings on the 
site of, 242 ; the building of, 244 ; 
expenses of building, 245 ; facade, 
245 ; vestibule, 246 ; entrance of 
the Cathedral, 249 ; nave, 251 ; 
dimensions of building, 251 ; cu- 
pola, 252 ; Baldacchino, 252 ; re- 
lics, 253 ; statues, 254, 255 ; chapels, 
256 — 258 ; monuments, 259 — 266 ; 
tribune, 261 ; ancient chair, 261 ; 
confessionals, 267 ; crypt of, 267 
— 274 ; sarcophagi, 270 — 2.74 ; 
dome of, 275 ; sacristy of, 275 ; 
treasury of, 276 ; archives of, 
277 ; best view of, 454 

Stanza, d'Eliodoro, ii. 341 

of the Incendio del Borgo, ii. 345 
della Segnatura, ii. 342 

Statues — 

Abbate Luigi, of, ii. 186 
Sta. Agnese, of, ii. 194 

Statues — continued. 

Agrippa, of, ii. 206 
Sta. Anastasia, of, i. 224 
Antinous, the, ii. 308 
Aristotle, of, ii. 180 
Augustus, of, ii. 206, 424 
Barberini Palace, in, i. 438 
Baths of Caracalla, discovered in 

ruins of, i. 377 
Benedict XIII., of, i. 363 
S. Bruno, of, ii. 40 
Calumny, of, i. 75 
Capitoline Gallery, in, i. 123 — 

Castor and Pollux, of, i. 118 
Sta. Cecilia, of, ii. 373 
Chapel of the Sacrament, in, ii. 

Christian Museum, in, ii. 117 
Clcelia, of, i. 199 
Collection of, in Palazzo Sac- 

chetti, ii. 176 
Colossal, of Minerva, ii. 35 
Constantine, of, ii. 106 
Corsini Chapel, in, ii. 103 
Discobolus, of the, ii. 186 
Domitian, of, i. 179 
Drusus, of, i. 387 
Egyptian Museum, in, ii. 332 
Gregory XVI., of, ii. 405 
Hall of the Senators, in, i. 121 
Henry IV., of, ii. 99 
St. Jerome, of, i. 60 
St. John the Baptist, of, i. 344 
Julius II., on tomb of, ii. 59, 60 
Juno, of, i. 112 
Jupiter, of, i. 112 
Justice of, i. 378 
S. Lorenzo, of, ii. 137 
Marcus Aurelius, of, i. 119 ; ii. 186 
Mars, of, ii. 14 
Sta. Martina, in, i. 188 
Mausoleum of Augustus, at, i. 

Minerva, of, i. 112 
Moses, of, ii. 42 
Nile, of the, i. 184 
Orpheus, of, ii. 51 
Pasquino, of, ii. 188 
Peter and Paul, of, ii. 130 
St. Peter's, on balustrade and 

steps of, ii. 245, 246 ; in nave 

of, 254 ; in Crypt of, 268, 273 
Philip IV. of Spain, of, ii. 82 
Pincio, on the, i. 43 
Pompey, of, at the foot of which 

Caesar fell, ii. 179 



Statues — continued. 

Porta Pia, ii. 24 

Raphael, by, i. 41 

S. Sebastian, of, ii. 194, 221 

Sta. Silvia, of, i. 325 

Torso Belvidere, ii. 306 

Trajan, of, i. 161 

Vatican, in the, ii. 300 — 322 

Vatican Library, in the, ii. 324 

Villa Albani, in, ii. 18 

Villa Borghese, in, ii. 414 — 416 

Villa Pamfili Doria, in, ii. 434 
Stern, Louis, ii. 69 
Stone, on which Abraham was about 
to offer Isaac, ii. 237 
Sacred, legend of, i. 294 
Strada del Borgo Sto. Spirito, ii. 237" 
Streets — 

Babuino, i. 36 

Clivus Capitolinus, i. 170, 172 

Corso, i. 36, 60 

Gregoriana, i. 54 

Sta. Lucia in Selci, ii. 65 

Ripetta, i. 37 

Sistina, i. 54 
Studios — 

Artists', i. 30 

of Overbed-; , ii. 45 

Sculptors', i. 31 
Subleyras, ii. 41 
Suburra, the, ii. 49 
Summa Via Nova, i. 277 
Sun, Aurelian's Temple of the, i. 

43 6 > 458 
Superstition, modern, i. 223 
Sustermanns, i. 100 
Sylvester, ancient Chair and Mitre 

of, ii. 64 


Tabernacle, Gothic, ii. 385 

Tadolini, ii. 246 

Tarquin, site of camp of, ii. 378 

Tasso, Monument of, ii. 436 ; death 
of, 437 ; remains of oak planted 
by, 438 ; annual commemoration 
of, at the Accademia, 439 

Teatino, Don Gaetano di, founder of 
the Order of the Thcatins, ii. 388 

Tcmpcsta, i. 334, 457 ; ii. 226, 337 

'] empietto, on site of St. Peter's cru- 
cifixion, ii. 451 

Temples — 

..I .Ksculapius, ii. 364 

Antoninus and Faustina, i. 182 
Apollo, i. 296 ; ii. 134 

Temples — continued. 

of the Aventine, i. 351 — 353 
Bacchus, i. 412 
Castor and Pollux, i. 175 
Ceres, i. 227 
Cybele, i. 294 
Fides, i. 114 
Fortuna Virilis, i. 235 

Muliebris, ii. 125 
Fortune, i. 228 
Health and Fever, i. 435 
Honour and Virtue, i. 115 
• on " the Island," ii. 363 
of Janus Quirinus, i. 180 
Julius Caesar, i. 183 
Juno, i. 247 

Moneta, i. 115 
Sospita, i. 298 
Jupiter Capitolinus, i. 111 — 
Feretrius, i. 115 
Stator, i. 247, 278 
Tonans, i. 115 
Liber, i. 227 
Libera, i. 227 
Mars, i. 114 

Ultor, i. 163, 164 
in Memory of the French who 
fell in the siege of Rome, ii. 455 
of Minerva, i. 298 
Moonlight, i. 298 
Neptune, i. 79 
Peace, i. 184 
Piety, i. 241 
Remus, i. 191 
Romulus, i. 434 
Saturn, i. 172 
the Sun, i. 117 
Tellus, ii. 48 
Venus Erycina, i. 114 
Venus and Rome, last Pagan, 

in use, i. 199 
Vespasian, i. 171 
Vesta, i. 176, 235 
Victory, i. 294 
Tenerani, ii. 221, 264, 407 
Teniers, i. 71, 82 ; ii. 445 
Termini, ii. 34 
Terraces of — . 

the Navicella, ii. 334 
the I 'incio, i. 43 

the Villa Albani, view from, ii. 17 
Medici, i. 49 
Theatres of — 

Apollo, ii. 224 
Marcellus, i. 244 
Pompey, ii. 184 



Thorwaldscn, i. 188, 455 ; ii. 210 

264, 300 
Throne, ancient Episcopal, ii. 386 
Tiber, inundations of the, i. 222 ; 
Island in the, ii. 361 ; picturesque 
views on the banks of, 421 ; seven- 
branched Candlestick of Jerusalem 
embedded in the, 422 
Tiberius, Arch of, i. 173 ; Palace of, 

Tigellum Sororis, ii. 49 
Tintoret, i. 100, 140 ; ii. 444 
Titian, i. 70, 71, 82, 83, 95, 96, 09, 
167, 437, 439; ii. 355, 357, 443, 

Tito, Santi di, ii. 335 
Titus, Arch of, i. 200 
Tojetti, Domenico, ii. 26 
Tombs — 

of Adam of Hertford, Bishop of 

London, ii. 372 
in Ara-Coeli, i. 147, 148 
of the Baker Eurysaces, ii. 132 
Baistari, ii. 385 
Bernardino Capella, i. 339 
Bibulus, i. 105 
the Ccecilii, i. 395 
Caius Cestius, ii. 394 
Camillo Borghese, ii. 87 
in Campus Esquilinus, ii. 36 
of Carlo Maratta, ii. 40. 
Cardinals, ii. 216 — 222 
Cardinal dAlencon, ii. 385 
Barberini, ii. 9 
Eortiguerra, ii. 372 
Gonsalvi, i. 87 ; ii. 90 
Mai, i. 225 
Pacca, i. 269 
Rovarella, i. 344 
Casale Rotondo, i. 428 
of Cecilia Metella, i. 422 
in Chapel of the Rosary, i. 359 
Cinque-Cento, ii. 215." - 
of Clement VII., ii. 219 
IX., ii. 84 
XIV., i. 101 
Sta. Constantia, ii. 28 
Cosmo and Damian, i. 191 
destruction of, in old Basilica, on 
the site of St. Peter's, ii. 257 
Doric, relic of republican times, 

i. 105 
of Emmanuel IV., i. 444 

Francesca di Ponziani, i. 195 
eminent Frenchmen, ii. 200 
Geta, i. s88 

Tombs — con tin ucd. 

of Gibson, the sculptor, ii. 397 

Gregory XL, i. 196 
XIV., i. 85 

the Historian of the popes, ii. 

the Horatii and Curiatii, i. 427 

John Lascaris, i. 463 

Julius II., ii. 59 

Knights of Malta, i. 365 

Lanfranco, ii. 385 

Leo X., ii. 218 
in S. Maria del Popolo, i. 39 — 42 
of Martha Swinburne, ii. 171 

Sta. Martina, i. 188 

Martyrs, i. 420 

Nero, i. 38 

Nicholas IV., ii. 84 

Nicholas Poussin, 1. 73 

Painters, in the Pantheon, ii. 
209, 210 

Paul IV., ii. 215 

Pius V., ii. 89 

Pompey, i. 429 

Pope St. Cornelius, i. 399 
Melchiades, i. 398 
in S. Prassede, ii. 69 
of Prince Altieri, i. 269 

Princess Colonna, ii. 213 
Ruins of, i. 426, 428, 429 
of Salvator Rosa, ii. 40 

the Scipios, i. 385 

Sixtus V., ii. 89 

the Stuarts, ii. 266 

Sylla, i. 37 
Temple of Divus Redicuius, i. 

of Torquemada, ii. 213 
Tor — 

di Babele, i. 460 

Marancia, i. 408 

Nona, ii. 223 

Quinto, ii. 420, 423 

Selce, i. 429 
Torre — 

degli Anicii, ii. 362 

dei Conti, ii. 48, 54 

del Grillo, i. 460 

Mellina, ii. 193 

Mezza Strada, mediaeval fortress, 

delle Milizie, i. 460 
Nomentana, ii. 32 
Nuova, ii. 133, 414 
Pernice, ii. 133 
Pignatarra, ii. 133 
Sanguinea, ii. 100 



Torre — continued. 

dei Schiavi, ii. 133 

della Scimia (Hilda's Tower), ii. 

Tre Teste, ii. 134 
Torretta del Palatino, view from, i. 

Capitol, of the, i. 121 
Frangipanni, ii. 62 
Mecaenas, of, ii. 65 
Mediaeval, of S. Lucia in Selce, 
ii. 65 
Trastevere, the, i. 237 ; its present 
condition, characteristics of its in- 
habitants, its national games, ii. 

3 6 7 

Trattorie, resort of lower orders to, 
ii. 422 

Travellers, hurried, scheme for, in 
visiting Rome, i. 32 ; first lesson 
in Roman Geography, for, 36 ; in- 
teresting excursions for, ii. 426 ; 
objects of interest for Irish, 450 

Tre Fontane, condition of, ii. 399 

Trevi, Fountain of, i. 79 

Trophies of Marius, ii. 74 

Turrita, Jacopo da, ii. 83 

Udine, Giovanni da, ii. 300, 324, 426, 

Umbilicus Romae, i. 173 
University of the Sapienza, ii. 202 


Vaccine, herds of, ii. 424 

Vaga, Pierino del, i. 53, 68, 87, 332 ; 
ii. 204 ; tomb of, in the Pantheon, 
209 ; works of, 324, 337, 339, 342, 

343. 345. 443 
Val d' Inferno, ii. 430 
Valadico, ii. 96 
Valca, ii. 424 

Valentin, i. 70, 82, 94 ; ii. 357 
Valle Caffarelle, i. 390 

Filippo, ii. 257 
Valleys — 

of the Almo, i. 388 

between the Palatine and Capi- 

toline Hills, i. 222 
between Palatine and Aventinc, 
i. 225, 365 
Vallis Quirinalis, site of, i. 464 
Vandyke, Works of, i. 71, 72, 96, 
100, 140, 141 ; ii. 444 

Vanni Francesco, ii. 40, 264 

Vasari, ii. 285, 418, 449 

Vatican, the, i. 467 ; history of the 
quarter, and of the foundation of 
the Palace, ii. 282 — 284 ; Sala 
Regia, 285 ; Sistine Chapel, paint- 
ings of, 286 — 295 ; residence of the 
pope in, 298 ; Museum of Statues, 
300 ; Braccio-Nuovo, 300 ; Cabin- 
ets of Sculpture, 308 — 311 ; Ga- 
binetto delle Maschere, 316 ; Li- 
brary of the, 271, 322 ; portraits of 
librarians, 323 ; Appartamenti Bo